Asylum and Migration

In this section


UNHCR recognizes that people under its mandate are directly affected by migration policies and processes, particularly when they engage in mixed movements and therefore strives to engage with migration issues and processes. It does so by seeking to ensure that migration-management policies and practices take into account the particular protection needs of refugees, asylum-seekers and stateless persons by assisting States and partners to meet asylum and migration-management challenges in a protection-sensitive manner, by preventing and addressing trafficking, aggravated smuggling and other risks affecting persons under UNHCR mandates in irregular journeys, including along sea routes, and by contributing to the strengthening of migration governance systems. 

Policy Documents 



Guidelines on International Protection


Protection at sea   

Onward movements of asylum seekers and refugees  

Return of persons found not to be in need of international protection   


Case Law 


ECtHR, V.C.L. and A.N. v. The United Kingdom, App nos 77587/12 and 74603/12, 16 February 2021  

ECtHR,  S.M. v. Croatia, Grand Chamber, App. No 60561/14, 25 June 2020

ECtHR, Chowdury and Others v Greece, App no 21884/15, 30 March 2017  

ECtHR, J. and others v. Austria, App no 58216/12, 17 January 2017  

ECtHR, L. E. v Greece, App no 71545/12, 21 January 2016  

ECtHR, M. and Others v. Italy and Bulgaria, App no 40020/03, 31 July 2012   

ECtHR, Rantsev v. Cyprus and Russia, App no 25965/04, 10 October 2010  

ECtHR, Siliadin v. France, App no 73316/01, 26 July 2005  

Protection at sea   

ECtHR J.A. and Others v. Italy, 30 March 2023  

CJEU Joined cases C14/21 and C15/21 Sea Watch, 2022  

ECtHR Safi and Others v Greece No 5418/15, 2022  

CJEU C 36/20 PPU, V.L. v Spain, 2020  

ECtHR S.S. and Others v. Italy, 2019 (Judgment pending, UNHCR Submission)  

ECtHR Kebe and Others v. Ukraine, 2017  

ECtHR Khlaifia and Others v. Italy, 2016  

ECtHR Sharifi and Others v. Italy and Greece,  2014  

ECtHR Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy, 23 February 2012  

Return of persons found to be not in need of international protection  

CJEU C825/21 UP v Centre public d’action sociale de Liège, 2022  

CJEU X v. Staatssecretaris van Justitie en Veiligheid C69/21, 2022  

ECtHR M.N. and others v. Belgium, Application no. 3599/18, 5 May 2020  

CJEU MP v Secretary of State for the Home Department (C-353/16), 2018  

ECtHR N. v United Kingdom no. 26565/05, 27 April 2018  

CJEU C. K., H. F., A. S. v. Republika Slovenija (C-578/16 PPU), 2017  

ECtHR Paposhvili v. Belgium, Application no. 41738/10,13 December 2016  

ECtHR A.S. v. Switzerland, Application no. 39350/13, 30 June 2015  

CJEU Centre public d’action sociale d’Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve v. Moussa Abdida C-562/13, 2014  

CJEU Mohamed M’Bodj v. État belge (C-542/13), 2014  

CJEU C-245/11 K v Bundesasylamt, 2012  

ECtHR Yoh-Ekale Mwanje v. Belgium, Application No. 10486/10, 20 December 2011  

ECtHR D. v. The United Kingdom, Application No. 30240/96, 2 May 1997  

In Focus: 10-Point Plan in Action

The 10-Point Plan in Action 

The Refugee Protection and Mixed Movements: 10-Point Plan in Action provides examples of how different stakeholders have made use of the 10-Point Plan of Action as a strategic tool to inform the development of immigration and asylum systems and to improve their operational responses. It includes an extensive collection of recent operational practices, protection-sensitive tools and strategies to assist States and others in developing and implementing protection-sensitive responses that take into account the needs of refugees and migrants travelling within mixed flows as well as sovereignty considerations and the concerns of states. 

 December 2016 Update 

Historical / background documents