India: Chronology of Event: February 1991 - November1994







AAPSU  All Arunachal Pradesh Students Union

ATTF     All Tripura Tribal Force

BJP         Bharatiya Janata Party

BSF         Border Security Force

IPF          Indian People's Front

ISS          Islamic Swayam Sangh

JKLF       Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front

LTTE      Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

NSCN     National Socialist Council of Nagaland

PWG       People's War Group

RSS         Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

SP-BSP   Samjwadi Party-Bahujan Samaj Party

TADA    Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act

ULFA     United Liberation Front of Assam

VHP        Vishwa Hindu Perishad


[Please note that this chronology gives only the main events; many other incidents, some with decisive local impact, have had to be omitted. Questions pertaining to specific events, however, may be referred to the Information Services Unit through DIRB's Regional Documentation Centres.] (1991-1994)


14 February

Fourteen people are killed by the Kisan Sangh (Peasants' Union), a landowner's private militia, in Tiskhora, a harijan (untouchables) village in Bihar. According to the villagers, the landlord was afraid that, encouraged by the Indian People's Front (IPF), they would ask for higher wages (FEER 2 May 1991).

5-12 March

On 5 March the Congress (I) Party withdraws its support from the Popular Front (Janata Dal) government led by Chandra Shekhar. Parliament is dissolved on 12 March and new elections are called for May (Human Rights in Developing Countries 1991 1991, 150; Reuters 5 Mar. 1991; ibid. 12 Mar. 1991; The Economist 9 Mar. 1991).

16 March

Clashes between Kashmiri militants and the Indian Armed Forces leave 17 dead in the Valley of Kashmir. Over a thousand suspects are arrested (Le Devoir 18 Mar. 1991; The New York Times 7 Apr. 1991).

23-24 March

Two bombs that explode in a New Delhi market kill at least nine people and leave 100 injured. Sikh activists are suspected. In Punjab, 25 passengers on a bus are murdered by Sikh separatists (Reuters 24 Mar. 1991; Libération 23-24 Mar. 1991).

4 April

A huge demonstration is organized in New Delhi by the Hindu National Council (Vishwa Hindu Perishad - VHP), an ally of the Indian People's Party (Bharatiya Janata Party - BJP), calling for the destruction of the Babri-Masjid Mosque in Ayodhya (Libération 5 Apr. 1991).

12 April

The Chief Electoral Officer, Tirunellaie Seshan, announces that parliamentary elections will be held on 20, 23 and 26 May 1991. Elections are also called for the states of Punjab and Assam (Reuters 12 Apr. 1991).

19 April

The Electoral Commission announces the postponement of elections in Punjab and Assam until 22 June and 6, 7 and 8 June respectively (Le Monde 23 Apr. 1991; FEER 9 May 1991).

7 May

A general strike organized by the Muslim Janbaz and Al Umar Mujahedeen groups paralyzes the state of Jammu and Kashmir in response to the killing, two days earlier, of 73 militants by Indian troops (AP 7 May 1991).

11 May

Direct control of Punjab, imposed in May 1987 by the central Indian government, is extended for six months (Libération 14 Mar. 1991).

21 May

Elections are postponed because of the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, Congress (I) candidate and former Prime Minister of India, by suspected members of the Tamil Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in Sriperumpudur in the state of Tamil Nadu. The assassination brings to an end a campaign marked by violence unprecedented in the history of Indian elections (Human Rights in Developing Countries 1991 1991, 150; Reuters 21 May 1991; L'Express 30 May 1991; The Independent 28 May 1991; AP 21 May 1991).

26 May

Punjab experiences a weekend of violence when clashes break out between Sikh militants and security forces (AP 26 May 1991).

29 May

A veteran Congress (I) politician orginally from Andhra Pradesh, Panelaparthy Venkata Narasimha Rao, is elected head of the party (Reuters 29 May 1991; Human Rights in Developing Countries 1991 1991, 151).

12 and 15 June

Parliamentary elections are held throughout India, except in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. The Congress (I) Party wins 226 seats, the BJP 119 and the Janata Dal 55 (Human Rights in Developing Countries 1991 1991, 151; Reuters 11 June 1991; Asian Survey Oct. 1991, 980; Keesing's Mar. 1991, 38101; ibid. June 1991, 38286).

21 June

Congress (I) forms a government with P.V. Narasimha Rao at the head. In his inaugural address, Rao declares that his priorities are job creation, eradication of poverty and the reduction of inequities, as well as the setting up of special courts to try cases of mob violence and the creation of a rapid response squad to control riots (Human Rights in Developing Countries 1991 1991, 151; The Toronto Star 23 June 1991; Le Devoir 21 June 1991; Manchester Guardian Weekly 30 June 1991).

The elections in Punjab are cancelled 30 hours before the polls are due to open because of a violent campaign led by Sikh militants promoting a boycott of the elections. One incident in the militants' campaign is the massacre of 76 Hindu passengers in two trains near Ludhiana on 15 June (The Times 22 June 1991; Reuters 16 June 1991; The Christian Science Monitor 21 June 1991).

30 June - 1 July

Twenty-one people are kidnapped by Assamese separatists in northeastern India (Libération 3 July 1991).

27 July

More than 100 members of the Armed Forces are killed by activists in an ambush in Jammu and Kashmir (Los Angeles Times 27 July 1991; Keesing's July 1991, 38338).

5 August

Surinder Nath, former senior police officer, is appointed Governor of Punjab, replacing retired General O.P. Malhotra (Reuters 5 Aug. 1991).

14-16 August

Thirty people are killed in Jammu and Kashmir in clashes between Kashmiri militants and Indian security forces (Xinhua 16 Aug. 1991).

3 September

Riots break out in Jammu following a bomb explosion in a Hindu temple in the city (Reuters 3 Sept. 1991).

10 September

The Rao government passes a law providing for preservation of the status quo for all places of worship built before 15 August 1947 (Asian Survey Feb. 1993, 127; FEER 19 Sept. 1991).


A wave of attacks by Sikh militants against police and their families sweeps Punjab (Reuters 8 Oct. 1991; ibid. 9 Oct 1991; Xinhua 8 Oct. 1991).

Seven male members of a family disappear after being taken from their home by police in the Mahitha district, in Punjab. On 16 September 1994 India's Supreme Court orders a federal enquiry into their alleged killing (Reuters 16 Sept. 1994).

9 October

Four groups of Sikh militants claim responsibility for the kidnapping of a Romanian diplomat in New Delhi (AFP 11 Oct. 1991).

16 October

Two explosions, attributed to Sikh militants, kill at least 55 people in Uttar Pradesh (AFP 17 Oct. 1991).

9 November

Four people lose their lives and 15 others are injured in riots between Hindus and Muslims in Varanasi (AFP 9 Nov. 1991).

At least 12 people die and about 40 others are injured in a bomb explosion in a commuter train some 50 miles northeast of Bombay (Reuters 9 Nov. 1991).

15 November

A senior member of the BJP is seriously injured and 26 people die in a bomb explosion in Amritsar, in Punjab (AFP 15 Nov. 1991).

22 November

Eighteen people are killed by Sikh militants during wedding celebrations in a village near Amritsar, in Punjab. The massacre is apparently the result of rivalries among various Sikh groups (AFP 22 Nov. 1991).

24 November

The army announces that 1,727 Assamese rebels belonging to the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) have been arrested in the course of a nine-week military operation (AFP 24 Nov. 1991).

29 November

Some 15.5 million public and private sector workers respond to a call for a general strike issued by six unions and more than 40 left-wing industrial federations to protest the government's economic and industrial policies. Violence erupts among strikers, non-strikers and the police in West Bengal, Kerala and various other regions of the country (BBC Summary 30 Nov. 1991; AFP 29 Nov. 1991).

7 December

Sikh insurgents kill 10 people at a railway crossing in Uttar Pradesh (The Washington Post 7 Dec. 1991).

11 December

A cross-country procession to Srinagar organized by the BJP leaves from Cape Comorin in southern India (La Presse 24 Jan. 1992).

16 December

Paramilitary troops are sent to Karnataka to quell ethnic violence against Tamils in that state, the result of disputes over the sharing of water resources between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (AFP 16 Dec. 1991).

26 December

Sikh militants open fire on passengers in a train in Punjab. Forty-nine people are killed, 30 others are injured (AFP 26 Dec. 1991).


7-8 January

Sikh militants kill at least 20 people and injure 40 in attacks on neighbourhoods inhabited by textile workers in the city of Sangrur and the surrounding area, in Punjab (AFP 8 Jan. 1992).

26 January

The BJP concludes its "unity march" or Ektra Yatra, which in six weeks had gone from Cape Comorin, the most southerly point in India, to Srinagar. The organizers of the march describe it as a symbolic victory against the forces of secession and terrorism in India, but its opponents denounce it as provocation directed at Muslim and Sikh minorities (The Independent 27 Jan. 1992; La Presse 24 Jan. 1992).

14 February

At least 33 high-caste Hindus are killed by Maoists in the state of Bihar, in response to the murder of 10 untouchables by landlords two months earlier (The Independent 14 Feb. 1992).

19 February

Elections in Punjab bring the Congress (I) Party to power. Most militant Sikh groups and most of the political parties, including the Akali Dal Party, boycott the elections. Because of the violence that marked the campaign and the death threats made by Sikh militants against anyone who participated, the turn-out rate at the polls is only 28 percent (UPI 1 Feb. 1992; IPS 7 Feb. 1992; AFP 11 Feb. 1992; Le Monde 22 Feb. 1992).

10-11 March

In a violent night in Punjab, 17 people are killed by Sikh militants in the Sangrur district (AFP 11 Mar. 1992).

16 March

The legislative session opens in Punjab in the midst of extraordinary security measures. A one-day strike to protest the re-opening of the Punjabi legislature is decreed by Sikh militants. Twenty people are killed by Sikh separatists in Ludhiana, in Punjab (AFP 16 Mar. 1992; Los Angeles Times 16 Mar. 1992).

21 March

A wave of violence by Sikh militants leaves 42 dead and 20 injured in Punjab (UPI 21 Mar. 1992; AFP 21 Mar. 1992).

26 March

Inhabitants of the Narmada River valley, which cuts across the centre of India and is the proposed site for a huge hydro-electric project, are beaten and arrested by police during a demonstration in front of the offices of the World Bank in New Delhi (AFP 26 Mar. 1992).

9 April

Four days of clashes between Kashmiri militants and the armed forces in the state of Jammu and Kashmir leave at least 50 dead, including some 20 militants (AFP 9 Apr. 1992; ibid. 13 Apr. 1992; Reuters 8 Apr. 1992).

10 April

Twenty-five people die in clashes in Punjab between Sikh militants and the police (AFP 11 Apr. 1992).

28 April

In Punjab, eleven Hindu pilgrims travelling by bus to Uttar Pradesh are killed by suspected Sikh militants (AFP 28 Apr. 1992).

14 May

The Indian Parliament outlaws the LTTE, which is fighting for the establishment of a Tamil state in Sri Lanka but a number of whose members live in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The government suspects the LTTE of having assassinated former Prime Minister Rajiv Ghandi (AFP 14 May 1992).

15 May

Riots erupt between Hindus and Muslims in New Delhi. The rioters fight in the streets, hurling projectiles and looting and burning shops (AFP 16 May 1992).

6-8 June

Two days of inter-caste riots leave 17 dead and cause fire damage to properties in Rajasthan. The Jats, an intermediate caste, kill 17 Jatavs (untouchables) (AFP 8 June 1992; IPS 10 June 1992).

16 July

Shankar Dayal Sharma becomes India's ninth president since independence (L'état du monde 1994 1994, 340).


The government announces that a National Human Rights Commission will be established to enquire into "the wide range of issues pertaining to human rights" (see 18 December 1993 entry) (The San Francisco Chronicle 5 Feb. 1993).

6 December

Groups of Hindu nationalists march on Ayodhya, in Uttar Pradesh, and destroy the Babri-Masjid Mosque, which according to them was built on the ruins of a Hindu temple honouring Rama (IPS 16 Dec. 1992; Xinhua 16 Dec. 1992). About 1,300 people, including the national leader of the BJP, Lal K. Advani, are questioned by police the day after the destruction of the mosque (ibid.; AFP 16 Dec. 1992).

Reportedly, shortly after the incident 100,000 people are arrested, about 1,200 of whom remained in detention six months later, many without charge (LCHR July 1994, 163).

More than 1,900 people are killed nationwide in riots between Hindus and Muslims in the days following the destruction of the Babri-Masjid Mosque in Ayodhya. Most of the victims are Muslims. In Bombay, where riots leave more than 200 dead, police fight on the side of the Hindus, according to eyewitnesses (L'état du monde 1994 1994, 73; AI 1993, 166).

Fundamentalist Hindu groups such as the National Volunteer Corps (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh - RSS) and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) are banned (AI 1993, 167). The Islamic Swayam Sangh (ISS) is also banned (Keesing's Feb. 1993, 39322). The government of Uttar Pradesh, led by the nationalist BJP, is dissolved by the central government (IPS 16 Dec. 1992; Xinhua 16 Dec. 1992; AI 1993, 166-167).

16 December

The governments of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh, all led by the BJP, are dissolved in connection with the destruction of the mosque at Ayodhya (AI 1993, 167; LCHR July 1993, 175; AFP 16 Dec. 1992; Xinhua 16 Dec. 1992; IPS 16 Dec. 1992).


6 January

A battalion of the Border Security Force (BSF) kills about 60 civilians, injures 14 others and burns over 200 buildings in Sopore, in Kashmir, in response to attacks by Kashmiri militants (Keesing's Jan. 1993a, 39270; India Today 31 Dec. 1993, 36; ibid. 31 May 1993, 25; The Toronto Star 31 Jan. 1993; Country Reports 1993 1994, 1345). The central government dispatches senior officials to Sopore, transfers the battalion, suspends nine of its members including the commanding officer, and opens a judicial enquiry. Militants reportedly order witnesses to boycott the enquiry, which was not yet completed by the end of 1993 (ibid.). No details on the enquiry were available by 29 March 1994 (IPS 29 Mar. 1994).

10-12 January

Eighty people die in Bombay on 10 January in communal clashes over the destuction of the mosque at Ayodhya. Afer six days of violence, on 12 January the army arrests 1,700 and puts 2,000 in preventive detention (Keesing's Jan. 1993b, 39270).

31 January

A journalist with the Hind Samachar press agency is assassinated by the Babbar Khalsa International, a militant Sikh group that says it will not tolerate "journalists who projected a negative image of militancy" (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1347).


Several Members of Parliament and BJP members, including BJP president Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi, are injured when the security forces use batons against protesters taking part in a demonstration organized by the BJP in New Delhi (LCHR July 1994, 163).

12 March

A series of bomb attacks kills over 250 people and injures at least 1,200 in Bombay. The government suspects the Muslim minority backed by Pakistan (L'état du monde 1994 1994, 73, 79; India Today 31 Mar. 1993, 31, 38, 40; Keesing's Mar. 1993, 39370). The government issues a security alert in India's major cities and orders paramilitary reinforcements in Bombay following reports of Hindu-Muslim clashes over the bombings (ibid.). By mid-April over 60 arrests have been made related to the bombings while investigations continued (see 5 August 1994 entry) (Keesing's Apr. 1993, 39414).

24 March

Sikh militants open fire on a crowd near Ludhiana, in Punjab, killing seven and wounding two (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1340).

31 March

Dr. Abdul Ahad Guru, one of the best-known human rights activists in Kashmir, is executed on the outskirts of Srinagar. Indian security forces and Kashmiri militants accuse each other of the murder, but there is no conclusive proof of who did it. A week before, a Delhi newspaper reported that Dr. Guru was being used by the Indian Department of the Interior as an informer inside the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1346; The Boston Globe 11 Apr. 1993; The New York Times 18 Apr. 1993).

2 April

The Madhya Pradesh High Court rules that the dissolution of the Madhya Pradesh state government by the central government following the destruction of the mosque at Ayodhya in December 1992 is unconstitutional (LCHR July 1994, 164). Despite the ruling, on 12 May 1993 the Indian government extends President's rule for six months in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh (Keesing's May 1993a, 39467).


In retaliation for an arson attack on an abandoned BSF bunker by Kashmiri demonstrators, the BSF fires at random on a crowd of demonstrators and sets buildings alight in the centre of Srinagar, killing at least 16 people and burning 260 houses and shops. The results of an official enquiry had not been released by the end of 1993 (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1345).

25 April

The District Commissioner for Bathinda, in Punjab, is injured in a bomb attack (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1339).

End of April

Police mutiny for six days in Srinagar over the death of a fellow policeman at the hands of the BSF for which a senior police officer is blamed. The security forces send troops to the police headquarters and free senior police and civilian officials "without bloodshed" (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1339; The Dallas Morning News 29 Apr. 1993; India Today 15 May 1993, 22; LCHR July 1994, 162). The senior police officer concerned is transferred and the government orders a joint investigation by the police and the army (ibid.).

Early May

Clashes between Hindus and Muslims in the state of Manipur leave almost 100 dead, and prompt a security crackdown in the state (AFP 28 May 1993; Keesing's May 1993a, 39467; LCHR July 1994, 162).

18 May

The Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh) High Court suspends the government ban on the RSS, imposed in the wake of the December destruction of the Ayodhya mosque (Keesing's May 1993b, 39467).

31 May

The central government, which had appealed the ruling of the Uttar Pradesh Superior Court giving the state the right to lift the ban on the RSS, sees its appeal rejected by the Supreme Court (UPI 31 May 1993).

7 June

In Calcutta, police use batons and tear gas against clashing supporters and opponents of a general strike held in most urban areas in West Bengal. The strike was organized by the Congress (I) and the BJP to protest the violence of the ruling Marxist Party which was blamed for the deaths of at least 30 people during the local elections in West Bengal a month earlier (UPI 7 June 1993).

9 June

Sikh militants from the Terai region in Uttar Pradesh kill 11 people and injure three others (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1340; Reuters 10 June 1993)

13 June

A bomb goes off in the home of Uma Bharti, a leader of the BJP, but without harming her. The attack closely follows the murder of two other important figures, BJP leader Premkumar Sharma and Shiv Sena leader Ramesh More, in Bombay a few days earlier (UPI 13 June 1993).

The state of Kerala is rocked by clashes between government forces and RSS militants trying to hold a rally despite a ban by the authorities (AFP 13 June 1993).

16 June

Thirteen tea-plantation workers die in inter-union clashes in West Bengal (AFP 16 June 1993).

29 June

Militants of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) ambush a unit of the Indian army and kill at least 27 soldiers in Manipur State. Army reinforcements are sent to the area to conduct search operations against militants (The New York Times 30 June 1993; Country Reports 1993 1994, 1341).


The International Women's Rights Action Watch reports the recent amendment of the Indian Constitution "to reserve for women one-third of the seats in the elected governing bodies of villages and municipalities" throughout India. According to the National Commission for Women in New Delhi, the reform will allow 80,000 Indian women "to head village/block and district level governing bodies" (The Women's Watch July 1993, 5).

2 July

Security forces open fire on a bus, killing two and injuring eleven, following an attack by Kashmiri militants against army vehicles in the city of Sopore, in Kashmir. Another 10 people are killed in clashes between militants and the security forces at Baba Rishi shrine in the Baramula district (BBC Summary 8 July 1993).

11-12 July

Thousands of BJP members are arrested in the state of Maharashtra on the eve of a major demonstration, planned for Bombay, to call for the resignation of the state chief minister Sharad Pawar. Although the protest was prevented from taking place, about 4,000 BJP members gathered to listen to speeches criticizing the arrests. The police report no "serious violence" (AFP 12 July 1993).

15 July

Clashes between Indian security forces and Kashmiri militants leave 20 dead in the state of Jammu and Kashmir (Xinhua 16 July 1993).

22 July

The Chief of Police in Punjab, K.P.S. Gill, tells journalists that Punjabi police squads have been sent into other states to "trace, identify and kill top militants." The squads had reportedly killed a militant and his wife in Calcutta on 17 May and tortured two other people in Bombay on 3 July (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1340; AI Dec. 1993, 33).

25 July

Nisar Ahmed Mir, the leader of the pro-Pakistan Hizbul Mujahedeen, is killed by the security forces in Kashmir (Keesing's July 1993, 39562).

26-29 July

The Congress (I) Party tables a bill aimed at preventing exploitation of religious themes in politics (Xinhua 26 July 1993; BBC Summary 30 July 1993; LCHR July 1994, 164). By the end of the year, no action had been taken on the proposed legislation, which had drawn widespread criticism (ibid.)

3 August

Kashmiri militants attack Hindu pilgrims near Anantnag, killing one and wounding twenty-three (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1339).

Indian police open fire on thousands of demonstrators protesting for three days against the alleged killing by police of a family in Jammu and Kashmir. According to the government, the incident is being investigated (The Phoenix Gazette 3 Aug. 1993).

6-8 August

At least 41 Kukis die in a series of attacks by Naga rebels of the NSCN against Kuki villages in Nagaland State (UPI 8 Aug. 1993).

8 August

A bomb explodes in the RSS headquarters in Madras, killing about 10 people. RSS members suspect Indian and Sri Lankan Tamils or Muslim militants (Keesing's Aug. 1993, 39601; Reuters 8 Aug. 1993; ibid. 9 Aug. 1993). The incident unleashes an attack on Muslims by Hindus that kills two and injures several in the capital of Tamil Nadu (ibid.).

14 August

Kashmiri militants kill 16 Hindu bus passengers near Kishtwar, Doda district, in the Jammu subdivision of Jammu and Kashmir State, triggering Hindu protests and government curfews in the area (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1339; UPI 15 Aug. 1993; India Today 15 Sept. 1993, 28). The incident is seen as a sign of spreading militant activity from the Kashmir Valley to the Jammu region (ibid.).

19 August

Some 50,000 workers participating in demonstrations across India organized by left-wing unions to protest economic reforms and communal violence are arrested and later released (Reuters 19 Aug. 1993).

23 August

Over 200,000 workers swell a strike movement in Jammu and Kashmir to protest the army's brutality in that state (BBC Summary 26 Aug. 1993).

6 September

Over 1,000 members of the All Tripura Tribal Force (ATTF) guerrilla movement surrender to the Tripura state government in compliance with an August peace agreement (Keesing's Sept. 1993a, 39640).

11 September

Eight people die and at least 26 are injured when a car bomb explodes in front of the headquarters of the youth wing of the Congress (I) Party in New Delhi (AFP 11 Sept. 1993; Keesing's Sept. 1993b, 39639). Sikh extremists claim responsibility, leading to the arrest of around 150 people in Punjab (ibid.).

12-21 September

Thirteen children and one man are burned alive by Naga militants in a Kuki village in Manipur State. The massacre follows on the heels of the killing by Nagas of more than 80 Kukis (India Today 15 Oct. 1993, 46; Xinhua 22 Sept. 1993). Security forces reinforcements are sent to the area (ibid.; AFP 16 Sept. 1993).

24 September

Sikh militants reportedly fire on a bus carrying leaders of Youth Congress (I), leaving three dead and 11 injured near Ludhiana, in Punjab (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1340).

10 October

In the state of Assam at least 50 people, most of them Muslims and immigrants from Bangladesh and Nepal, are killed by rebel Bodo tribesmen (Reuters 10 Oct. 1993).

16 October

The armed forces attack the Hazratbal Mosque in Srinagar, where, according to army spokesmen, Kashmiri militants had taken refuge (Reuters 16 Oct. 1993). The security forces lay siege to the mosque, triggering violent protests (The Atlanta Journal 29 Oct. 1993; AP 29 Oct. 1993).

22 October

The BSF fires without warning on a crowd in Bijbehara demonstrating against the siege of the Hazratbal Mosque. The shooting leaves at least 35 dead and about 76 wounded. The government later announces two official enquiries and a third by the soon-to-be-constituted National Human Rights Commission (see 18 December 1993 entry) (Country Reports 1993 1994, 1345; FEER 4 Nov. 1993, 13; The Times 23 Oct. 1993). At the end of March 1994 a government enquiry indicts the BSF for firing into the crowd "without provocation" and recommends the court martialling of 14 BSF personnel (IPS 29 Mar. 1994; The Ottawa Citizen 4 Apr. 1994; AFP 26 Mar. 1994).

31 October

The Punjab authorities detain most of the leadership and the supporters of the Akali Dal parties to prevent a planned demonstration that would have taken them to Delhi on 1 November to protest the deconsecration of a temple in the Ludhiana district. The president of the Akali Dal (Mann) and his party members go underground to avoid arrest (BBC Summary 3 Nov. 1993).

8 November

At least seven people are killed when an explosion rocks a railway station in the state of Nagaland. The authorities suspect the NSCN (Keesing's Nov. 1993a, 39739; Reuters 8 Nov. 1993).

16 November

After a month-long siege, Kashmiri militants and pilgrims who had taken refuge in the Hazratbal Mosque in Kashmir surrender to Indian authorities (Libération 17 Nov. 1993; AP 16 Nov. 1993; Keesing's Nov. 1993b, 39739; India Today 15 Dec. 1993, 44).

25 November

The leader of the Bhindranwale Tiger Force of Khalistan, Satnam Singh Chinna, is killed by police near the village of Khalaya Kalan near the Pakistani border. The killing is the climax of a long series of violent police actions aimed at wiping out the Punjabi separatist movement (Reuters 25 Nov. 1993).

30 November

Elections conclude in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Mizoram and the Delhi Territory. Overall, the results show a drop in the popularity of the BJP and a rise in that of the Congress (I) Party in these states, which were all governed by the BJP before the destruction of the Babri-Masjid Mosque in Ayodhya. A coalition representing untouchables and Muslims forms the government in Uttar Pradesh while the Congress (I) wins in Himachal Pradesh and no party gains a majority in Rajasthan (Reuters 21 Nov. 1993; The Toronto Star 30 Nov. 1993; Keesing's Nov. 1993c, 39739).

Police kill four Maoist militants belonging to the People's War Group (PWG) during clashes in the state of Andhra Pradesh (Reuters 27 Nov. 1993).

6 December

A series of explosions on board Indian trains leaves two dead and at least 18 injured on the first anniversary of the destruction of the Babri-Masjid Mosque in Ayodhya (AFP 6 Dec. 1993).

18 December

The Indian Parliament passes a bill creating a National Human Rights Commission (Xinhua 18 Dec. 1993; LCHR July 1994, 164).

19 December

The city of Sopore, one of the bastions of Kashmiri resistance, falls into the hands of government forces, according to the Defence Ministry (UPI 19 Dec. 1993).

30 December

The Congress (I) Party takes a majority of the seats in the Indian Parliament (La Presse 31 Dec. 1993).


4 January

Following dissolution of the state government in Manipur and its replacement by direct presidential rule, the Indian army launches a massive operation in the state of Manipur aimed at quelling the insurrection of various tribes in this northeastern region (UPI 4 Jan. 1994).

15 January

The Minister for Internal Security states that 35 alleged members of a fundamentalist Islamic group that the government suspects of being responsible for many train bombings in December have been arrested (FEER 27 Jan. 1994, 15).

19 January

The trial begins of some 41 people suspected of being implicated in the assassination of Rajiv Ghandi (La Presse 20 Jan. 1994).

22 January

In response to a decision by Maharashtra Chief Minister Sharad Pawar to rename an Aurangabad university after a leader of the untouchables, a strike is organized by the Shiv Sena in Bombay and other cities in Maharashtra State (FEER 3 Feb. 1994, 15).

26 January

During celebrations to mark the 45th anniversary of the founding of the Republic of India, violent incidents occur in Srinagar, Kashmir and the southern state of Karnataka. The Republic Day parade in New Delhi goes off without incident due to the deployment of more than 50,000 police (UPI 26 Jan. 1994).

27 January

In response to shots fired by Kashmiri militants, Indian troops open fire on a crowd in Kupwara, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Approximately 25 people are killed (FEER 10 Feb. 1994, 13; Keesing's Jan. 1994, 39820). The government announces it will launch an investigation in the town (ibid.).

2 February

Indian soldiers attack policemen and burn houses and vehicles at Golconda, in Andhra Pradesh State after finding the dead bodies of a soldier's two children who had been missing for two days. The soldiers claim the police did not try to rescue the children. The government orders an enquiry into the incident the next day (Reuters 3 Feb. 1994). The incident was still being investigated by 3 August (ibid. 3 Aug. 1994).

7 February

Following the murder of three members of the Thakur caste, attributed to harijans (untouchables), hundreds of students wreck "bastis" (harijan homes) in Varanasi and surrounding villages in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Earlier, harijan women had been raped and one of them was paraded naked through the city of Allahabad. Troops are deployed to suppress the riots (India Today 28 Feb. 1994, 15; FEER 24 Feb. 1994, 15; The Times 14 Feb. 1994).

15 February

The first phase of the repatriation of 56,000 Chakma refugees from Tripura State to the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh begins. A repatriation agreement was concluded in January (see 1 July 1994 entry) (Keesing's Feb. 1994, 39867).

21 February

The police fire tear gas and use water cannons to prevent more than 10,000 members of the BJP from demonstrating in front of the Pakistani High Commission in New Delhi, and arrest over 8,000 of them (UPI 21 Feb. 1994).

23 February

The city of Jammu is paralyzed by riots between various Hindu fundamentalist groups and police after the death of five people in an explosion in the Indira Chowk neighbourhood of the city (Reuters 23 Feb. 1994).

5 March

An assassination attempt is made by a young Hindu on the leader of the government of Uttar Pradesh, Mulayam Singh Yadav, a hero of the untouchables' cause. Yadav had given untouchables a role in the government of an Indian state for the first time (La Presse 5 Mar. 1994).

11 March

The Indian Supreme Court upholds the application of the Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA), controversial legislation passed in 1987 that enables the police to detain suspects and carry out searches without warrants (UPI 11 Mar. 1994; Country Reports 1988 1989, 1331-1332).

12 March

The leader of the JKLF, Javed Mir, is arrested by Indian forces in Srinagar. A call goes out for a general strike and attacks are made on Indian army units (Le Monde 15 Mar. 1994). Several days previously, the Indian government had extended a ban on the JKLF until February 1996 (FEER 3 Mar. 1994, 13).

End of March

Government officials announce that representatives of the National Human Rights Commission will visit Punjab in April to enquire into "alleged excesses by police." The Commission is also looking into alleged human rights violations committed by the security forces in Kashmir (AP 26 Mar. 1994).


An explosion kills 12 people in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Responsibility is claimed by the pro-Pakistani Jamiat-ul-Mujahedeen, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Khalistan Commando Force (based in Punjab). Among the dead is Major General Eustace William Fernandez, the recently-appointed chief of the military intelligence service (Time 11 Apr. 1994, 36).

The Prime Minister of the state of Tamil Nadu demands the expulsion of 180,000 Sri Lankan refugees said to be responsible for violent crime and highway robberies in the state (The Sri Lanka Monitor Apr. 1994, 4).

5 April

The police use tear gas and batons to disperse around 200,000 people demonstrating in Delhi against the government's acceptance of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (Reuters 5 Apr. 1994).

15 April

The Allahabad Superior Court hands down a ruling to the effect that a divorce obtained by the husband repeating "Talaq" ("I divorce thee") three times is illegal and unconstitutional. Indian Muslims are divided over the ruling (FEER 28 Apr. 1994, 13).

14 May

The Indian government extends the ban on the LTTE for two more years (FEER 26 May 1994).

27 May

Attacks by Bodo tribal militants on four villages inhabited mainly by Muslims in the Kokrajhar district, in Assam leave 21 dead and more than 4,000 homeless. Government authorities send troops into the area with shoot-on-sight orders (Reuters 29 May 1994).

30 May

The killing of Swami Raj Katal, the BJP Boda District vice-president, sparks communal riots and a security crackdown in the Boda district, Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmir Jammu Ladakh Newsletter June 1994c; India Today 15 Aug. 1994, 37).

End of May

The Congress (I) Party is the main winner in a series of by-elections held across India (Voice of America 30 May 1994).

Early June

The National Human Rights Commission, during its first visit to Kashmir, reports that disappearances and deaths in custody are the main human rights concerns in the region (Voice of America 6 June 1994).

7 June

Two British tourists, including a 16-year-old boy, are kidnapped by Muslim rebels in Kashmir. The rebels reportedly demand that three members of their group be released from detention by the Indian authorities in exchange for release of the hostages (La Presse 8 June 1994; Kashmir Jammu Ladakh Newsletter June 1994a; AI 10 June 1994). The two hostages are released on 23 June (AI 24 June 1994).

10 June

Indian Government has finalized a proposal to set up a national resource centre for women. The centre, which is viewed as contributing to the empowerment of women, will focus on women's issues and provide "training, information dissemination and networking of institutions" (Xinhua 10 June 1994).

11 June

A four-woman independent human rights observer group, "Women's Initiative," releases the report of its 10-day visit to Jammu and Kashmir in May 1994 to investigate human rights violations against women. The report documents cases of gang rapes carried out by Indian paramilitary forces stationed in Kashmir since 1990, as well as cases of women deprived of their sources of support after male family members were tortured or disappeared following arrest (Voice of America 13 June 1994).


The Samjwadi Party-Bahujan Samaj Party (SP-BSP) alliance wins four out of six assembly seats in by-elections in Uttar Pradesh State (India Today 30 June 1994, 15).

17 June

The BSF kills 20 militants, including at least nine Afghan trainers, in a training camp of the outlawed Hizbul Mujahedeen in the Anantnag district, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir (Xinhua 17 June 1994).

20 June

Qazi Nissar, Muslim cleric and leader of the Ummat-e-Islami, is assassinated in Anantnag, Kashmir (Libération 21 June 1994, 20; Kashmir Jammu Ladakh Newsletter June 1994b, 1; FEER 14 July 1994, 25; India Today 15 July 1994a, 32). The Hizbul Mujahedeen is suspected (ibid.; FEER 14 July 1994, 25).

Inter-tribal clashes between the Kondh and Panos leave 17 dead in the Phulabani district, Orissa State (Keesing's June 1994, 40057).

25 June

Thousands of people in Jammu and Kashmir take part in demonstrations against military attacks by the Pakistani security forces on border villages near the India-Pakistan Line of Control (BBC 28 June 1994).


The Chief Minister of Maharashtra State, Sharad Pawar, announces major reforms favouring women to the Hindu Succession Act of 1956, the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955, the act against immoral traffic, and the Guardianship Act (India Today 15 July 1994b, 20).

The Congress(I) wins a sweeping victory in local panchayat elections in the state of Madhya Pradesh (India Today 31 Aug. 1994a, 49).

1 July

The Indian government announces that 11,000 Chakma refugees from the Chittagong Hills in Bangladesh living in six refugee camps in Tripura, northeastern India, will be repatriated on 21 July 1994 (UPI 1 July 1994). The South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre (SAHRDC) describes the repatriation as "involuntary" and expresses concern about the lack of "written guarantees as to the security of life and property" for returning refugees (SAHRDC 20 July 1994). The Far Eastern Economic Review reports on 17 November that the 5,000 Chakmas who returned to Bangladesh this year were not well received and further repatriation is "doubtful" (see 15 February 1994 entry) (FEER 17 Nov. 1994, 20).

4 July

The Indian authorities announce they will extend the Development of Woman [sic] and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) scheme throughout India in 1994-95. The programme, currently implemented in 355 districts, is aimed at bringing economic self-sufficiency to rural women (Xinhua 4 July 1994).

5 July

Mr. Ajit Kumar Bhuyan, journalist and founding member of the Assam Union of Working Journalists, is arrested by police in Guwahati, the capital of Assam, and taken to an "undisclosed location" for interrogation (SAHRDC 5 July 1994; AI 6 July 1994). He appears in court on 9 July and his prison term is reduced from 25 to 7 days. On 25 July Amnesty International reports that Mr. Bhuyan is under police custody and being treated at the Guwahati Medical College Hospital (AI 25 July 1994).

21 July

Some 22 Kuki tribal people are killed by militant members of the Naga tribe in the Senapati district in northeastern Manipur State, reportedly in a reprisal attack following a Kuki attack which killed four Nagas in the Ukhrul district one week earlier (Reuters 21 July 1994).

23 July

Over 50 people are killed and 100 injured during an attack by militant Bodo tribal people on a relief camp in the Barpeta district, Assam State. The state government deploys the army in four districts and requests paramilitary reinforcements (Xinhua 25 July 1994; IPS 1 Aug. 1994). The attack comes amidst renewed violence between the Bodos and Muslim settlers in the area which, over a three-day period, results in the death of at least 70 people and the displacement of 50,000 (Voice of America 24 July 1994; India Today 31 Aug. 1994b, 42-43).

28 July

The Indian Parliament votes unanimously in favour of a law prohibiting pre-natal tests used to determine the sex of a fetus. The measure seeks to combat the apparent widespread practice of abortion of female fetuses in India, which would have contributed to the growing gap between the number of males and females (Libération 28 July 1994, 15; Keesing's July 1994, 40104; The Atlanta Journal 28 July 1994; The Courier-Journal 28 July 1994).

28-30 July

Intense fighting between militant groups and the Indian army in the Kashmir Valley results in a number of deaths and injuries and the destruction of property (Kashmir News July 1994, 21).

Violence erupts between Indian security forces and protesters taking part in a general strike in Jammu and Kashmir State against the presence of the Indian army at Hazratbal mosque in Srinagar. Two militant leaders, including Yasin Malik of the JKLF who was recently released from detention (India Today 15 June 1994, 44), are arrested on 28 July (AFP 30 July 1994; AFP 31 July 1994; Kashmir News July 1994, 21); on 29 July Mr. Malik begins a hunger strike (AFP 2 Aug. 1994).

2 August

In Jammu and Kashmir the general strike, as well as Yasin Malik's hunger strike, end following government promises that the army will leave Hazratbal mosque within one week (AFP 2 Aug. 1994). The Indian army withdraws from the mosque on 8 August (Wall Street Journal 2 Aug. 1994).

5 August

Members of opposition parties march New Delhi streets protesting against a recent series of child kidnappings for ransom in the city (AFP 5 Aug. 1994).

Indian authorities arrest Yakub Abdul Razak Memon, the younger brother of Ibrahim Abdul Razak Memon, "an underworld gang leader," in connection with the Bombay bombings in March 1993 (see 12 March 1993 entry). Six other members of the Memon family surrender to police on 26 August 1994. Yakub Memon's testimony and other reports point to Pakistani involvement in the bomb attacks (Keesing's Aug. 1994, 40144).

15 August

India's 47th Independence Day is marked by violence in a number of states (Voice of America 15 Aug. 1994; Islamic World Journal 6 Sept. 1994a).

25 August

Five children are killed and 28 injured in a bomb explosion on a school bus near Jammu. Police suspect either Muslim guerrillas or Sikh separatists are responsible (Voice of America 25 Aug. 1994).

24-26 August

The assassination of Mr. Ramdas Nayak, Bombay BJP leader, on 24 August by unknown gunmen triggers a general strike led by members of the BJP and Shiv Sena in Bombay on 26 August (AFP 26 Aug. 1994; Libération 26 Aug. 1994, 15).


A demonstration in New Delhi by thousands of hill people from Uttar Pradesh calling for a separate state and an end to the Uttar Pradesh state government's controversial reservation policy turns violent when the police appear on the scene (UPI 31 Aug. 1994; Libération 1 Sept. 1994, 20). Over 100 people are injured in the incident (ibid.). The reservation policy, which seeks "to set aside 27 percent of all government jobs and places in schools for lower caste Hindus," has aggravated caste tensions as the predominantly upper caste inhabitants of the state's northern hill district, known as Uttarakhand, believe the quota is unfair given that lower caste Hindus make up only three percent of the area's population (Voice of America 12 Sept. 1994; All India Radio Network 13 Sept. 1994).

In a similar incident in Uttar Pradesh six people are killed and 36 injured (AFP 2 Sept. 1994).

8 September

Indian security forces fire at a bus in Bandipore, Jammu and Kashmir State, killing 11 people and injuring six (Voice of America 9 Sept. 1994).

10 September

The Arunachal Pradesh State Assembly, in accordance with the demands of the All Arunachal Pradesh Students Union (AAPSU), orders all foreigners to leave the state. The directive primarily affects some 60,000 Chakmas and 40,000 Hajong and Tibetan tribespeople, originally from Bangladesh, who have settled in Arunachal Pradesh (India Today 15 Oct. 1994, 42; AI 26 Sept. 1994). Reportedly, the Bangladeshi government has refused the Chakmas and Hajongs permission to return (ibid.).

12 September

The state government of Assam issues "shoot-at-sight" orders against foreigners, primarily Chakmas fleeing the neighbouring state of Arunachal Pradesh (AI 26 Sept. 1994; India Today 15 Oct. 1994, 42).

13 September

The state government of Uttar Pradesh led by Mulayam Singh Yadav calls a one-day general strike to rally support for its reservation policy. The decision to hold the strike amidst unrest over the controversial policy recently prompted the Congress(I) party to withdraw its support of the SP-BSP coalition government (Voice of America 12 Sept. 1994; All India Radio Network 13 Sept. 1994; India Today 30 Sept. 1994, 30).

17 September

The Indian government releases a report outlining a programme of action to end child labour in India by the year 2000. Government figures indicate some two million of the estimated 18 million children involved in child labour are affected by this programme. According to the government report, a national Child Labor Elimination Authority will be established to monitor the programme's implementation (India News Network Digest 20 Sept. 1994).

18 September

Fighting between Muslim separatists and Indian security forces in Kashmir kills 22 people, including, according to government sources, an "agent" of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (AFP 18 Sept. 1994).

20 September

8,000 people are arrested after participating in a demonstration against the central government's economic reform policy. The protesters impeded train service in various areas of India for over two hours (UPI 20 Sept. 1994).

27 September

The Election Commission announces that assembly elections will be held in Goa and Sikkim on 16 November, in Karnataka on 26 November and 1 December, and in Andhra Pradesh on 1 and 5 December (All India Radio Network 27 Sept. 1994; FEER 13 Oct. 1994a, 13).

28 September

The central New Delhi government and the Bihar state government sign an agreement granting partial autonomy to separatist tribal groups, comprising over 30 million people, in Bihar. The administration of the region will be accorded to the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (India News Network Digest 2 Oct. 1994a).

29 September

Health and state officials launch an intensive campaign to contain the recent plague outbreak (All India Radio Network 29 Sept. 1994).

30 September

Indian authorities release from custody two leading political figures from the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Syed Ali Shah Geelani of the Jamaat-I-Islami and Abdul Ghani Lone of the People's Conference (Doordarshan Television Network 30 Sept. 1994; MNS News 30 Sept. 1994; The Economist 8 Oct. 1994, 34; FEER 13 Oct. 1994b, 13), reportedly in an effort to encourage political participation in the upcoming state elections (ibid.).

Following a 60-hour battle with two Hezbul Mujahedeen rebels in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir State, Indian security forces bomb an apartment building, killing the two militants who were hiding there, destroying the building and damaging others in the area (India News Network Digest 2 Oct. 1994b).

2 October

The Congress(I) party emerges victorious in local elections held in Punjab (All India Radio Network 2 Oct. 1994a).

The 125th anniversary of Mahatma Ghandi's birth is ironically marked by violence when police attack a demonstration by hill people from the state of Uttar Pradesh in New Delhi, killing some 16 people and seriously injuring 50. An investigation by the National Commission for Women later confirms that a number of women protesters were gang-raped by police near Muzaffarnagar (India News Network Digest 18 Oct. 1994a; ibid. 6 Oct. 1994). In response to the gang rapes, activists set fire to police stations and government vehicles in Uttar Pradesh (ibid.). Police retaliate against hill region separatists in Ramnagar, Uttar Pradesh killing four and wounding 40 (All India Radio Network 2 Oct. 1994b).

3-4 October

Separatist "agitation" in the state of Uttar Pradesh spreads resulting in the death of two people in Deahradun and one person in Nainital and the imposition of a curfew in Rishkesh, Pauri, Srinagar and Kotswar (All India Radio Network 3 Oct. 1994). The curfew is also imposed in Gopeshwar, Karnprayag, and Ukhimath on 4 October as violence continues (ibid. 4 Oct. 1994).

6 October

The Far Eastern Economic Review reports some 550,000 people have fled Surat, Gujarat State following the plague-related deaths of some 50 people in the city (FEER 6 Oct. 1994, 13). Reports one week later indicate the plague is coming to an end (FEER 20 Oct. 1994b, 13; All India Radio Network 12 Oct. 1994; India Today 31 Oct. 1994a, 22).

7 October

Two people are injured when Indian police fire at angry train commuters who set fire to Bhayander railway station and three trains in Bombay in reaction to a reduction in train service (AFP 7 Oct. 1994). In a similar incident at the Borivilli and Kandivli train stations near Bombay on 14 October six civilians and 22 policemen are injured (AFP 14 Oct. 1994; Reuters 14 Oct. 1994).

7-10 October

Twenty-five people die in Bangalore, Karnataka State during four days of violent protests against the local television broadcast of a news bulletin in Urdu, the language associated with Muslims (All India Radio Network 7 Oct. 1994; Voice of America 10 Oct. 1994; FEER 20 Oct. 1994a, 13; Libération 10 Oct. 1994, 14; ibid. 11 Oct. 1994, 16).

11 October

K. Rajagopalan, leader of the Hindu Munnani, is assassinated in Madras, Tamil Nadu State. Group members suspect Muslims, acting in reprisal against the anti-Urdu demonstrations in Karnataka (AFP 11 Oct. 1994).

12 October

The All-Party Freedom (Hurriyat) Conference rejects the Indian government's plan to hold state elections in Jammu and Kashmir in 1995 (Voice of America 12 Oct. 1994; AFP 16 Oct. 1994; India Today 31 Oct. 1994b, 28-29), proposing instead on 17 October that there be a UN-supervised referendum on the right of self-determination for Kashmiris (AFP 17 Oct. 1994).

14 October

Shabir Ahmad Shah, a prominent leader of the separatist movement in Jammu and Kashmir, is released from a four-year detention (UPI 14 Oct. 1994; AFP 16 Oct. 1994).

Four people die in riots sparked by a Muslim attack on Hindus taking part in a religious procession in Davangeri, Karnataka State. A 24-hour curfew is imposed on the town the next day (India News Network Digest 18 Oct. 1994b).

17 October

Local newspapers are suspended in the Kashmir Valley following an attack by militants on a printing press on 16 October (All India Radio Network 18 Oct. 1994). Journalists begin an indefinite strike on 18 October to protest against attacks on members of the press (India News Network Digest 18 Oct. 1994c).

20 October

In Manipur State Kuki militants push a bus into a ravine killing at least 37 passengers, mainly Nagas, aboard (Le Devoir 21 Oct. 1994, A-9; IPS 21 Oct. 1994). In retaliation, Naga rebels kidnap and kill two Kuki villagers in the Bishnupur district on 21 October (ibid.).

24 October

The Supreme Court of India rejects the government's request to advise it on the validity of Hindu claims that the site of the Babri mosque in Ayodhya, destroyed by Hindu activists in December 1992, is the original site of a Hindu temple. Both Hindus and Muslims welcome the decision (India News Network Digest 26 Oct. 1994; ibid. 28 Oct. 1994).

Early November

The Jammu and Kashmir state government establishes a "human rights cell" to monitor investigations into alleged human rights violations (BBC 7 Nov. 1994).

2 November

About 300 children, the majority under the age of 12, take part in a demonstration in New Delhi, organized by the South Asian Coalition on Child Servitude, against child labour, particularly in the fireworks industry where conditions are unsafe (India News Network Digest 6 Nov. 1994).

4 November

Libération reports that about 5,000 Hijras (castrated persons) can now vote if they choose their sex (Libération 4 Nov. 1994, 18).

8 November

The state government of Uttar Pradesh announces it will establish a special task force, to be led by a senior police officer, in the state's Indo-Nepal border districts to take action against the reported smuggling of arms and narcotics and the entry of trained militants. Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence is reportedly involved in these illegal activities (India News Network Digest 13 Nov. 1994a).

10 November

Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mulayam Singh Yadav announces the state government is ready to begin unconditional talks with hill district Uttarakhand separatists. The talks would also include the central government (India News Network Digest 13 Nov. 1994b).


The International Red Cross conducts a training programme on humanitarian standards among 22 BSF field commanders in Kashmir (Voice of America 17 Nov. 1994).

17-19 November

The deaths of three girls in two separate incidents of violence between militants and the security forces trigger anti-Indian protests in Kashmir (AFP 19 Nov. 1994).

19 November

Inter-ethnic violence between Nagas and Kukis escalates in the Chandel district, in Manipur State when Naga militants kill 25 Kukis during a village raid, reportedly in reprisal against the killing of Nagas by Kuki militants in October (see 20 October 1994 entry). Kukis retaliate by burning houses in a Naga village (Xinhua 20 Nov. 1994; Voice of America 20 Nov. 1994). Prime Minister Narasimha Rao responds to the Naga killing by extending the ban against the National Socialist Council of Nagaland, the Bodo Security Force, and the United Liberation Front of Assam (ibid.).

23 November

Clashes between the police and low-caste Gowari demonstrators in Nagpur, Maharashtra State leave at least 125 dead, mainly women and children, and 500 injured. The demonstrators were demanding scheduled tribe status to receive job concessions (Libération 25 Nov. 1994, 16; Xinhua 24 Nov. 1994; Reuters 27 Nov. 1994). In response to the incident the opposition BJP and Shiv Sena call a general strike in Maharashtra State on 28 November (ibid.; Libération 29 Nov. 1994, 14).

24-29 November

The Maoist PWG in Andhra Pradesh kidnaps for ransom a member of Prime Minister Narasimha Rao's family, Ram Mohan Rao, on 24 November (Libération 27 Nov. 1994). The group also launches an attack in the state on 26 November, killing five members of a police commando and two civilians. The police retaliate the next day by killing six persons suspected of belonging to the group. On 29 November, a mine planted by the PWG kills nine, including seven policemen charged with protecting a state government minister, Narasimha Reddy, a candidate to the upcoming local elections (Libération 30 Nov. 1994).


Agence France Presse (AFP). 19 November 1994. "Girl's Death Sparks Anti-Indian Protest in Kashmir." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 17 October 1994. "Kashmiri Moslem Separatist Leaders Want UN Referendum." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 16 October 1994. Chris Lefkow. "Indian Government Seeking to Hold Elections in Kashmir." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 14 October 1994. "Police Open Fire on Rail Commuters as Violence Erupts in Bombay." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 11 October 1994. "Hindu Leader's Assassination Sparks Tension in South India." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 7 October 1994. "Two Injured in Police Firing on Train Commuters in Bombay." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 18 September 1994. "22 Die in Kashmir Clashes." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 2 September 1994. "Nouveaux affrontements pour l'autonomie d'une région tribale en Inde." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 26 August 1994. Jacques Charmelot. "Bombay paralysée après l'assassinat d'un responsable hindou." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 5 August 1994. "Indian Opposition Parties Protest Delhi Kidnap Wave." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 2 August 1994. Bruno Franceschi. "Un responsable séparatiste musulman du Cachemire interrompt sa grève de la faim." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 31 July 1994. "Strike Paralyses Indian Kashmir." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 30 July 1994. "Grève générale au Cachemire." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 26 March 1994. "India Likely to Court Martial 14 for Kashmir Massacre." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 6 December 1993. Patrick Lescot. "Série d'explosions dans des trains en Inde: deux morts, 18 blessés." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 16 September 1993. Frédéric Castel. "Vive tension après un massacre tribal en Inde." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 11 September 1993. Toniya Gay-Para. "Huit morts dans l'explosion d'une voiture piégée à New Delhi." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 12 July 1993. "Thousands of Opposition Activists Arrested in Indian State." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 16 June 1993. "13 Killed as Tea Plantation Workers Clash in Eastern India." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 13 June 1993. "Hindus Clash With Police in Indian State, 54 Hurt." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 28 May 1993. "India Army (Urgent)." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 16 December 1992. "Hindus Vow to Force Early Polls, Plunge Parliament into Uproar." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 8 June 1992. "Indian Caste Clashes Leave 17 Dead." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 16 May 1992. "Cinq morts et une soixantaine de blessés dans des violences à New Delhi." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 14 May 1992. "New Delhi déclare hors la loi le groupe rebelle tamoul du LTTE." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 28 April 1992. "Onze pèlerins hindous assassinés dans le nord de l'Inde." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 13 April 1992. "Affrontements entre l'armée indienne et militants séparatistes: plus de trente morts." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 11 April 1992. "17 Sikhs Militants Among 25 Killed in Punjab: Report." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 9 April 1992. "19 militants séparatistes présumés tués par l'armée indienne au Cachemire." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 26 March 1992. "Indian Police Beat, Arrest Tribal Protestors at Anti-Dam Demo." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 21 March 1992. "Treize personnes tuées par des militants sikhs présumés au Pendjab." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 16 March 1992. "Punjab Legislature Opens Session Amid Sikh Protest Strike." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 11 March 1992. "Massacre au Pendjab: 17 personnes tuées par des militants sikhs." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 11 February 1992. Marie-France Rouze. "Pendjab: des élections sous le signe de la terreur." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 8 January 1992. "Au moins 20 tués et 40 blessés dans deux attaques lancées par des Sikhs." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 26 December 1991. "Des militants sikhs ouvrent le feu dans un train de passagers au Pendjab: au moins 49 morts et 30 blessés, selon un nouveau bilan." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 16 December 1991. "India Sends Troops to Quash Anti-Tamil Violence." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 29 November 1991. "Incidents violents et arrestations lors d'une grève générale." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 24 November 1991. "Indian Army Captures 1,727 Assamese Rebels." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 22 November 1991. "Des séparatistes sikhs massacrent 18 villageois qui assistaient à un mariage." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 15 November 1991. "Vingt-six morts et un responsable du parti hindou grièvement blessé au Pendjab." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 9 November 1991. "Four Killed, 15 Injured in Hindu-Moslem Clash in India." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 17 October 1991. "Un attentat lors d'une fête religieuse tue au moins 55 personnes en Inde." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 11 October 1991. "More Sikh Groups Claim Responsibility for Romanian Abduction." (NEXIS)

All India Radio Network [Delhi, in English]. 18 October 1994. "Kashmir Papers Suspended to Protest Attack." (FBIS-NES-94-202 18 Oct. 1994, p. 51)

All India Radio Network [Delhi, in English]. 12 October 1994. "Radio Cites WHO on `Rapidly Ending' Plague." (FBIS-NES-94-198 13 Oct. 1994, p. 68)

All India Radio Network [Delhi, in English]. 7 October 1994. "Two Die as Police Fire on Bangalore Demonstrators." (FBIS-NES-94-195 7 Oct. 1994, p. 42)

All India Radio Network [Delhi, in English]. 4 October 1994. "Uttar Pradesh Expands Curfew." (FBIS-NES-94-193 5 Oct. 1994, p. 49)

All India Radio Network [Delhi, in English]. 3 October 1994. "Separatist `Agitation' in Uttar Pradesh Spreads." (FBIS-NES-94-192 4 Oct. 1994, p. 66-67)

All India Radio Network [Delhi, in English]. 2 October 1994a. "Congress-I Wins Majority in Punjab Local Elections." (FBIS-NES-94-191 3 Oct. 1994, p. 51)

All India Radio Network [Delhi, in English]. 2 October 1994b. "Four Killed in Police Shooting in Uttar Pradesh." (FBIS-NES-94-191 3 Oct. 1994, p. 51)

All India Radio Network [Delhi, in English]. 29 September 1994. "Gujarat Minister: Plague `100% Under Control'." (FBIS-NES-94-190 30 Sept. 1994, p. 50)

All India Radio Network [Delhi, in English]. 27 September 1994. "Commission Announces State Election Dates." (FBIS-NES-94-188 28 Sept. 1994, p. 37)

All India Radio Network [Delhi, in English]. 13 September 1994. "`Elaborate Security' Noted in Uttar Pradesh." (FBIS-NES-94-177 13 Sept. 1994, p. 70)

Amnesty International (AI). 26 September 1994. Urgent Action: India: Chakmas and Hajongs in Arunachal Pradesh. (AI Index: ASA 20/35/94). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International (AI). 25 July 1994. Urgent Action: India: Ajit Kumar Bhuyan (39), Journalist and Human Rights Activist. (AI Index: ASA 20/25/94). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International (AI). 6 July 1994. Urgent Action: India: Ajit Kumar Bhuyan (39), Journalist and Human Rights Activist. (AI Index: ASA 20/21/94). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International (AI). 24 June 1994. "India: Call for Release of Hostages Held by Armed Groups in Jammu and Kashmir." (AI Index: ASA 20/WU 08/94). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International (AI). 10 June 1994. "India: Amnesty International Condemns Abduction of Two Tourists in Jammu and Kashmir." (AI Index: ASA 20/WU 06/94). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International (AI). 1993. Rapport 1993. Paris: éditions francophones d'Amnesty International.

Amnesty International (AI). December 1993. India: "An Unnatural Fate" - "Disappearances" and Impunity in the Indian States of Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab. (AI Index: ASA 20/42/93). London: Amnesty International.

Asian Survey [Berkeley, Cal.]. February 1993. Vol. 33, No. 2. Ramashray Roy. "India in 1992: Search for Safety."

Asian Survey [Berkeley, Cal. October 1991. Vol. 31, No. 10. Walter K. Anderson. "India's 1991 Elections: The Uncertain Verdict."

Associated Press (AP). 26 March 1994. "India's Human Rights Commission to Probe Police Excesses." (NEXIS)

Associated Press (AP). 16 November 1993. Qaiser Mirza. "Militants Surrender, Month-long Siege of Muslim Shrine Ends." (NEXIS)

Associated Press (AP). 29 October 1993. PM Cycle. Qaiser Mirza. "Indian Troops Fire Tear Gas to Disperse Muslims During Mosque Standoff."

Associated Press (AP). 26 May 1991. AM Cycle. "Weekend Violence in India's Punjab State Kills 35." (NEXIS)

Associated Press (AP). 21 May 1991. AM Cycle. Raju Gopalakrishnan. "Violence Continues in India's Deadliest Elections, 85 Dead." (NEXIS)

Associated Press (AP). 7 May 1991. AM Cycle. "Militant-Sponsored Strike Paralyzes Kashmir Valley." (NEXIS)

The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. 28 July 1994. "World in Brief: A Female-Free Nation? India Fights Back." (NEXIS)

The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. 29 October 1993. "Asia: Secessionist March." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 7 November 1994. "Human Rights Situation; Jammu and Kashmir Government Sets Up 'Human Rights Cell'." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 28 June 1994. "`Massive Demonstrations' Held to Protest Pakistani Attacks." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 3 November 1993. "Akali Dal Leaders Arrested as Police Thwart March to Delhi." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 26 August 1993. "Strikes in Kashmir Against Brutality of Indian Army." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 30 July 1993. "India Introduces Bills to Separate Religion and Politics." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 8 July 1993. "India and Pakistan: More Violence in Kashmir; Indian Forces Claim Big Weapons Seizure." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 30 November 1991. "'Overwhelming Support' for Nation-Wide Strike in India." (NEXIS)

The Boston Globe. 11 April 1993. Michael Grunwald. "Breaking Ground on Greater Ethnic Understanding; Islamic Center Joy, President's Grief Contrast." (NEXIS)

The Christian Science Monitor [Boston]. 21 June 1991. Sheila Tefft. "India's Punjab Braces for Elections Congress Party, Extremist Groups Boycott Controversial Poll in Key."

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993. 1994. United States Department of State. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1988. 1989. United States Department of State. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

The Courier-Journal. 28 July 1994. "India Protects Female Fetuses."

The Dallas Morning News. 29 April 1993. "India Police Revolt Suppressed; Army Captures Officers Barricaded in Building." (NEXIS)

Le Devoir [Montreal]. 21 October 1994. "Violences ethniques en Inde."

Le Devoir [Montreal]. 21 June 1991. "Narashima Rao est choisi premier ministre de l'Inde."

Le Devoir [Montreal]. 18 March 1991. "Affrontements au Cachemire."

Doordarshan Television Network [Delhi, in English]. 30 September 1994. "Kashmiri Political Leaders Released From Custody." (FBIS-NES-94-191 3 Oct. 1994, p. 50)

The Economist [London]. 8 October 1994. "Kashmir: A Rethink."

The Economist [London]. 9 March 1991. "Death of a Puppet."

L'état du monde édition 1994. 1994. Montreal: éditions La Découverte.

L'Express [Paris]. 30 May 1991. Marc Epstein. "Inde: Une dynastie assassinée."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 17 November 1994. "India: No Refuge."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 20 October 1994a. "India: Riots Rock Bangalore."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 20 October 1994b. "India: Plague Retreats."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 13 October 1994a. "India: South to Vote."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 13 October 1994b. "India: Kashmiris Released."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 6 October 1994. "India: Plague Spreads."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 14 July 1994. Hamish McDonald. "Murder Most Foul."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 26 May 1994. "India: Tigers Banned."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 28 April 1994. "India: Divorce Ruling."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 3 March 1994. "Ban Extended."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 24 February 1994. "India: Caste Riots."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 10 February 1994. "India: Kashmir Clash."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 3 February 1994. "India: Bombay Shut-Down."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 27 January 1994. "India: Bombing Suspects Held."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 4 November 1993. Hamish McDonald. "India: On the Brink; Crisis in Kashmir Set to Worsen."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 19 September 1991. "Indian Government Acts on Religious Sites."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 9 May 1991. "India to Hold Polls in Punjab, Assam Despite Unrest."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 2 May 1991. Hamish McDonald. "Harvest of Death."

Human Rights in Developing Countries 1991. 1991. Directed by Bård-Anders Andreassen and Theresa Swinehart. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.

The Independent [London]. 14 February 1992. K.M. Kishan. "High-Caste Indians Massacred." (NEXIS)

The Independent [London]. 27 January 1992. Tim McGirk. "Hindus' 10,000-mile March Ends With Shabby Victory in Kashmir." (NEXIS)

The Independent [London]. 28 May 1991. Raymond Whitaker. "Woman Arrested in India Bomb Inquiry." (NEXIS)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 13 November 1994a. Vol. 2, No. 415. "Uttar Pradesh Task Force to Monitor Pakistan's Alleged Border Activities." (From Doordarshan 9 Nov. 1994)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 13 November 1994b. Vol. 2, No. 415. "Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Ready for Talks with Uttarakhand Activists." (From Press Trust of India News Agency 10 Nov. 1994)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 6 November 1994. Vol. 2, No. 406. Neelam Jain. "Child Servitude Thrives Unabated in India." (Excerpt from United Press International 2 Nov. 1994)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 28 October 1994. Vol. 2, No. 394. "Troops Pour Into Ayodhya After Court Verdict on Temple-Mosque Feud." (Excerpt from Agence France Presse 24 Oct. 1994)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 26 October 1994. Vol. 2, No. 391. Narayanan Madhavan. "India's Religious Groups Hail Court Ruling on Dispute." (Excerpt from Reuters 24 Oct. 1994)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 18 October 1994a. Vol. 2, No. 383. "Indian Police Raped Female Demonstrators: Women's Panel." (Excerpt from Agence France Presse 18 Oct. 1994)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 18 October 1994b. Vol. 2, No. 380. "More Hindu-Moslem Trouble in South Indian State." (Excerpt from Reuters 15 Oct. 1994)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 18 October 1994c. Vol. 2, No. 383. "Kashmiri Journalists Strike Over Moslem Attacks." (Excerpt from Agence France Presse 18 Oct. 1994)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 6 October 1994. Vol. 2, No. 366. Tim McGirk. "Rao Faces Dilemma as State Secessionists Storm Delhi." (Excerpt from The Independent 5 Oct. 1994)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 2 October 1994a. Vol. 2, No. 359. "Indian Separatists Win Partial Autonomy." (Excerpt from United Press International 28 Sept. 1994)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 2 October 1994b. Vol. 2, No. 359. Yusuf Jameel. "Indian Troops Raze Building to Kill Kashmiri Militants." (Excerpt from Reuters 30 Sept. 1994)

India News Network Digest [New Delhi]. 20 September 1994. Vol. 2, No. 338. "India Pledges to End Child Labor." (17 Sept. 1994)

India Today [New Delhi]. 31 October 1994a. Kai Friese. "Plague: The Morning After."

India Today [New Delhi]. 31 October 1994b. Harindar Baweja. "Kashmir Elections: The Centre's Pipe Dream."

India Today [New Delhi]. 15 October 1994. Ruben Banerjee. "Chakmas: Living Under Notice of Death."

India Today [New Delhi]. 30 September 1994. Dilip Awasthi and Zafar Agha. "Uttar Pradesh: The Sparring Turns to Punching."

India Today [New Delhi]. 31 August 1994a. N.K. Singh. "Further Downslide."

India Today [New Delhi]. 31 August 1994b. Ruben Banerjee. "Assam: Stoking Ethnic Terror."

India Today [New Delhi]. 15 August 1994. Harinder Baweja. "Doda: The Secret War."

India Today [New Delhi]. 15 July 1994a. Harinder Baweja. "Kashmir: The War Within."

India Today [New Delhi]. 15 July 1994b. L. Rattanani. "A Radical Move."

India Today [New Delhi]. 30 June 1994. D. Awasthi. "Keeping the BJP at Bay."

India Today [New Delhi]. 15 June 1994. Harinder Baweja. "Kashmir: A Calculated Gamble."

India Today [New Delhi]. 28 February 1994. D. Awasthi and D. Gidwani. "Dangerous Portents: Caste Conflict Hits the SP-BSP Alliance."

India Today [New Delhi]. 31 December 1993. Harinder Baweja. "Sopore: Breaching a Bastion."

India Today [New Delhi]. 15 December 1993. Harinder Baweja. "Kashmir: Unexpected Advantage."

India Today [New Delhi]. 15 October 1993. Soutik Biswas. "Kuki-Naga Conflict: Living on the Razor's Edge."

India Today [New Delhi]. 15 September 1993. Harinder Baweja. "Jammu: Dangerous Designs."

India Today [New Delhi]. 31 May 1993. Harinder Baweja. "... Control."

India Today [New Delhi]. 15 May 1993. Harinder Baweja. "Kashmir: Spiralling Downwards."

India Today [New Delhi]. 31 March 1993. Dilip Bobb et al. "Terror in Bombay."

Inter Press Service (IPS). 21 October 1994. "India - Violence: Warring Tribes Kill 39 in Northeast." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 1 August 1994. Praful Bidwai. "India: Northeast in the Clutch of Violence." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 29 March 1994. "India: Inquiry Indicts Para-Military Force in Kashmir." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 16 December 1992. "India: Center Dismisses BJP State Governments; Move Could Recoil." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 10 June 1992. "India: Caste Massacre Triggers Mass Exodus." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 7 February 1992. "India: Low-Key Punjab Poll Campaign Haunted by Violence." (NEXIS)

Kashmir Jammu Ladakh Newsletter [London]. June 1994a. Vol. 1, No. 6. "No Peace Yet in Troubled Kashmir."

Kashmir Jammu Ladakh Newsletter [London]. June 1994b. Vol. 1, No. 6. "Qazi's Assassination Provokes Backlash."

Kashmir Jammu Ladakh Newsletter [London]. June 1994c. Vol. 1, No. 6. "Security Crackdown in Doda."

Kashmir News. July 1994. Muzaffarabad: Kashmir Liberation Cell.

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. August 1994. Vol. 40, No. 7/8. "India: Arrest of Bombing Suspects - Allegations Against Pakistan."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. July 1994. Vol. 40, No. 7/8. "India: Internal Developments: Law on Amniocentesis."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. June 1994. Vol. 40, No. 6. "India: Developments in States: Orissa."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. February 1994. Vol. 40, No. 2. "Bangladesh: Return of Chakma Refugees."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. January 1994. Vol. 40, No. 1. "India: Developments in States: Kashmir."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. November 1993a. Vol. 39, No. 11. "India: Developments in States."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. November 1993b. Vol. 39, No. 11. "India: Developments in States: Ending of Mosque Siege in Kashmir."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. November 1993c. Vol. 39, No. 11. "India Elections - Other Internal Developments."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. September 1993a. Vol. 39, No. 9. "India: Developments in States."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. September 1993b. Vol. 39, No. 9. "India: Bomb Explosions."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. August 1993. Vol. 39, No. 7/8. "India: Madras Bomb Explosion."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. July 1993. Vol. 39, No. 7/8. "India: Developments in States."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. May 1993a. Vol. 39, No. 5. "India: Developments in States."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. May 1993b. Vol. 39, No. 5. "India: Suspension of Ban on RSS."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. April 1993. Vol. 39, No.4. "India: Investigation into Bombay Explosions."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. March 1993. Vol. 39, No. 3. "India: Bomb Explosions in Bombay and Calcutta."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. February 1993. Vol. 39, No. 2. "India: Ayodhya White Paper - Other Developments in Ayodhya Aftermath."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. January 1993a. Vol. 39, No. 1. "India: Kashmir Massacre."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. January 1993b. Vol. 39, No. 1. "India: Communal Violence."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. July 1991. Vol. 37, Nos. 7-8. "State Developments: Jammu & Kashmir."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. June 1991. Vol. 37, No. 6. "India: General Election."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. March 1991. Vol. 37, No. 3. "India: Resignation of Shekhar Government - Calling for Elections."

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights (LCHR). Critique: Review of the U.S. Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993. July 1994. New York: Lawyers Committee for Human Rights.

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights (LCHR). Critique: Review of the U.S. Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1992. July 1993. New York: Lawyers Committee for Human Rights.

Libération [Paris]. 30 November 1994. "Un attentat manqué contre un ministre fait neuf morts dans le sud de l'Inde."

Libération [Paris]. 29 November 1994. "Inde."

Libération [Paris]. 27 November 1994. "Inde."

Libération [Paris]. 25 November 1994. "La police indienne charge une manifestation de hors-caste: 128 morts."

Libération [Paris]. 4 November 1994. "Inde."

Libération [Paris]. 11 October 1994. "Inde."

Libération [Paris]. 10 October 1994. François Musseau. "Des heurts entre musulmans et hindous font 22 morts en Inde."

Libération [Paris]. 1 September 1994. "Inde."

Libération [Paris]. 26 August 1994. "Assassinat d'un opposant à Bombay."

Libération [Paris]. 28 July 1994. Romain Franklin. "New-Delhi vote une loi contre l'avortement sélectif."

Libération [Paris]. 21 June 1994. "Inde."

Libération [Paris]. 17 November 1993. "Fin du siège de la mosquée d'Hazratbal au Cachemire."

Libération [Paris]. 3 July 1991. "Inde: enlèvements."

Libération [Paris]. 5 April 1991. "Manifestation monstre à New Delhi."

Libération [Paris]. 23-24 March 1991. "Inde: massacre."

Libération [Paris]. 14 March 1991. "Inde: Pendjab."

Los Angeles Times. 16 March 1992. Home edition. "Millitants Kill 20 in Punjab Massacre." (NEXIS)

Los Angeles Times. 27 July 1991. Home edition. "India: 100 Reportedly Die in Kashmir Ambush." (NEXIS)

Manchester Guardian Weekly. 30 June 1991. "Gandhi Allies Feature in Rao Cabinet."

MNS News. 30 September 1994. "India Announces Release of Two Prominent Leaders of Kashmir." (NEXIS)

Le Monde [Paris]. 15 March 1994. "Inde: Arrestation du principal chef indépendantiste du Cachemire." (NEXIS)

Le Monde [Paris]. 22 February 1992. Bruno Philip. "Inde: conséquence de l'appel des séparatistes au boycottage; une abstention record a favorisé la victoire du Parti du Congrès aux élections du Pendjab." (NEXIS)

Le Monde [Paris]. 23 April 1991. "Inde: Report des élections législatives au Pendjab et en Assam."

The New York Times. 30 June 1993. Final edition. Sanjoy Hazarika. "Rebel Attack in India Kills 32." (NEXIS)

The New York Times. 18 April 1993. Final edition. Edward A. Gargan. "Indian Troops Are Blamed as Kashmir Violence Rises." (NEXIS)

The New York Times. 7 April 1991. Barbara Crossette. Final edition. "India Moves Against Kashmir Rebels." (NEXIS)

The Ottawa Citizen. 4 April 1994. "India: Military Officers Worry About Role as Keepers of Peace and Order; Army Cannot Become Administrators, Some Argue." (NEXIS)

The Phoenix Gazette. 3 August 1993. "Police Fire on India Protesters." (NEXIS)

La Presse [Montreal]. 8 June 1994. "Cachemire: Touristes enlevés."

La Presse [Montreal]. 5 March 1994. "Inde: Tentative d'assassinat."

La Presse [Montreal]. 20 January 1994. "Inde: Procès Gandhi."

La Presse [Montreal]. 31 December 1993. "Inde: Rao majoritaire."

La Presse [Montreal]. 24 January 1992. "Des Sikhs tirent sur des militants hindous: 5 morts et 16 blessés."

Reuters. 27 November 1994. BC Cycle. "Bombay Hit by Protest Strike over Stampede Deaths." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 14 October 1994. BC Cycle. Clarence Fernandez. "Bombay Commuters Burn Trains." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 16 September 1994. BC Cycle. "India Supreme Court Raps Police Killings in Punjab." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 3 August 1994. BC Cycle. "India Worried Over Army Violence." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 21 July 1994. BC Cycle. "Naga Separatists Kill 22 of Rival Tribe in India." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 29 May 1994. BC Cycle. "Ethnic Riots Kill at Least 21 in India's Assam." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 5 April 1994. Hari Ramachandran. BC Cycle. "India Police, Anti-GATT Protesters Clash in New Delhi." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 23 February 1994. BC Cycle. "Indian Bomb Blast Kills Five, Sparks Rioting." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 3 February 1994. BC Cycle. "India Orders Probe into Army Assault on Policemen." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 27 November 1993. BC Cycle. "Police Kill Four in South Indian State." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 25 November 1993. BC Cycle. "Indian Police Kill Most-Wanted Sikh Militant." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 21 November 1993. BC Cycle. "One Killed in Violence During Indian State Polls." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 8 November 1993. BC Cycle. "Nine Killed by Bomb in Northeast India." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 16 October 1993. PM Cycle. Yusuf Jameel. "India Troops Raid Kashmir's Holiest Muslim Shrine." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 10 October 1993. BC Cycle. Subir Bhaumik. "Fifty Killed in Attacks by India's Bodo Tribesmen." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 19 August 1993. BC Cycle. "Thousands of Indians Arrested in Mass Protests." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 9 August 1993. BC Cycle. "Sporadic Violence Marks Aftermath of India Bomb." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 8 August 1993. BC Cycle. "Nine Killed in India Bomb Blast at Hindu Office." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 10 June 1993. BC Cycle. "Indian Sikh Rebels Kill 11 in Revival of Violence." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 8 April 1992. BC Cycle. Yusuf Jameel. "Kashmiris Reported Killed by Indian Security Forces."

Reuters. 9 November 1991. PM Cycle. "At Least 12 Die in Indian Bomb Blast, Police Say." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 9 October 1991. PM Cycle. "Indian Police Officer and his Three Sons Killed in Punjab." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 8 October 1991. PM Cycle. "Killing Spree Continues in Punjab, Indian Army May be Deployed." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 3 September 1991. PM Cycle. "Scores Hurt in Riots After Blast in Hindu Enclave in Kashmir." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 5 August 1991. PM Cycle. "India Appoints Ex-Policeman to Govern Violent Punjab." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 16 June 1991. BC Cycle. Michael Battye. "India Counts its Votes Under Cloud of Fresh Violence." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 11 June 1991. AM Cycle. Michael Battye. "Glum India Set to Resume Elections Delayed by Gandhi Killing." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 29 May 1991. AM Cycle. Bill Tarrant. "Veteran Loyalist Chosen to Head India Party in New Elections." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 21 May 1991. AM Cycle. Jeremy Clift. "Bomb Blast Kills Gandhi in India's Bloodiest Election." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 12 April 1991. AM Cycle. "India Sets May Election Dates but Punjab, Assam Polls in Doubt." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 24 March 1991. BC Cycle. "Nine Killed, 100 Injured in New Delhi Bomb Attack." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 12 March 1991. AM Cycle. Bill Tarrant. "Indian Parliament Adjourns, Awaits Election Call." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 5 March 1991. AM Cycle. "Mass Walkout Leaves India's Minority Government Stranded." (NEXIS)

The San Francisco Chronicle. 5 February 1993. Final Edition. "India: Rights Group Calls for Curbs on Police Brutality." (NEXIS)

South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre (SAHRDC). 20 July 1994. Action Alert: Renewed Attempts at Involuntary Repatriation of the Jumma Refugees. New Delhi: SAHRDC.

South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre (SAHRDC). 5 July 1994. Action Alert: Prominent Journalist in Illegal Detention. New Delhi: SAHRDC.

The Sri Lanka Monitor [London]. April 1994. No. 75. "Soft Target."

Time [New York]. 11 April 1994. Jefferson Penberthy and Yusuf Jameel. "India: Blowing Away a General in a Suspicious Explosion."

The Times [London]. 14 February 1994. Christopher Thomas. "Troops Ordered to Quell Caste War in North India." (NEXIS)

The Times [London]. 23 October 1993. Christopher Thomas. "Protesters Die as Indian Troops Fire on Crowds." (NEXIS)

The Times [London]. 22 June 1991. Christopher Thomas. "India Calls Off Punjab Poll in Wake of Sikh Terror." (NEXIS)

The Toronto Star. 30 November 1993. Final edition. "Indian Voters Reject Religious Extremist Party." (NEXIS)

The Toronto Star. 31 January 1993. Peter Goodspeed. "India's Human Rights Record Under Fire Suspects Raped, Tortured Routinely While in Police Custody, Groups Say." (NEXIS)

The Toronto Star. 23 June 1991. Olivia Ward. "India's PM Declares War on Inefficiency." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 14 October 1994. BC Cycle. "India Releases Kashmir Separatist Leader." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 20 September 1994. BC Cycle. "Protest Halts India's Railways." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 31 August 1994. BC Cycle. "Delhi Police Clash with Protesters." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 1 July 1994. BC Cycle. "India to Repatriate More Bangladesh Refugees." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 11 March 1994. BC Cycle. Neelam Jain. "Court Upholds India's Controversial Anti-Terrorist Law." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 21 February 1994. BC Cycle. "Police Prevent 10,000 From Protesting in India." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 26 January 1994. BC Cycle. "Violence Intrudes on India Celebrations." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 4 January 1994. BC Cycle. "Indian Army Begin Massive Anti-Insurgency Operation in Manipur." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 19 December 1993. BC Cycle. "Indian Army Wrests Control of Kashmir Town From Muslim Rebels." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 15 August 1993. BC Cycle. "Indian Forces on 'Red Alert', General Strike in Muslim Kashmir." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 8 August 1993. BC Cycle. "Resurgence of Intertribal Warfare Leaves 41 Dead in India." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 13 June 1993. BC Cycle. "Bomb Explodes in India at Hindu Leader's Home, Wounding Four." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 7 June 1993. BC Cycle. "Violence Marks General Strike in Marxist-Ruled Indian State." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 31 May 1993. "India's Top Court Permits Hindu Group." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 21 March 1992. BC Cycle. "Sikh Separatist Violence Leaves 42 People Dead." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 1 February 1992. BC Cycle. Ravi Sharma. "Sikhs to Boycott Punjab Elections." (NEXIS)

Voice of America. 20 November 1994. Lea Terhune. "India/Tribal War." (WEB)

Voice of America. 17 November 1994. Peter Heinlein. "India Human Rights." (WEB)

Voice of America. 12 October 1994. Michael Drudge. "India/Kashmir." (WEB)

Voice of America. 10 October 1994. Peter Heinlein. "India Language Riots." (WEB)

Voice of America. 12 September 1994. Michael Drudge. "India/Caste." (WEB)

Voice of America. 9 September 1994. Michael Drudge. "India/Kashmir." (WEB)

Voice of America. 25 August 1994. Michael Drudge. "India/Kashmir." (WEB)

Voice of America. 15 August 1994. Lea Terhune. "India/Violence." (WEB)

Voice of America. 24 July 1994. Lea Terhune. "Assam/Ethnic Violence." (WEB)

Voice of America. 13 June 1994. Lea Terhune. "Kashmir/Human Rights." (WEB)

Voice of America. 6 June 1994. Lea Terhune. "India/Kashmir Human Rights." (WEB)

Voice of America. 30 May 1994. Lea Terhune. "India: Elections." (WEB)

Wall Street Journal [New York]. 2 August 1994. "World Wire: Women's Rights in India." (NEXIS)

The Washington Post. 7 December 1991. Final edition. "50 Killed by Sikh Gunmen in N. India." (NEXIS)

The Women's Watch [Minnesota]. July 1993. Vol. 7, No. 1. "Women in Political and Public Life."

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 24 November 1994. "125 Persons Killed in Clash in India." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 20 November 1994. "25 Kuki Tribals Shot Dead in India's Manipur State." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 25 July 1994. "50 People Killed in India's Assam State." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 4 July 1994. "India Extends Women Welfare Schemes." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 17 June 1994. "25 Militants Killed in India Controlled Kashmir." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 10 June 1994. "National Resource Center for Women to be Set Up in India." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 18 December 1993. "India Passes Bill on Human Rights Commission." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 22 September 1993. "Thirteen Children Burnt Alive in Indian Tribal Fight." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 26 July 1993. "Bill to Delink Religion From Politics Tabled in India." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 16 July 1993. "20 Killed in Indian-Controlled Kashmir." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 16 December 1992. "Governments of Three BJP-Ruled Indian States Dismissed." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 8 October 1991. "Police Families Attacked in Punjab, India." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 16 August 1991. "30 Killed in Violence in India-Controlled Kashmir." (NEXIS)

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