Chronology of Events: April 1993 - April 1995



See original


ASNF             Alliance of Sudanese National Forces

DUP               Democratic Unionist Party

IGADD   Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development

NDA       National Democratic Alliance

NIF         National Islamic Front

PDF        Popular Defence Forces

PRMSS  Patriotic Resistance Movement of South Sudan

RCC        Revolutionary Command Council

SAF        Sudanese Allied Forces

SFDA     Sudan Federal Democratic Alliance

SPLA      Sudan People's Liberation Army

SPLM     Sudan People's Liberation Movement

SSIA       Southern Sudan Independence Army

SSIM      Southern Sudan Independence Movement

TNA       Transitional National Assembly

UP           Umma Party


This chronology, which updates the DIRB's May 1993 Sudan: Chronology of Events December 1955-March 1993, examines legislation and events pertaining to the political and human rights situation in Sudan between April 1993 and April 1995.

The main political groups in Sudan are organized along religious and ethnic lines. Political parties are banned and government policies reflect the agenda of the National Islamic Front (NIF), led by Hassan al-Turabi, which promotes the islamization and arabization of Sudan. The main northern opposition parties, the Umma Party (UP) and the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), are associated with the traditional Islamic Ansar and Khatmiya sects respectively, and claim to promote political pluralism and a secular state. The two main southern rebel groups, the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA)-Mainstream (Torit) and the SPLA-United (Nasir), now the Southern Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A), largely represent southern Christian and animist African groups. The SPLA-Mainstream, led by John Garang de Mabior and supported by the Dinka ethnic group, seeks a union of the north and the south and a secular central government. The SSIM, led by Riek Machar and supported by members of the Nuer ethnic group, seeks self-determination and ultimately independence for the south.

As detailed in this chronology, the civil war between the government and the two southern rebel factions has continued, as has internecine fighting between the SPLA-Mainstream and SSIM, resulting in numerous civilian casualties and thousands displaced. To some extent military operations have been tempered on the political front by several rounds of Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD)-sponsored peace talks in Nairobi, Kenya. Although these talks, which have involved all parties to the conflict, have resulted in a number of cease-fire declarations that have periodically allowed the resumption of international relief aid to famine-affected areas in the south, they have failed to reconcile the government and southern rebels on the fundamental issues of southern self-determination and secularism, nor have they put an end to the fighting. In separate meetings, northern opposition and southern rebel groups have taken steps toward unifying their positions on the principles of a secular state and self-determination for the south.




Five Islamic jurists in El Obeid, the capital of Kordofan state, reportedly issue an edict referring to members of the Nuba ethnic group as infidels and to the war against them as a jihad (holy war). They call upon all Muslims to kill Nuba and take over their land out of religious duty (Sudan Democratic Gazette Nov. 1993d, 11). Between April and November 1993 "tens of thousands" of people from the Nuba Mountains in southern Kordofan state are forcibly relocated to "peace camps" in the north of the state, while thousands more are killed and thousands of women and children are taken as slaves (ibid.). According to Sudan Democratic Gazette, the decree, which is made public in August 1993, "legalises all the crimes of genocide which have been committed against the Nuba people over the past two years" (ibid.).

Several trade unionists are arrested in northern Sudan following labour unrest sparked by the worsening economic situation (Sudan Human Rights Voice May 1993, 2).

5 April

Sadiq al-Mahdi, a former prime minister and leader of both the Ansar Islamic sect and opposition Umma Party (UP), is detained for one day in connection with a 25 March speech during a religious feast in Omdurman in which he criticized the government and called for political pluralism (The Independent 6 Apr. 1993; Sudan Human Rights Voice Apr. 1993a, 8; Sudan Update 21 Apr. 1993a, 4; Sudan Democratic Gazette June 1993b, 2). Al-Mahdi's detention marks the beginning of a crackdown against members of the Ansar sect and the UP, as well as against leading members of the Khatmiya and Ansar Sunna sects connected with the opposition Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), which is increasingly critical of National Islamic Front (NIF) government policies (ibid.; ibid. July 1993, 2, 5; Sudan Update 6 June 1993a, 1; ibid. 6 June 1993b, 2; ibid. 21 Apr. 1993a, 4; Sudan Human Rights Voice Apr. 1993b, 7; AI 1994, 273). Amnesty International reports that although most are released after six weeks, some remain in detention until September 1993 (ibid.).

Three southern Sudanese rebel factions, all formerly with the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), unite under the leadership of Riek Machar to form the SPLA-United. The group declares a cease-fire and calls for peace negotiations with the Sudanese government (BBC Summary 7 Apr. 1993; AFP 19 Apr. 1993a; ibid. 19 Apr. 1993b). A cease-fire between John Garang's SPLA-Mainstream rebel group and the government, begun in March 1993, continues (ibid.; ibid. 19 Apr. 1993a).

13 April

The government announces that state-owned newspapers will soon be privatized and large-scale private enterprises will be allowed to launch independent newspapers. Small companies and individuals with limited capital will not be able to own newspapers, however, as the government believes they could be susceptible to foreign manipulation (La lettre de Reporters sans frontières May 1993). Despite the mid-1993 adoption of a new press code permitting these changes, Country Reports 1993 indicates that no newspapers had been privatized and no independent newspapers had emerged by the end of the year (Country Reports 1993 1994, 281).

17 April

Sudanese opposition parties belonging to the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), including the SPLA-Mainstream, reach agreement in Nairobi to separate religion and the state in Sudan. According to the agreement, under a new Sudanese constitution, laws contained in international and regional human rights instruments to which Sudan is a party would supersede incompatible Sudanese laws. The agreement also states that any laws that discriminate against Sudanese citizens on the basis of religion, race, gender or culture would be inapplicable (Sudan Update 21 Apr. 1993b, 2; AFP 19 Apr. 1993a; Sudan Democratic Gazette May 1993, 2).

26 April

The government of Sudan and Garang's SPLA faction begin a second round of peace talks in Abuja, Nigeria (the first round was held in June 1992). The talks break down in May after the government rejects a Nigerian government compromise proposal to secularize the state during the period between the end of the civil war and the consolidation of a new government (ION 24 Apr. 1993, 2; ibid. 15 May 1993, 4; Sudan Democratic Gazette June 1993a, 1; ibid. June 1993c, 3, 5).

Late April-Early May

Garang's SPLA-Mainstream faction reportedly kills about 2,000 members of the Nuer ethnic group, including several children, in villages near Kongor and Ayod, in southern Sudan. The Nuer support Machar's SPLA-United faction. Increasing political violence in the region between the two SPLA factions results in the suspension of UN aid operations in Kongor on 5 May (BBC Summary 11 May 1993).


About 30 children under 11 years of age are reportedly detained and beaten in a south Khartoum police station (AI 1994, 274).

8-9 May

The National Council for Child Welfare holds a seminar on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Children in Sudan. The session is attended by members of parliament, National Council for Child Welfare representatives, organizations that work with children, government ministries and agencies, UNICEF and various professionals, workers and students. The participants recommend, among other things, a review of all laws regarding children, an increase in government support for children's services and continued UNHCR follow-up on the situation of children in the rebel movement (United Nations 2 Aug. 1993, 4).

22 May

The government seizes the Ansar order's holiest shrine in Omdurman. The Ansar leader, Sadiq al-Mahdi, has recently used the shrine to deliver sermons critical of the government (see 5 April 1993 entry). In late May the government expropriates mosques of the Khatmiya and Ansar Sunna orders, which are also critical of the government (LCHR July 1994, 347; Sudan Democratic Gazette June 1993b, 2).

28 May

In an accord witnessed by Donald Petterson, the US ambassador in Khartoum, the rival SPLA-Mainstream and SPLA-United factions sign a cease-fire agreement that creates a demilitarized zone in the southern areas of Ayod, Waat, Kongor and Yuai to allow the delivery of humanitarian aid. In response to the accord, the government declares its rejection of all foreign intervention in Sudan (AFP 29 May 1993; ION 5 June 1993, 3).

Early June

Some 260 Ethiopian refugees return to Ethiopia in the first phase of a UNHCR-monitored repatriation programme that affects about 50,000 Ethiopian asylum seekers in Sudan (UNHCR 11 June 1993). Some 13,768 Ethiopian refugees return to Ethiopia by the end of 1993, while another 26,443 return to the Tigray and Gondor regions in Ethiopia between February and October 1994 (ibid. 28 Feb. 1995).

11 June

A leader of the Sudan Communist Party, Yousif Hussein, is arrested and detained without charge. He was previously arrested on 11 January 1990 and held without charge for over two years (Sudan Human Rights Voice June 1993, 8).

16 June

According to the SPLA-United faction, SPLA-Mainstream forces attack the Yuai relief centre in southern Sudan and kill civilians (Sudan Update 20 June 1993b, 1). The attack follows fighting between the two factions on 15 June at Ladau near Kongor, which the SPLA-Mainstream faction accuses the SPLA-United of having instigated (ibid. 20 June 1993a, 1). The attacks violate the 28 May agreement between the rebel groups to demilitarize the area (ibid.; ibid. 20 June 1993b, 1).

20 June

The two rival SPLA factions reach another agreement to cease fighting in the famine-affected areas of Kongor, Ayod, Waat and Yuai in the south (see 28 May 1993 entry) (BBC Summary 22 June 1993). Garang's forces reportedly clear the zone by 8 July 1993 (Sudan Human Rights Voice July 1993, 7).

Mid to late July

Government security forces launch a "surprise wet-season offensive" against the SPLA from Juba with the aim of capturing the town of Nimule, a rebel stronghold near the Ugandan border. Prevented from reaching Nimule by SPLA-Mainstream forces, government troops advance from Yei to Kaya after bombing towns and villages in southern Western Equatoria. The town of Kaya and a nearby UN-operated relief camp at Yondu are abandoned by civilians fleeing to Uganda (Sudan Update 16 Aug. 1993a, 1).

Clashes between two rival clans of the Messeriya tribe, sparked by a disagreement over an interclan marriage, leave 108 dead and 50 injured in the southwest Kordofan region of Mughad. Government security forces reportedly intervene to disarm the warring parties (AFP 29 July 1993; Reuters 30 July 1993).

18-19 July

International relief operations in the Kongor area are suspended following clashes between the SPLA factions (AFP 19 July 1993; Sudan Update 16 Aug. 1993b, 2).


A government security forces offensive against SPLA rebels in Western Equatoria results in heavy fighting and the government capture of the town of Morobo, part of a "strategic artery" for aid distribution in the state (AFP 29 Aug. 1993; Sudan Human Rights Voice Sept. 1993b, 5).

Government troops capture Om Dorein, a major SPLA stronghold in the southern Nuba Mountains (Sudan Human Rights Voice Sept. 1993c, 5).

A Catholic girls' high school in Khartoum closes for a week to protest a government order replacing the school uniform with a long dress and headscarf. The school reopens after a compromise is reached-Muslim students will wear Islamic dress while the other students will wear longer skirts but no headscarves (Reuters 11 Feb. 1994; The Economist 7-13 Aug. 1993, 43; Sudan Human Rights Voice Oct. 1993c, 5).

15 August

Detained brigadier Mohammed Ahmed al-Rayah al-Faki writes a letter to the minister of justice describing the torture he underwent in prison (Sudan Human Rights Voice Oct. 1993a, 1; Sudan Democratic Gazette Nov. 1993a, 4). In November 1993 Sudan Democratic Gazette reports that al-Rayah al-Faki disappeared in early October, and expresses concern that he may have been tortured to death (ibid.).

18 August

The United States places Sudan on its list of states that support international terrorism (Jeune Afrique 16-22 Dec. 1993, 70; Sudan Human Rights Voice Sept. 1993d, 1; FCNL 15 Mar. 1994).

25 August

The UNHCR reports that 106,000 Sudanese refugees have sought asylum in Uganda, Zaire, Ethiopia and Kenya since 5 August 1993, including 60,000 who arrived in Uganda in the previous two days. Their displacement follows attacks by government security forces in the Kaya, Morobo, Yei, Kajo Kaji and Kerwa areas of Western Equatoria (UNHCR Update 25 Aug. 1993; Le Monde 27 Aug. 1993; Sudan Human Rights Voice Sept. 1993a, 5). AFP reports that another 47,000 people are internally displaced near the border with Uganda, but that SPLA fighters are preventing them from seeking refuge there (AFP 29 Aug. 1993).

4 September

The Sudanese press publishes a government statement that 300,000 internally displaced persons in camps surrounding Khartoum will be moved to houses with modern facilities and will have access to health and education facilities (Sudan Human Rights Voice Oct. 1993b, 7).

6 September

SPLA rebels attack and kill eight government officials flying from Malakal to Rubkotna to sign a "surrender agreement" between government security forces and the SPLA-United faction. The SPLA-Mainstream accuses SPLA-United leaders of betraying the rebel movement and seeking peace with the government in order to gain "administrative control" of the Upper Nile region (IPS 7 Sept. 1993).

7 September

Sudanese Bishop Peter Elbersh receives 90 lashes under "[Sudan's] version" of sharia (Islamic law) for allegedly committing adultery (The Ottawa Citizen 7 Sept. 1993). The bishop denies the charges, stating that his beating is intended to intimidate Sudanese Christians (ibid.; Sudan Democratic Gazette Oct. 1993a, 6; ibid. Nov. 1993c, 5).

28 September

The Sudanese embassy in London issues a bulletin announcing that the 1957 Sudanese Nationality Law and the 1960 Passports Travel and Immigration Law have been replaced. Under the new Nationality Law, Sudanese who obtain citizenship in other countries do not lose Sudanese nationality, and foreigners who obtain Sudanese nationality are not required to relinquish their original nationality or live permanently in Sudan. The new Passports Travel and Immigration Law apparently removes "many of the restrictions on foreigners entering and residing in Sudan" (Sudan Update 8 Oct. 1993, 2).

29 September

Amnesty International releases a report on the effects since 1983 of the war between the Arab Muslim-dominated government and the African Christian and animist SPLA rebel movement in southern Sudan and the Nuba Mountains. According to Amnesty International, the fighting has displaced about 3 million people and broken down the local infrastructure, leaving people vulnerable to drought, flooding and famine, and dependent on international humanitarian aid. The report describes human rights violations committed by both sides. Government violations include forced relocations of entire villages, extrajudicial executions, rape, arbitrary arrest and detention of anyone suspected of opposing government arabization and islamization policies, torture, disappearance, abductions of women and children and the suppression of freedom of association and expression. Human rights violations by rebel factions include extrajudicial killings, torture and deliberate attacks on civilians (AI 29 Sept. 1993).


Sudan Democratic Gazette reports the emergence of an Islamic alliance made up of members of the Ansar and Khatmiya sects (supporters of the UP and DUP respectively), the Moslem Brotherhood, the Ansar El Sunna and the Turq El Sufia (Sudan Democratic Gazette Oct. 1993b, 1). Although described as a socio-religious, non-political grouping, the Islamic alliance could represent "another form of political Islam" that might seek to replace the current Islamist regime (ibid.).

The US Committee for Refugees (USCR) releases a report stating that the civil war and "malign policies approved by a succession of Khartoum governments" led to the deaths of over 1.3 million southern Sudanese between May 1983 and May 1993. Of these, 300,000 died between January 1992 and May 1993 (Burr Oct. 1993, 2, 9).

2 October

The Patriotic Resistance Movement of South Sudan (PRMSS), led by southern politician and former Garang ally Alfred Lado Gore, is formed in Nairobi. Negotiated self-determination for southern Sudan is among the party's objectives, but force will be an option should negotiations fail (ION 9 Oct. 1993, 8; Sudan Update 22 Oct. 1993a, 3).

4-6 October

Demonstrations in Omdurman and Wad Medani over fuel shortages and the worsening economic situation result in "some of the worst rioting since the coup of June 1989" (Sudan Update 22 Oct. 1993b, 1). Injuries occur when police in Omdurman respond with tear gas, cudgels and charging with motorcycles, and in Wad Medani with tear gas (ibid.; Sudan Democratic Gazette Nov. 1993e, 12; The Times 8 Oct. 1993).

16 October

The Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), which has ruled Sudan since the June 1989 military coup, dissolves itself and appoints Lt.-Gen. Omar Hassan al-Bashir president until the as yet unscheduled general and presidential elections. President al-Bashir has the same powers he held as RCC chairman and chairman of the Council of Ministers, "except for the freedom to declare war or to impose a state of emergency." The ministers of the former Council of Ministers apparently retain their positions pending the appointment of a new cabinet. Several sources indicate that these measures are intended to improve the government's image by giving it a civilian face, but without altering the government's Islamist character and military priorities (La Presse 17 Oct. 1993; ION 23 Oct. 1993, 4; ibid. 6 Nov. 1993, 2; MEI 22 Oct. 1993, 14; Sudan Update 22 Oct. 1993c, 1; AFP 16 Oct. 1993).

21-22 October

John Garang and Riek Machar, respective leaders of the SPLA-Mainstream and SPLA-United, reach an agreement in Washington, DC to immediately stop fighting each other. Most NDA member groups shun the Washington declaration because it mentions southern Sudan's right to self-determination (Sudan Democratic Gazette Nov. 1993b, 2-3; ibid. Jan. 1994, 4; MEI 5 Nov. 1993, 12; Sudan Update 1 Jan. 1994, 3).

28 October

On the eve of a scheduled concert at Khartoum University, popular Sudanese singer Abu Araki al-Bakhit is ordered by the security forces not to give concerts on campus. He is also ordered to stop singing specific songs singled out by the government. The singer refuses and is briefly detained (Sudan Human Rights Voice Dec. 1993d, 7). He later stops singing to protest the government action, but resumes in April 1994 when the government removes the ban because of his popularity (ibid. Apr. 1994c, 3).

10-11 November

Khartoum University students stage a demonstration after Islamist students capture all 40 seats in student union council elections. The students accuse the university board and the Sudanese government of rigging the elections. The protest prompts a security crackdown in which 18 to 50 students are injured, two killed and over 300 arrested. Although most of those arrested are released after two days, about 30 are held in secret detention centres called "ghost houses" and reportedly ill-treated (Sudan Update 30 Nov. 1993b, 2; ibid. 30 Nov. 1993c, 3; AFP 12 Nov. 1993a; BBC Summary 15 Nov. 1993; Sudan Democratic Gazette Dec. 1993, 6; Sudan Human Rights Voice Dec. 1993a, 2; ibid. Feb. 1994b, 4).

11 November

In talks with tribal leaders in southern Kordofan, President al-Bashir offers an amnesty to rebels who surrender to the government, and reportedly promises them "safety and good living conditions" (Xinhua 12 Nov. 1993; AFP 12 Nov. 1993b).

17 November

Sid-Ahmad al-Husayn of the DUP is arrested and detained for the fifth time since the 21989 military coup. This latest arrest comes after he publicly calls for the overthrow of the government (Sudan Human Rights Voice Dec. 1993b, 3). He is released on 20 or 22 February 1994 (Sudan Update 30 Mar. 1994c, 2; Sudan Human Rights Voice Apr. 1994f, 7).

23 November

The Sudanese Air Force bombs the Pageri village market, killing three people. It also bombs a civilian target in Loa, damaging the compound of the Irish relief organization GOAL. The damage disrupts the distribution of relief aid at Ame and Ateppi camps and leads to the withdrawal of UN workers (Sudan Update 30 Nov. 1993a, 1; AFP 26 Nov. 1993).


A women's rights symposium in Khartoum recommends that female genital mutilation (FGM) and marriages involving minors be prohibited (also see entry for 4 Aug. 1994) (Sudan Human Rights Voice Jan. 1994, 6).

15 December

The UNHCR reports that about 700 Sudanese boys have left Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya by foot for southern Sudan. Their leaders reject attempts by UNHCR field officers to return them to Kakuma camp (UNHCR 15 Dec. 1993; UPI 16 Dec. 1993).

21 December

A new group, the Sudan Invincible Forces of Democracy, is formed in Nairobi. According to founder David Idilla Lobuin, the group is comprised of Sudanese nationals who believe the conflict in the south cannot be solved militarily (Xinhua 21 Dec. 1993; Sudan Update 7 Feb. 1994b, 2).


4-6 January

In Nairobi, at the second meeting of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) Foreign Ministers' Standing Committee on the Sudan Peace Talks, Riek Machar and John Garang agree on a common agenda for the upcoming talks. The points of agreement include a negotiated cease-fire by all sides in the conflict, to be monitored by neutral parties; the right of self-determination for the people of southern Sudan, the Nuba Mountains and "other marginalized areas," to be decided by referendum; and detailed arrangements between the south and north for the transition period leading up to self-determination (Sudan Update 17 Jan. 1994a, 1; Sudan Democratic Gazette Feb. 1994b, 9; ibid. Feb. 1994d, 10).

11 January

Aldo Ajou Deng, a southern politician, deputy speaker of the Transitional National Assembly (TNA) and president of the government's human rights committee, resigns and reportedly defects to the opposition in London over the government's imposition of Islam on southern Sudan, and its reliance on a military solution to end the conflict with southern rebels (Sudan Update 17 Jan. 1994c, 3; Jeune Afrique 20-26 Jan. 1994; Sudan Democratic Gazette Feb. 1994c, 6; Sudan Human Rights Voice Feb. 1994a, 1, 6). In a presentation at the 50th session of the UN Human Rights Commission in early March 1994, he accuses the government of "genocide" and "ethnic cleansing" of non-Arabs and non-Muslims, particularly in the Nuba Mountains region (Deng 2 Mar. 1994, 3; Sudan Democratic Gazette Apr. 1994a, 10).

11-12 January

In anticipation of renewed fighting between rebel factions and the government, over 1,600 refugees flee the Kaya area (Sudan Update 17 Jan. 1994b, 2).

14 January

In response to a new government islamization programme aimed at soccer fans, people attending a soccer game reportedly throw stones at government officials and attack their cars outside the stadium. The government programme includes conducting certain religious ceremonies in soccer stadiums and prayer services during soccer matches, scheduling of matches outside prayer times, and the creation of government-appointed sports bodies (Sudan Human Rights Voice Feb. 1994d, 7).

26 January

Peace negotiations between the government and the SPLA begun on 21 January break down after the SPLA refuses to remove mines on roads in southern Sudan to allow the delivery of relief aid. The SPLA is concerned the government could use cleared roads to military advantage (Xinhua 27 Jan. 1994a).

27 January

The minister of state for refugee affairs accuses the SPLA of moving 14,000 children from refugee camps in Kenya to SPLA camps in Sudan, apparently to train them to fight the Sudanese government (Xinhua 27 Jan. 1994b).

Early February

Several sources report that aerial bombing by government forces of drought-stricken civilian areas near the Ugandan and Kenyan borders, part of a large-scale, dry season government offensive in the south, has displaced more than 100,000 people (Sudan Democratic Gazette Feb. 1994a, 6; Sudan Update 7 Feb. 1994e, 1; Manchester Guardian Weekly 20 Feb. 1994; Libération 15 Feb. 1994; The Independent 10 Feb. 1994).

The minister of higher education decrees that all female university students must conform to the Islamic dress code: a long-sleeved ankle-length dress and a headscarf. University deans reportedly force female students to sign a pledge to comply with the decree, and university registration is now contingent upon a woman signing the pledge (Sudan Human Rights Voice Feb. 1994c, 5; Reuters 11 Feb. 1994; Sudan Update 17 Feb. 1994e, 3). The government also orders that male and female school students be segregated beginning in sixth grade. The measure will be implemented within one year in Khartoum and two years in the provinces (ibid.; Reuters 11 Feb. 1994).

1 February

The TNA passes Constitutional Decree No. 10, which creates 17 new states, bringing the total to 26 (see appendix I for a list of states and their capitals) (Sudan Update 7 Feb. 1994c, 2; ibid. 17 Feb. 1994c, 3).

The United Nations releases a report by its special rapporteur on human rights in the Sudan, Gaspar Biro, who visited northern and southern Sudan in September and December 1993. It details human rights violations committed by the government, including extrajudicial and summary killings, disappearance, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, slavery and the abduction of children. The report accuses the government of violating women's rights, the rights to freedom of conscience, freedom of expression and association and freedom of movement and residence, as well as implementing penal laws that are inconsistent with international human rights law. The report also details human rights violations committed by both SPLA factions, including the killing of civilians on the basis of ethnicity (United Nations 1 Feb. 1994). President al-Bashir rejects the report, accuses Biro of "insulting Islam" and committing heresy, and warns that Sudan will withdraw its membership if the United Nations does not stop condemning "Allah's laws" (IPS 14 Feb. 1994). At the 50th session of the UN Human Rights Commission in early March, member states vote 35 to 9 in favour of condemning the Sudanese government's human rights violations, and Biro's mandate as special rapporteur on human rights in the Sudan is renewed for another year (ibid.; Sudan Democratic Gazette Apr. 1994a, 10; MEI 4 Mar. 1994, 11-12; ibid. 18 Mar. 1994, 13;The Economist 5-11 Mar. 1994, 42, 45; Sudan Update 15 Apr. 1994b, 3; Sudan Human Rights Voice Apr. 1994d, 5).

4 February

Government security forces bomb relief camps in the Maridi and Arapi areas near the Ugandan border (AFP 5 Feb. 1994b; ibid. 7 Feb. 1994).

Unidentified armed men attack the Sheikh al-Hadiya mosque of the Ansar al-Sunna sect in the al-Thawra district of Omdurman, killing up to 28 worshippers and injuring at least 16. The police issue a general security alert and conduct a massive operation in search of those responsible. After initially claiming that foreigners were involved, the government accuses Jama'at al-Muslimeen, a Sudanese Islamic group, of responsibility. Given the government's record of repressing political opposition, however, opposition groups believe the government itself is behind the attack (Sudan Update 7 Feb. 1994a, 1; AFP 5 Feb. 1994a; ION 12 Feb. 1994; Sudan Democratic Gazette Mar. 1994, 6; ibid. July 1994b, 12; Sudan Human Rights Voice Mar. 1994a, 2; Info-Soudan 15 Mar. 1994). The primary accused in the case, Muhammad Abd al-Rahman al-Khilayfi, is publicly executed on 19 September 1994 (Sudan Update 13 Oct. 1994b, 4).

5 February

Two men are killed and one injured during a shoot-out with police in Khartoum's Riyadh quarter. While the government claims the men were involved in the 4 February mosque attack (see 4 February 1994 entry) (Sudan Update 17 Feb. 1994b, 2; Reuters 6 Feb. 1994; ION 12 Feb. 1994, 2), The Indian Ocean Newsletter reports the two incidents as being unrelated (ibid.).

The Sudan Federal Democratic Alliance (SFDA), an umbrella opposition organization, is founded in London by former governor of Darfur state Ahmed Ibrahim Diraige (Sudan Update 7 Feb. 1994d, 2).

10 February

After heavy fighting with SPLA forces, government forces briefly capture Mundri, a village northeast of the border with Zaire. About 40,000 people are displaced toward Maridi (Sudan Update 17 Feb. 1994a, 1; Reuters 14 Feb. 1994). The SPLA recaptures Mundri the same day (ibid.).

14 February

President al-Bashir announces several new political appointments in connection with the recent restructuring of states (see 1 February 1994 entry), among them Agnes Lokudu, Sudan's first female governor. George Kongor Arop, a police major-general from the south and former governor of Bahr al-Ghazal, is named second vice-president (Sudan Update 17 Feb. 1994d, 2; Le Devoir 16 Feb. 1994; IPS 16 Jan. 1995).

International relief officials report that the Sudanese government is organizing troops-including boys under 15 years old-in Zaire and the Central African Republic to fight rebel forces in southern Sudan (BBC Summary 18 Feb. 1994; ION 19 Feb. 1994, 4).

24 February

Five Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) relief workers, including one British citizen and four Sudanese nationals, are taken hostage by the SPLA at the Attar feeding centre in Upper Nile state (IPS 1 Mar. 1994). The British national is freed on 28 February, but the others remain in custody until 6 March (ibid.; AP 7 Mar. 1994; AFP 7 Mar. 1994).

Late February

The University of Darfur suspends 26 students for one academic year after they ask to form a student union (Sudan Human Rights Voice Mar. 1994b, 8).

1 March

Sudanese security forces drop 24 bombs on Nimule town, the Aswa relief camp and surrounding areas, killing one person and injuring nine (Sudan Update 15 Mar. 1994, 1).

8 March

The European Union agrees to impose an arms embargo on Sudan (Sudan Update 15 Apr. 1994a, 3; Courrier de l'ACAT Apr. 1995).

12 March

Sudan's only independent newspaper, the month-old daily al-Sudani International, is suspended for one week by the National Council for Press and Publications for criticizing the government "security apparatus" among other things (see 4 April 1994 entry). Another newspaper, the government-owned weekly Darfur al-Jadida, is suspended for two weeks for criticizing King Hassan II of Morocco (Sudan Update 30 Mar. 1994b, 3-4; La lettre de Reporters sans frontières Apr. 1994; ibid. May 1994).

17-23 March

IGADD-sponsored peace talks between the Sudanese government and both SPLA factions in Nairobi culminate in an agreement that permits relief aid to be delivered to southern Sudanese civilians (AFP 23 Mar. 1994; Xinhua 25 Mar. 1994; Sudan Update 30 Mar. 1994a, 1; MEI 1 Apr. 1994, 13).

20 March

Leading DUP member Sid-Ahmad al-Husayn is rearrested after being released one month earlier (see 17 November 1993 entry) (Sudan Update 30 Mar. 1994c, 3; Sudan Human Rights Voice Apr. 1994f, 7).

4 April

The government closes al-Sudani International, reportedly because of its reports about government corruption and support for southern self-determination (La lettre de Reporters sans frontières May 1994; Reuters 4 Apr. 1994; Middle East Times 17 Apr. 1994). Five journalists are arrested, including the newspaper's owner, Mahjoub Erwa, and its administrative and financial director (Sudan Human Rights Voice Apr. 1994a, 1). The men are reportedly tortured while in custody (Federal News Service 22 Mar. 1995). Erwa is released "a few months" later but the fate of the others is unknown (Reuters 30 May 1995).

5 April

An airplane on an internal flight from Khartoum to Dongola is hijacked by a Sudanese citizen. The airplane lands in Luxor, Egypt, where the hijacker requests political asylum. The Sudanese government demands that the man be extradited, launches an emergency investigation and tightens security on all Sudanese flights (Sudan Update 30 Apr. 1994b, 1).

7 April

Professor Sara Nugdallah, a UP executive member and secretary-general of the UP women's organization, is arrested at her office at Ahlia University in Omdurman, detained without charge and allegedly ill-treated (Sudan Human Rights Voice Apr. 1994b, 1; Sudan Update 30 Apr. 1994c, 4; World Organization Against Torture 14 Apr. 1994). She remains in detention for 10 weeks (AI 25 Jan. 1995).

Late April

Demonstrations against government economic policies, led by Gezira University students in Wad Medani, are dispersed by police with tear gas and result in several deaths, arrests and the dismissal of 29 students (Sudan Update 30 Apr. 1994a, 1; ibid. 20 May 1994b, 3; Scottish Churches' Sudan Group 30 May 1994, 1). There are similar protests in other areas of the Central Region, Omdurman and Atbara (ibid.).

17 May

The government and the two SPLA factions sign a UN-sponsored accord in Nairobi on humanitarian aid delivery in the south (AFP 17 May 1994; Documentation Réfugiés 10-23 May 1994, 6). The agreement coincides with the beginning of the second round of IGADD-sponsored peace talks in Nairobi (Sudan Update 30 June 1994, 2).

Late May

John Garang's SPLA-Mainstream faction holds its first national convention at Chukudum in southern Sudan. The convention, which marks the consolidation of the SPLA as a political movement, culminates in the creation of "New Sudan," a "political and administrative entity" comprising the south, southern Kordofan and southern Blue Nile. The new entity will be presided over by an executive council and a 182-member "Liberation Assembly" composed of 132 elected members, 38 SPLA-Mainstream members and 10 members appointed by the council. Garang is named speaker and chairman of the executive council, which is charged with achieving self-determination for the south (Sudan Update 20 May 1994a, 1; BBC Summary 27 May 1994; Marchés Tropicaux 20 May 1994; Sudan Democratic Gazette June 1994, 9).


Human Rights Watch/Africa releases a report based on a visit to southern Sudan and to camps for Sudanese refugees in Kenya and Uganda between June and July 1993. The report describes human rights violations committed against civilians by all sides that have resulted in the deaths of about 1.3 million civilians since 1983, as well as the dependence of millions on international relief aid (HRW/A June 1994).

6 June

Human rights lawyer Ali Mahmoud Hassanein is arrested in Khartoum for defending the relatives of victims of a bomb attack in which he alleged the government was involved. He is released on 20 June 1994 (Sudan Update 14 July 1994c, 4).

11 June

The security forces take control of Kajo Kaji, the SPLA's administrative capital and supply link with Uganda (Middle East Times 26 June 1994; ION 11 July 1994). According to The Indian Ocean Newsletter, the capture of this strategic area represents a "turning point" in the civil war, as it improves the government's bargaining position in the upcoming IGADD-sponsored peace negotiations with the SPLA (see 18-29 July 1994 entry) (ibid.).

20 June

UP leader Al-Sadiq al-Mahdi and three other leading UP members are arrested and accused of plotting with Egypt to assassinate Hassan al-Turabi and other NIF leaders (Scottish Churches' Sudan Group 29 June 1994, 1; IPS 21 June 1994; ION 25 June 1994, 8; Jeune Afrique 14-20 July 1994). Al-Mahdi denies the charges and is released on 3 July (ibid.; ANB-BIA 1 Jan. 1995, xiv; Sudan Update 14 July 1994a, 1).

Early to Mid-July

An outbreak of SPLA factional fighting in Mayen Abune and surrounding villages in Wunrok county, northern Bahr-el-Ghazal state, results in over 1,000 deaths, widespread looting and thousands displaced (Libération 21 July 1994; IPS 22 July 1994; Sudan Update 3 Aug. 1994a, 2).

14 July

Two Sudanese Christians who converted from Islam are arrested and their bibles and baptism certificates confiscated in Wad Medani. On 18 July they are convicted of apostasy, which under Sudanese law carries a sentence of 100 lashes and the death penalty. One receives 100 lashes, while the other falls after four lashes. The government suspends their order of execution (Sudan Update 30 Sept. 1994, 4; United Nations 30 Jan. 1995, 5; Libération 31 July 1994). According to Libération, more than 200 Sudanese who have converted from Islam to Christianity since 1992 are at risk of death for apostasy (ibid.).

Mid to Late July

Sources report that more than 50,000 internally displaced persons are expelled from the Khartoum area, including from the neighbourhoods of Haj Youssef, Kalakala and Umm Badda. The Popular Defence Forces (PDF), a government-sponsored militia, reportedly round up the squatters in the middle of the night and bring them to desert locations "without water, shelter or facilities of any kind" (ANB-BIA 1 Jan. 1995, xiv; Sudan Democratic Gazette Aug. 1994b, 6; Sudan Update 3 Aug. 1994b, 2-3).

18-29 July

The government and SPLA leaders hold a third round of IGADD-sponsored peace talks in Nairobi (Sudan Democratic Gazette Aug. 1994a, 2; MEI 5 Aug. 1994, 14). On 22 July the government declares a cease-fire in the south (ibid.; IPS 22 July 1994; Libération 24 July 1994; Jeune Afrique 4-10 Aug. 1994). However, some sources report continued government military operations around Nimule, the SPLA-Mainstream stronghold and key centre for SPLA supplies from Uganda (ibid.; Sudan Democratic Gazette Aug. 1994a, 3). On 25 July the SPLA begins a separate cease-fire (ibid.). According to Middle East International, with the exception of the cease-fire declarations there is a "deadlock on all the crucial issues," including national unity and north-south relations (MEI 5 Aug. 1994, 14).

4 August

Inter Press Service reports that a recent call by the Sudanese Women's Union to ban female genital mutilation is criticized by religious leaders and some Islamic women, "who view it as an attack on Islamic tradition" (also see entry for Dec. 1993) (IPS 4 Aug. 1994).

5-8 September

Another round of IGADD-sponsored peace talks is held in Nairobi. The talks end when the Sudanese government refuses to compromise on the issues of southern self-determination and a secular state. Nonetheless, the presidents of the IGADD countries-Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Eritrea-decide on 19 September to continue the peace process, which they believe is in the region's interests (Sudan Democratic Gazette Oct. 1994b, 2).

6 September

The UNHCR and Sudan sign a memorandum of understanding to repatriate 25,000 Eritrean refugees. On 14 November 1994, 279 Eritreans return to their country during the first phase of the programme (UNHCR 15 Nov. 1994; ibid. 28 Feb. 1995). By the end of the year 8,708 Eritrean refugees have returned under UNHCR auspices and another 100,000 have returned on their own initiative (ibid.).

27 September

Riek Machar, leader of the SPLA-United faction, changes the name of his group to the Southern Sudan Independence Movement (SSIM) and creates the Southern Sudan Independence Army (SSIA) (AFP 29 Dec. 1994; HRW Dec. 1994, 54; Sudan Update 13 Oct. 1994a, 2).

Amnesty International releases a report that documents several cases of secret detention and torture of political opposition members, trade unionists, journalists and Church-based relief workers in the first half of 1994 in northern Sudan, mainly in Khartoum (AI Sept. 1994).

14 October

In the first phase of a government programme to resettle over 6,000 internally displaced families to their home areas, mainly to Equatoria, 350 families return to Juba from Khartoum (IPS 18 Oct. 1994).

15 October

Security forces kill 5 to 16 people and seriously injure 14 in a squatter settlement in the Khuddeir area of Omdurman. The squatters were protesting the government's destruction of their homes and their forced relocation to the desert far from Khartoum. The European Union condemns the killings and calls on the Sudanese government to investigate the incident, to stop destroying squatter settlements and to compensate those affected by this destruction (HRW Dec. 1994, 53; Sudan Democratic Gazette Dec. 1994b, 8; Humanitarian Monitor Feb. 1995, 4).

16 October

The government orders the release of 332 female prisoners in Omdurman prison. Most had been found guilty of brewing or selling alcohol (Reuters 17 Oct. 1994).

19-21 October

Sudan Democratic Gazette reports that between 400 and 1,000 Sudanese women demonstrate peacefully outside the UNHCR offices in Cairo to demand support and protest the Egyptian government's refusal to grant refugee status to Sudanese nationals. The Egyptian security forces beat the women and prevent them from meeting with UNHCR officials (Sudan Democratic Gazette Nov. 1994a, 6).

22-24 October

Over 100 Dinka civilians are killed, at least 89 wounded and over 35,000 displaced in an attack in Akot by rebels led by Riek Machar (ANB-BIA 1 Jan. 1995, xiv; West Africa 20-26 Feb. 1995, 259; HRW Dec. 1994, 55; Sudan Democratic Gazette Dec. 1994a, 5).


Sudan Democratic Gazette reports on an armed rebellion by the Beja tribes of eastern Sudan, who oppose the "concentration of power in the hands of an Arab elite which has consistently ignored the needs of Eastern Sudan" (Sudan Democratic Gazette Nov. 1994b, 8). A 30 January 1995 report by Gaspar Biro, the UN special rapporteur on human rights in the Sudan, indicates that Beja tribal leaders face arbitrary arrest and tribe members have had their property confiscated and are denied the aid and health care services enjoyed by northerners (United Nations 30 Jan. 1995, 15).

Human Rights Watch/Africa releases a report that describes the SPLA-Mainstream faction's recruitment and military training of "unaccompanied" Sudanese boys residing in Ethiopian camps and in southern Sudan (HRW/A Nov. 1994a, 3).

Another report by Human Rights Watch/Africa details human rights violations committed by government security forces in northern Sudan. These include the forcible relocation of displaced persons from the Khartoum area, round-ups and forced islamization of displaced boys, arbitrary arrest, detention and torture of opposition party members and trade unionists, curbs on press freedom, and the establishment of laws with respect to apostasy, the status of women and non-Muslims that contradict international human rights covenants that Sudan has either ratified or acceded to. The report also reproduces excerpts from the diary of a Nuban from El-Obeid, Kordofan state, that recounts the government's forced relocation, between October 1992 and February 1994, of people from the Nuba Mountains, northern Bahr el-Ghazal and southern Kordofan to government-run "peace camps," the abuse of women in these "peace camps," extrajudicial killings of displaced persons and the forced recruitment of young boys by government forces (HRW/A Nov. 1994b, 3-5).

Early November

A seminar attended by Sudanese women and representatives of UNICEF and aid organizations working in southern Sudan focuses on the plight of women and girls affected by the civil war. It indicates that approximately one-half of displaced women are widows, and that southern Sudanese women and girls suffer rape at the hands of government soldiers and must increasingly resort to prostitution to earn a living (IPS 14 Nov. 1994).

Middle East International reports that the government and members of the Ansar al-Sunna sect have called a "truce." The government promises to stop harassing and detaining sect members if the sect will stop criticizing the government. This move follows failed government overtures to the UP and DUP in September and October (MEI 6 Jan. 1995, 19-20).

Nine foreign aid workers are evacuated to Kenya from the towns of Akon and Liet Nohm in Bahr-el-Ghazal state following an escalation in fighting between southern rebel factions (VOA 4 Nov. 1994).

10 November

Popular Sudanese singer Khojali Osman is stabbed to death and another singer, Abdel Gadir Salim, and a musician are injured in an attack at the Musicians' Club in Omdurman. Islamic fundamentalists backed by the government are suspected. According to Middle East International and Sudan Democratic Gazette, the attack occurs in the context of a renewed government campaign of harassment of artists (MEI 18 Nov. 1994, 11; Sudan Democratic Gazette Dec. 1994c, 9).

Early December

Around 490 children living in a temporary camp in Lafon are reunited with their families in southern Sudan as part of a UNICEF-sponsored child repatriation programme (Xinhua 11 Dec. 1994).

A new Islamic political organization, the Alliance of Sudanese National Forces (ASNF) is launched in London by Mohamed Ibrahim Khalil, a former Sudanese foreign minister and speaker of parliament. The ASNF rejects self-determination for southern Sudan (Sudan Democratic Gazette Jan. 1995e, 10).

5 December

Eritrea cuts diplomatic ties with Sudan, alleging that the Sudanese government is attempting to destabilize Eritrea by training rebels at its camps for Eritrean refugees. In December 1993 armed rebels reportedly entered Eritrea from Sudan and clashed with Eritrean security forces (Humanitarian Monitor Feb. 1995, 39; UNHCR 28 Feb. 1995; Sudan Update 16 Dec. 1994a, 1; Sudan Democratic Gazette Jan. 1995f, 6).

5-6 December

Government security forces arrest and detain 14 civil servants in Juba, reportedly because of their reluctance to distribute land around Juba to NGOs from northern Sudan. The northern NGOs reportedly require conversion to Islam as a precondition to providing relief (Sudan Update 3 Apr. 1995b, 4).

12 December

Government security forces arrest and detain 180 people following local election victories by the Communist Party and DUP in Atbara, in northern Sudan. The detainees include the winning candidates and others suspected of supporting the opposition (Sudan Update 16 Dec. 1994b, 2; Sudan Democratic Gazette Jan. 1995d, 8).

The SPLA and northern-based UP sign an agreement at Chukudum that recognizes the south's right to self-determination and commits the two groups to working toward the establishment of democracy. Sudan Democratic Gazette describes the agreement as a "milestone achievement" (Sudan Democratic Gazette Jan. 1995a, 1; ibid. Jan. 1995b, 4).

26 December

The Sudanese government announces that thousands of SPLA rebels have surrendered to the government as a result of "heavy political, diplomatic and military defeats" suffered by the rebel movement (Middle East Times 31 Dec. 1994).

27 December

The UP, DUP, SPLA and Sudanese Allied Forces (SAF) sign an agreement in Asmara, Eritrea in support of the IGADD-sponsored peace process (Sudan Democratic Gazette Mar. 1995a, 2).

29 December

SSIM dissidents led by Lam Akol, Thon Arok and Peter Sule form a new group called the SPLA-United, which was the SSIM's former name. The new group's goals are self-determination for southern Sudan and the reconciliation of southern rebel factions (AFP 29 Dec. 1994).



Amnesty International releases 'The Tears of Orphans': No Future Without Human Rights. The report describes the wide range of human rights violations committed by government security forces and both SPLA factions (AI Jan. 1995, 6).

18 January

President al-Bashir announces that with the exception of a "few pockets of resistance," government security forces have defeated the rebel movement in the south (IPS 18 Jan. 1995). However, January reports in Le Monde and Sudan Democratic Gazette indicate that the SPLA-Mainstream has strengthened its position (Le Monde 23 Jan. 1995; Sudan Democratic Gazette Jan. 1995c, 5).

Late January

In El Fasher, Darfur state, 130 soldiers are arrested and detained without charge after demonstrating because they had not been paid for six months (La lettre de la FIDH 30 Mar.-6 Apr. 1995, 5; Sudan Democratic Gazette Mar. 1995b, 11). Fifteen of the protest leaders are summarily executed (ibid.).

23 January-2 February

A joint delegation representing the US-based Puebla Institute and the Dutch organization, Dorkas Aid International, visits northern Sudan. Their report, presented at the 51st session of the UN Human Rights Commission in early March, describes the Sudanese government campaign targeting black Christian and animist southern Sudanese, including displaced Sudanese children, for forced arabization and islamization. The report also describes the PDF's systematic practice of impregnating southern Sudanese women through rape for the purpose of creating a new Arab generation (Sudan Democratic Gazette Apr. 1995, 8; United Nations 6 Mar. 1995, 1-4).

30 January

The United Nations issues the second report submitted to the Commission on Human Rights by Gaspar Biro, the special rapporteur on human rights in the Sudan. This latest report, which updates Biro's 1 February 1994 report, is based on visits with representatives of the UN, international NGOs and Sudanese organizations, as well as with Sudanese refugees in Kenya, Uganda and Egypt. The Sudanese government has not allowed Biro to enter the Sudan since publication of his first report. Biro's latest report concludes that the human rights situation in the Sudan has not improved, and indeed has become worse in some areas of the south. The report further indicates that there have been no changes in Sudanese law with respect to the status of women and children (United Nations 30 Jan. 1995, 12, 16).

8 February

Eleven people working for international relief organizations are taken hostage in the village of Waat in the southern Upper Nile region by a commando led by an SSIM dissident allegedly working for the PDF. All of the hostages are released on 11 February (AFP 11 Feb. 1995; ION 18 Feb. 1995, 3).

11 February

A new cabinet of ministers is sworn in, reportedly "to push [forward] the process of implementing the government's programmes" (Impact International Mar. 1995, 23; Sudan Update 3 Apr. 1995c, 2; Sudan Democratic Gazette Mar. 1995c, 11). According to Sudan Democratic Gazette, the cabinet shuffle strengthens the NIF's position in government (ibid.).

25 February

Police reportedly beat 28 women taking part in a protest in Khartoum. Six of the women are arrested and held in detention for one day, during which time they are ill-treated and threatened. The women, who demonstrated with their children, were demanding to know the whereabouts of the remains of male relatives who were killed by the security forces after an April 1990 coup attempt (AI 1 Mar. 1995; UPI 2 Mar. 1995; La lettre de la FIDH 30 Mar.-6 Apr. 1995, 5).

16 March

SPLA-Mainstream leader John Garang reportedly announces the creation of the "New Sudan Brigade" and states his intention to conduct military operations in the north (MEI 31 Mar. 1995, 15).

25 March

In their first major offensive against the SSIA, government security forces capture the town of Nasir, an SSIA stronghold in Upper Nile state (MEI 31 Mar. 1995, 15).

28 March

An SSIA spokesman announces that government security forces have bombed the towns of Waat and Malual Garhouth in the south just hours before a two-month cease-fire between southern rebels and the government is due to come into effect. According to President al-Bashir, the cease-fire is in appreciation for the efforts of former US president Jimmy Carter, who is in Sudan to help organize a campaign to eradicate guinea worm and prevent river blindness (AFP 28 Mar. 1995).

11 April

The government passes a new law that allows "preventative arrest" for up to six months and "investigative detention" for one month for "national security" reasons, and authorizes the imprisonment for up to five years of security forces members who falsely accuse their colleagues. The new law also stipulates that female detainees can only be interrogated in the presence of a male guardian, and women can only be detained before 2 p.m. and only in Omdurman prison (AFP 12 Apr. 1995; Middle East Times 16-22 Apr. 1995; Sudan Democratic Gazette May 1995a, 8).

17-18 April

SSIM rebels claim the government is carrying out an intense bombing campaign in the Lopit Hills area in southern Sudan in violation of the 28 March cease-fire agreement (see 28 March 1995 entry) (AFP 18 Apr. 1995).

23 April

After months of strained relations, Uganda cuts diplomatic ties with Sudan. Both governments accuse each other of supporting rebels in the other's country (AFP 24 Apr. 1995; Sudan Democratic Gazette May 1995b, 10).

26 April

The SSIM and SPLA-Mainstream sign a cease-fire agreement that allows for their troops, civilians and relief organizations to move freely in areas under their control. They also call on other rebel groups in southern Sudan to join the cease-fire (AFP 26 Apr. 1995).

Late April

The Sudanese government reportedly refuses to renew the visas of four foreign missionaries, including three Italians of the Combonian order and one Indian of the Selasian order, and instructs them to leave the country before 26 April (AFP 21 Apr. 1995).


        State               Capital

        Bahr al-Jebel                        Juba

Upper Nile             Malakal

Red Sea  Port Sudan

Lakes      Rumbek

Gezira     Wad Medani

South Darfur                        Nyala

Jonglei   Bor

Southern Kordofan                             Kadugli

Khartoum              Khartoum

Sinnar     Sinja

Eastern Equatoria Kapoeta

Bahr al-Ghazal       Aweil

Northern Darfur    al-Fashir

Northern Kordofan              el-Obeid

Northern State      Dongola

Gedaref  Gedaref

Western Kordofan               al-Fula   

Western Equatoria               Yambio

West Bahr al-Ghazal            Wau

Western Darfur    al-Geneina

Kassala  Kassala

Nahr al-Nil                            ad-Damer

White Nile             Rabak

Blue Nile                Damazin

Warab    Warab

Unity      Bentiu

Source: Sudan Update 17 Feb. 1994, p. 3.


Impact International:

Impact International, founded in London, UK in 1971 and owned by News and Media Ltd., is a pro-Muslim monthly review of politics in several countries.

The Indian Ocean Newsletter:

The Indian Ocean Newsletter, founded in 1981, is a weekly newsletter published in Paris by Indigo Publications Group. It covers diplomatic, political and economic events in African countries on the Indian Ocean and appears in both English and French.

Sudan Democratic Gazette:

Sudan Democratic Gazette, founded in London, UK in June 1990, is an independent monthly review of Sudanese current affairs. Bona Malwal, its writer, editor and publisher, is a journalist from southern Sudan. A former minister of culture and information under the Nimeiri government, Malwal resigned after Nimeiri abrogated the Addis Ababa agreement in 1982 [ For information on the Addis Ababa agreement, please see the March 1972 entry in the DIRB's Sudan: Chronology of Events December 1955-March 1993.] and was imprisoned from January 1983 to March 1984. He was editor of Sudanow from 1975 to 1978 and of Sudan Times from 1986 to 1989, when the publication was banned following the June 1989 military coup. Malwal does not belong to any political party and works with all Sudanese opposition forces.

Sudan Human Rights Voice:

Launched in January 1992, Sudan Human Rights Voice is a monthly publication of the non-governmental Sudan Human Rights Organization (SHRO), not to be confused with the governmental organization of the same name. First founded in Sudan in 1984, SHRO was among several civic associations banned following the June 1989 military coup. SHRO relaunched its activities in December 1991 from its new base in London, UK. The organization collects and disseminates information on human rights violations committed by the current Sudanese regime, including dismissals, detention without trial, torture and summary executions, and defends and assists the victims of such violations. It campaigns against these violations through the media and conferences, and does some human rights training.

Sudan Update:

Launched in June 1989, Sudan Update is a bimonthly review of Sudanese affairs based on a variety of international media sources. It is published by the Committee for Peace and Reconstruction in Sudan, which seeks to promote understanding of and bring to world attention issues related to the current conflict and famine. The Committee also occasionally sponsors and publishes the proceedings of conferences.


African News Bulletin-Bulletin d'Information Africaine (ANB-BIA) [Brussels]. 1 January 1995. No. 271. "Chronologie: 1er juillet-12 décembre 1994: Soudan."

Agence France Presse (AFP). 26 April 1995. "Cessez-le-feu entre les deux principales factions rebelles du sud du Soudan." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 24 April 1995. "Uganda Severs Diplomatic Relations with Sudan Amid Distrust Over Rebels." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 21 April 1995. "Expulsion de missionnaires du Soudan, selon un ordre religieux." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 18 April 1995. "Sudanese Rebels Claim Government Intensifying Bombings in South." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 12 April 1995. "New Sudanese Security Law Allows Six-Month Preventative Arrests." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 28 March 1995. "Sudanese Rebels Claim Government Bombings Despite Ceasefire." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 11 February 1995. "Libération de cinq collaborateurs humanitaires détenus au sud Soudan." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 29 December 1994. "Nouvelle scission de la guérilla sud-soudanaise." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 17 May 1994. Marie Sanz. "Signature d'un accord sur l'acheminement des secours dans le sud du Soudan entre le gouvernement soudanais et les rebelles." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 23 March 1994. Jean-Louis de la Vaissière. "Khartoum et les rebelles signent un accord sur l'aide humanitaire aux populations du sud du Soudan." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 7 March 1994. "Rebels Release UN Workers." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 7 February 1994. Christian Millet. "Dix-huit personnes auraient été tuées dans un nouveau raid de l'aviation de Khartoum." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 5 February 1994a. Christophe Parayre. "La police soudanaise décrète l'état d'alerte générale pour retrouver les auteurs de la tuerie de vendredi." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 5 February 1994b. Christophe Parayre. "L'aviation de Khartoum bombarde des camps de réfugiés sudistes, selon un responsable américain." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 26 November 1993. Marie Sanz. "Les États-Unis condamnent des attaques aériennes au sud Soudan." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 12 November 1993a. Sophie Pons. "Manifestations à Khartoum: près de 300 étudiants arrêtés." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 12 November 1993b. Philippe Bernes-Lasserre. "Le président soudanais offre l'amnistie aux rebelles qui déposent les armes." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 16 October 1993. Isabelle Astigarraga. "Le général Bechir nommé président du Soudan, après la dissolution du Conseil de Commandement de la Révolution." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 29 August 1993. Andres Perez-Correa. "Les rebelles soudanais lancent une contre-offensive contre les troupes de Khartoum." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 29 July 1993. Michel Moutot. "Plus de 100 morts dans des luttes entre clans d'une même tribu, selon Khartoum." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 19 July 1993. "Rebel Factions Battle in Southern Sudan, Relief Operations Suspended." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 29 May 1993. Michael Alder. "Zone démilitarisée dans le Sud: Khartoum rejette toute intervention étrangère." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 19 April 1993a. "Sudanese Rebels, Parties Reach Accord on Issues of Interim Constitution." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 19 April 1993b. "Ceasefire, Fresh Talks, Raise Peace Hopes in Sudan." (NEXIS)

Amnesty International (AI). 1 March 1995. Sudan: Security Police Target Women Protestors for Beatings and Threats. (AI Index: AFR 54/WU 08/95). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International (AI). January 1995. 'The Tears of Orphans': No Future Without Human Rights. (AI Index: AFR 54/02/95). New York: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International (AI). 25 January 1995. Briefing Leaflet. (AI Index: AFR 54/53/94). "Human Rights Abuses Against Women: Sudan." London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International (AI). 1994. Amnesty International Report 1994. London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International (AI). September 1994. Sudan: Outside the War Zones: Secret Detention and Torture in Northern Sudan. (AI Index: AFR 54/31/94). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International (AI). 29 September 1993. Sudan: The Ravages of War: Political Killings and Humanitarian Disaster. (AI Index: AFR 54/29/93). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International Focus [London]. February 1995. Vol. 25, No. 2. "Living in a State of Fear."

The Associated Press (AP). 7 March 1994. AM Cycle. "Southern Rebels Free U.N. Workers in Sudan." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 27 May 1994. "SPLM/SPLA Rebel Faction Announces Formation of 'New Sudan' Administration." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 18 February 1994. "Armed Forces CGS Denies Zairean Involvement in Sudanese Conflict." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 15 November 1993. "Khartoum University Students Demonstrate, Claim Islamist Election Win Was Rigged." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 22 June 1993. "Sudan: SPLA Factions Meet in Nairobi, Agree on Cease-fire." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 11 May 1993. "Sudan; Radio Reports Further SPLA Split, Faction Fighting, Arms From Unnamed State." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 7 April 1993. "Three Southern Rebel Groups Unite Under Riak Machar; Declare Cease-fire." (NEXIS)

Burr, Millard. October 1993. A Working Document: Quantifying Genocide in the Southern Sudan 1983-1993. Washington, DC: U.S. Committee for Refugees.

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993. 1994. United States Department of State. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Courrier de l'ACAT [Paris]. April 1995. No. 154. Armand Addès. "Soudan: un pays déchiré."

Deng, Aldo Ajou. 2 March 1994. "Human Rights Violations in Sudan." Presentation to the 50th Session of the United Nations Human Rights Commission.

Le Devoir [Montréal]. 16 February 1994. "Un sudiste vice-président."

Documentation Réfugiés [Paris]. 10-23 May 1994. No. 242. "Soudan."

The Economist [London]. 5-11 March 1994. "Human Rights and Islam: Sudan Cites Higher Authority."

The Economist [London]. 7-13 August 1993. "Sudan: Jihad."

Federal News Service. 22 March 1995. "Prepared Testimony of John Eibner, Assistant to the International President, Christian Solidarity, Before the House Committee on International Relations, Subcommittee on Africa." (NEXIS)

Friends Committee on National Legislation (FCNL). 15 March 1994. "Background on War in Sudan." (Web)

Human Rights Watch (HRW). December 1994. Human Rights Watch World Report 1995. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Human Rights Watch/Africa (HRW/A). November 1994a. Vol. 6, No. 10. Sudan: The Lost Boys: Child Soldiers and Unaccompained Boys in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Human Rights Watch/Africa (HRW/A). November 1994b. Vol. 6, No. 9. Sudan: "In the Name of God": Repression Continues in Northern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Human Rights Watch/Africa (HRW/A). June 1994. Civilian Devastation: Abuses by All Parties in the War in Southern Sudan. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Humanitarian Monitor. February 1995. No. 2. "Khartoum's Dispossessed."

Impact International [London]. March 1995. Vol. 25, No. 5. Danladi Adamu. "A New Team Takes Charge!: Aim to Excel in Achieving Its Goals."

The Independent [London]. 10 February 1994. Richard Dowden. "Fleeing from Their Camp." (African News Bulletin-Bulletin d'Information Africaine (ANB-BIA) [Brussels]. 1 March 1994. No. 253, pp. 6-7)

The Independent [London]. 6 April 1993. Richard Dowden. "Former Sudanese Leader Arrested in Khartoum." (NEXIS)

The Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) [Paris]. 18 February 1995. No. 659. "Sudan: Lessons of a Hostage-Grab."

The Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) [Paris]. 11 July 1994. "Sudan: More War Before More Talks."

The Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) [Paris]. 25 June 1994. No. 629. "Notes: Sadik el-Mahdi (Sudan)."

The Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) [Paris]. 19 February 1994. No. 611. "Sudan."

The Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) [Paris]. 12 February 1994. No. 610. "Sudan: Attack on a Mosque."

The Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) [Paris]. 6 November 1993. No. 597. "Sudan: A 'New' Government."

The Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) [Paris]. 23 October 1993. No. 595. "Sudan: Military Council Wound Up."

The Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) [Paris]. 9 October 1993. No. 593. "Alfred Lado Gore (Sudan)."

The Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) [Paris]. 5 June 1993. No. 578. "Sudan: Rival SPLA Factions Stop Shooting."

The Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) [Paris]. 15 May 1993. No. 575. "Sudan: Update on Flagging Abuja Talks."

The Indian Ocean Newsletter (ION) [Paris]. 24 April 1993. No. 572. "Sudan: And Back in Abuja...."

Info-Soudan [Montréal]. 15 March 1994. No. 5. "Le chemin de la guerre." (Web)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 18 January 1995. Nhial Bol. "Sudan-Politics: Khartoum Claims Final Victory over Rebels." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 16 January 1995. Nhial Bol. "Sudan-Women: Equal Rights Still Not Attained." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 14 November 1994. Maura Adams. "Sudan-Human Rights: War in the South Adds to Women's Suffering." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 18 October 1994. Nhial Bol and Horace Awori. "Sudan-Refugees: Controversial Plan to Resettle Displaced Persons." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 4 August 1994. Nhial Bol. "Sudan-Women: Call for End to Circumcision Angers Conservatives." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 22 July 1994. Horace Awori. "Sudan-Politics: Khartoum Declares Unilateral Cease-fire." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 21 June 1994. Nhial Bol. "Sudan-Politics: Former Prime Minister Detained." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 1 March 1994. "Sudan-Politics: U.N. Demands Rebels to Free Aid Workers." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 14 February 1994. Nhial Bol. "Sudan-Human Rights: Military Gets Tough on Journalists." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 2 November 1993. Horace Awori. "Sudan: Fighting Flares, Again, Between Rival Rebel Factions." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service (IPS). 7 September 1993. Horace Awori. "Sudan: Rebels Say They Shot Down Khartoum Plane." (NEXIS)

Jeune Afrique [Paris]. 4-10 August 1994. No. 1752. Gwenaelle Lenoir. "Soudan: l'ennemi de mon ennemi."

Jeune Afrique [Paris]. 14-20 July 1994. No. 1749. Gwenaelle Lenoir. "Soudan: le double jeu de Sadiq al-Mahdi."

Jeune Afrique [Paris]. 20-26 January 1994. No. 1724. Marc Yared. "Soudan: défection spectaculaire."

Jeune Afrique [Paris]. 16-22 December 1993. No. 1719. Marc Yared. "Islamistes de tous les pays...."

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights (LCHR). July 1994. Critique: Review of the U.S. Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993. New York: LCHR.

La lettre de la FIDH [Paris]. 30 March-6 April 1995. No. 580-581. "Soudan: nouvelles atteintes aux droits de l'homme au Soudan."

La lettre de Reporters sans frontières [Paris]. May 1994. "Soudan: trop critique."

La lettre de Reporters sans frontières [Paris]. April 1994. "Soudan: papier mâché."

La lettre de Reporters sans frontières [Paris]. May 1993. "Soudan: les autorités annoncent la prochaine privatisation de la presse."

Libération [Paris]. 31 July 1994. "Le chiffre 200 apostats risquent la mort au Soudan."

Libération [Paris]. 24 July 1994. "Soudan."

Libération [Paris]. 21 July 1994. "Soudan."

Libération [Paris]. 15 February 1994. Stephen Smith. "Soudan: Khartoum assaille le Sud." (African News Bulletin-Bulletin d'Information Africaine (ANB-BIA) [Brussels]. 1 March 1994. No. 253, pp. 5-6)

Manchester Guardian Weekly [London]. 20 February 1994. Jean Hélène. "Sudan Prepares for an Annual Tragedy."

Marchés Tropicaux [France]. 20 May 1994. "Soudan: nouvelles structures de la rébellion sudiste." (African News Bulletin-Bulletin d'Information Africaine (ANB-BIA) [Brussels]. 15 June 1994. No. 260, p. 18)

Middle East International (MEI) [London]. 31 March 1995. No. 497. Gill Lusk. "Sudan: Nasir Falls."

Middle East International (MEI) [London]. 6 January 1995. No. 491. Abdel Salam Sidahmed. "Mosque and State in Sudan."

Middle East International (MEI) [London]. 18 November 1994. No. 488. Gill Lusk. "Sudan: A New Martyr."

Middle East International (MEI) [London]. 5 August 1994. No. 481. Gill Lusk. "Sudan: Conciliatory Gestures."

Middle East International (MEI) [London]. 1 April 1994. No. 472. Gill Lusk. "Sudan: Stalemate All Round."

Middle East International (MEI) [London]. 18 March 1994. No. 471. Gill Lusk. "Sudan: Rage at Biro's Report."

Middle East International (MEI) [London]. 4 March 1994. No. 470. Gill Lusk. "Sudan: Fury Over Biro."

Middle East International (MEI) [London]. 5 November 1993. No. 462. Gill Lusk. "Sudan: SPLA Reconciliation."

Middle East International (MEI) [London]. 22 October 1993. No. 461. Gill Lusk. "Sudan: Cosmetic Changes."

Middle East Times [Athens]. 16-22 April 1995. "Sudan Passes New Security Law."

Middle East Times [Athens]. 31 December 1994. "SPLA Defeat Sparks Defections."

Middle East Times [Athens]. 26 June 1994. "Bashir Takes Rebel SPLA Center."

Middle East Times [Athens]. 17 April 1994. "Sudanese Newspaper Closed."

Le Monde [Paris]. 23 January 1995. Hélène Jean. "Offensive et contre-offensive dans le sud du Soudan. (NEXIS)

Le Monde [Paris]. 27 August 1993. "Soudan: plus de 100 000 personnes ont fui le sud du pays." (NEXIS)

The Ottawa Citizen. 7 September 1993. Final Edition. Richard Dowden. "Flogged Sudanese Bishop Says Christians Persecuted." (NEXIS)

La Presse [Montréal]. 17 October 1993. "Soudan: la junte se choisit un président."

Reuters. 30 May 1995. BC Cycle. "Sudan Bans Two Private Newspapers." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 17 October 1994. BC Cycle. "Sudan Pardons Women Prisoners." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 4 April 1994. BC Cycle. "Sudan Government Shuts Only Independent Newspaper." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 14 February 1994. BC Cycle. "Sudan Rebels Repulse Government Attack on Town." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 11 February 1994. BC Cycle. Alfred Taban. "Sudan Orders Sharia Dress Code, Segregated Classes." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 6 February 1994. BC Cycle. Alfred Taban. "Sudanese Forces Kill Two After Mosque Attack." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 30 July 1993. AM Cycle. "108 Killed in Sudan Clan Battle." (NEXIS)

Scottish Churches' Sudan Group. 29 June 1994. No. 9. "Arrest of Al Sadiq Al Mahdi." (HRNet)

Scottish Churches' Sudan Group. 30 May 1994. No. 8. "Demonstrations Around Khartoum." (HRNet)

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. May 1995a. No. 60. "Repression Increases as Search for New Recruits Proves Problematic for the Regime."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. May 1995b. No. 60. "In a Move That Threw Ice Onto the Libyan Mediation: Kampala Breaks Off Diplomatic Relations with Khartoum."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. April 1995. No. 59. "US-Dutch Team Finds New Evidence of Cultural Cleansing in Sudan."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. March 1995a. No. 58. "DUP Wriggles Out of an Agreement and Casts Doubt on the NDA's Seriousness."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. March 1995b. No. 58. "Repression Extends to Soldiers as Economy Wanes."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. March 1995c. No. 58. "Islamic Militarists Hand Over Power to NIF in the Latest Reshuffle."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. January 1995a. No. 56. "SPLA and Umma Give Unity, Democracy and Freedom a Chance."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. January 1995b. No. 56. "Political Agreement Between the Umma Party and the SPLM/SPLA."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. January 1995c. No. 56. "By Practical Demonstration, Regime Admits the SPLA is Alive and Well."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. January 1995d. No. 56. "Renewed Widespread Arrests and Torture Reported from Atbara."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. January 1995e. No. 56. "Professor Khalil's ASNF Prescribes Old Medicine for Sudan's Problems."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. January 1995f. No. 56. "Eritrea and Uganda Call Khartoum's Bluff Over Common Borders."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. December 1994a. No. 55. "Following the Akot Massacre: Is the SSIM an Army of Cattle Rustlers?"

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. December 1994b. No. 55. "European Union Acts on Sudan."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. December 1994c. No. 55. "To Scare the Cultural Community: Fundamentalists Assassinate Singer."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. November 1994a. No. 54. "Egypt Uses Force to Disperse Southern Sudanese Women Demonstrators."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. November 1994b. No. 54. "The Beja Tribes: Background to the Events in Eastern Sudan."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. October 1994a. No. 53. "Khartoum Moves in Reinforcements from the North to Finish the Job."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. October 1994b. No. 53. "IGADD Stays the Course in Spite of Khartoum's Arrogance."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. August 1994a. No. 51. "The IGADD Mediators Oblige Khartoum to Discuss the Taboo Topics."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. August 1994b. No. 51. "Further Marginalising the Displaced, Khartoum Expels 50,000 Refugees."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. July 1994a. No. 50. "Eliaba Surur is Tortured as the Regime Continues Its Vendetta."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. July 1994b. No. 50. "Trial of the Terrorist Killers at Omdurman Mosque is On and Off."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. June 1994. No. 49. "SPLA Opponents Attempt to Discredit National Convention."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. May 1994a. No. 48. "The Vicious Return to Ghost House Torture."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. May 1994b. No. 48. "SPLA Answers Critics by Holding Its First National Convention."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. April 1994a. No. 47. "Human Rights Commission Renews Mandate of Special Rapporteur."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. April 1994b. No. 47. "Khartoum's Show Trials to Reach Predetermined Death Sentences."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. March 1994. No. 46. "Bloodbath at Friday Prayers: Finger Pointed at Regime."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. February 1994a. No. 45. "Another Final Dry Season Offensive is Launched in the South."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. February 1994b. No. 45. "El Beshir Shuns IGADD Peace Efforts."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. February 1994c. No. 45. "Aldo's Defection Gives Khartoum Food for Thought."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. February 1994d. No. 45. "Agreement by the SPLA Factions."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. January 1994. No. 44. "Could the Debate on Self-Determination Sound the Death Knell for the NDA?"

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. December 1993. No. 43. "Regime Steps Up Atrocities as It Loses Its Nerve."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. November 1993a. No. 42. "The Worst May Have Already Happened to Brigadier El Faki."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. November 1993b. No. 42. "An Agreement Missing a Signature is Still Worth Something."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. November 1993c. No. 42. "Was the Bishop Framed?"

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. November 1993d. No. 42. "A New Wave of Terror in the Nuba Mountains."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. November 1993e. No. 42. "Disturbances in Khartoum."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. October 1993a. No. 41. "Flogging of Bishop Underscores Regime's Criminal Nature."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. October 1993b. No. 41. "Old Ways and Habits Do Not Die Easily!"

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. July 1993. No. 38. "Fresh Wave of Arrests and Dismissals in Khartoum."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. June 1993a. No. 37. "Abuja Two: The Predicted Result."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. June 1993b. No. 37. "Regime Confiscates Mahdi Centre as It Steps Up Arrests."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. June 1993c. No. 37. "Khartoum Rejects Nigerian Initiative as Abuja Two Fails."

Sudan Democratic Gazette [London]. May 1993. No. 36. "NDA Resolves to Separate Religion from Politics."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. April 1994a. Vol. 3, No. 4. "Paper Shut and Its Journalists Held."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. April 1994b. Vol. 3, No. 4. "Detention of Prominent Umma Party Woman."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. April 1994c. Vol. 3, No. 4. "Abu Araki Back to Big Audiences."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. April 1994d. Vol. 3, No. 4. "Khartoum to Block Biro."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. April 1994e. Vol. 3, No. 4. "Journalist Still in Detention."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. April 1994f. Vo. 3, No. 4. "Mr. Sid Ahmad al-Husayn Re-arrested."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. March 1994a. Vol. 3, No. 3. "Inter-Islamic Jihad: Ansar al-Sunna Attacked."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. March 1994b. Vol. 3, No. 3. "26 Students Suspended."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. February 1994a. Vol. 3, No. 2. "Aldo Ajou Attacks Regime on Failure to Deliver Progress."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. February 1994b. Vol. 3, No. 2. "University of Khartoum: Still Carrying the Torch."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. February 1994c. Vol. 3, No. 2. "Islamic Dress Law for Female Students."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. February 1994d. Vol. 3, No. 2. "Soccer Fans Face Islamisation."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. January 1994. Vol. 3, No. 1. "Women's Rights Symposium."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. December 1993a. Vol. 2, No. 12. "Student Unrest at Khartoum University."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. December 1993b. Vol. 2, No. 12. "Opposition Leader Sid-Ahmad al-Husayn is Re-arrested."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. December 1993c. Vol. 2, No. 12. "Interrogation of Former Prime Minister."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. December 1993d. Vol. 2, No. 12. "Fear of Music: Abu Araki Banned from Campus."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. October 1993a. Vol. 2, No. 10. "Brigadier Testifies to Being Brutally Tortured."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. October 1993b. Vol. 2, No. 10. "SHRV Support Deng Move on the Displaced."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. October 1993c. Vol. 2, No. 10. "Catholic School in Islamic Dress Uniform Row."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. September 1993a. Vol. 2, No. 9. "Over 100,000 Seek Refuge in Uganda."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. September 1993b. Vol. 2, No. 9. "Fresh Fighting Shatters Sudan Peace Truce."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. September 1993c. Vol. 2, No. 9. "Military Seek to Clean Out Nuba Mountains."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. September 1993d. Vol. 2, No. 9. "Clinton Brands Sudan Terrorist."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. July 1993. Vol. 2, No. 7. "Famine Triangle Open to Relief After Rebel Pull-out."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. June 1993. Vol. 2, No. 6. "Top Communist Re-arrested."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. May 1993. Vol. 2, No. 5. "Crack-down on Trade Unionists."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. April 1993a. Vol. 2, No. 4. "Ex-Premier Detained."

Sudan Human Rights Voice [London]. April 1993b. Vol. 2, No. 4. "New Arrests Reported."

Sudan Update [London]. 3 April 1995a. Vol. 6, No. 5. "Al-Fashir Soldiers Detained."

Sudan Update [London]. 3 April 1995b. Vol. 6, No. 5. "Juba Land Redistribution-Objectors Detained."

Sudan Update [London]. 3 April 1995c. Vol. 6, No. 5. "Ministerial Changes."

Sudan Update [London]. 16 December 1994a. Vol. 5, No. 21. "Antagonism Between Sudan and Eritrea."

Sudan Update [London]. 16 December 1994b. Vol. 5, No. 21. "180 Arrested in Atbara."

Sudan Update [London]. 13 October 1994a. Vol. 5, No. 17. "New Name for SPLA-United."

Sudan Update [London]. 13 October 1994b. Vol. 5, No. 17. "Hanged for Mosque Attack."

Sudan Update [London]. 30 September 1994. Vol. 5, No. 16. "Crucifixion Sentence Lifted."

Sudan Update [London]. 3 August 1994a. Vol. 5, No. 13. "SPLA Factions Clash in Bahr al-Ghazal."

Sudan Update [London]. 3 August 1994b. Vol. 5, No. 13. "50,000 Displaced People Expelled."

Sudan Update [London]. 14 July 1994a. Vol. 5, No. 12. "Sadiq al-Mahdi Released."

Sudan Update [London]. 14 July 1994b. Vol. 5, No. 12. "Civilian Devastation in Southern Sudan."

Sudan Update [London]. 14 July 1994c. Vol. 5, No. 12. "Lawyer Under Threat."

Sudan Update [London]. 30 June 1994. Vol. 5, No. 11. "Third Round of Peace Talks for July 18."

Sudan Update [London]. 20 May 1994a. Vol. 5, No. 9. "Garang Announces 'New Sudan'."

Sudan Update [London]. 20 May 1994b. Vol. 5, No. 9. "Gezira University Students Dismissed."

Sudan Update [London]. 30 April 1994a. Vol. 5, No. 8. "Demonstrations in Wad Medani."

Sudan Update [London]. 30 April 1994b. Vol. 5, No. 8. "Sudan Airways Skyjacked."

Sudan Update [London]. 30 April 1994c. Vol. 5, No. 8. "Umma Politicians Held."

Sudan Update [London]. 15 April 1994a. Vol. 5, No. 7. "European Arms Embargo."

Sudan Update [London]. 15 April 1994b. Vol. 5, No. 7. "Biro and Blasphemy."

Sudan Update [London]. 30 March 1994a. Vol. 5, No. 6. "Nairobi Talks Recess After Relief Agreement."

Sudan Update [London]. 30 March 1994b. Vol. 5, No. 6. "Papers Suspended for Criticism."

Sudan Update [London]. 30 March 1994c. Vol. 5, No. 6. "Sid Ahmed Al-Hussein Rearrested."

Sudan Update [London]. 15 March 1994. Vol. 5, No. 5. "Nimule Area Bombed."

Sudan Update [London]. 17 February 1994a. Vol. 5, No. 4. "Mundri Falls to Government Advance."

Sudan Update [London]. 17 February 1994b. Vol. 5, No. 4. "'Foreigners' Among Mosque Attack Suspects."

Sudan Update [London]. 17 February 1994c. Vol. 5, No. 4. "New States for Old."

Sudan Update [London]. 17 February 1994d. Vol. 5, No. 4. "Southern Government Appointees."

Sudan Update [London]. 17 February 1994e. Vol. 5, No. 4. "Cover-Up Code for Female Students."

Sudan Update [London]. 7 February 1994a. Vol. 5, No. 3. "Machine-Gun Attack on Mosque."

Sudan Update [London]. 7 February 1994b. Vol. 5, No. 3. "'Sudan Invincible Forces of Democracy'."

Sudan Update [London]. 7 February 1994c. Vol. 5, No. 3. "Re-Division Approved."

Sudan Update [London]. 7 February 1994d. Vol. 5, No. 3. "'Federal Democratic Alliance'."

Sudan Update [London]. 7 February 1994e. Vol. 5, No. 3. "High Altitude Bombing Intensified."

Sudan Update [London]. 17 January 1994a. Vol. 5, No. 2. "Nairobi Truce Signed by SPLA Faction Leaders."

Sudan Update [London]. 17 January 1994b. Vol. 5, No. 2. "Fighting Reported North of Kaya."

Sudan Update [London]. 17 January 1994c. Vol. 5, No. 2. "Deputy Speaker Aldo Ajo Deng Resigns."

Sudan Update [London]. 1 January 1994. Vol. 5, No. 1. "Northern Opposition 'Turmoil' Over Self-Determination."

Sudan Update [London]. January-April 1994. "Chronology."

Sudan Update [London]. 30 November 1993a. Vol. 4, No. 24. "Pageri and Loa Bombed."

Sudan Update [London]. 30 November 1993b. Vol. 4, No. 24. "University Demonstrations After Election."

Sudan Update [London]. 30 November 1993c. Vol. 4, No. 24. "Students Detained."

Sudan Update [London]. 22 October 1993a. Vol. 4, No. 22. "Non-Aligned Equatorians."

Sudan Update [London]. 22 October 1993b. Vol. 4, No. 22. "Three Days of Riots."

Sudan Update [London]. 22 October 1993c. Vol. 4, No. 22. "R.C.C. Dissolves and Cabinet Resigns."

Sudan Update [London]. 8 October 1993. Vol. 4, No. 21. "New Nationality Law."

Sudan Update [London]. 16 August 1993a. Vol. 4, No. 18. "New Southern Offensive."

Sudan Update [London]. 16 August 1993b. Vol. 4, No. 18. "Kongor Aid Halted."

Sudan Update [London]. 20 June 1993a. Vol. 4, No. 17. "Demilitarisation Agreement 'Violated by Riek Machar'."

Sudan Update [London]. 20 June 1993b. Vol. 4, No. 17. "Garang Blamed for Hunger Triangle Violation."

Sudan Update [London]. 6 June 1993a. Vol. 4, No. 16. "Crackdown on Religious Old Guard."

Sudan Update [London]. 6 June 1993b. Vol. 4, No. 16. "'Dozens' of Political Arrests."

Sudan Update [London]. 21 April 1993a. Vol. 4, No. 14. "Umma Men Held."

Sudan Update [London]. 21 April 1993b. Vol. 4, No. 14. "'Milestone' Agreement on State and Religion."

The Times [London]. 8 October 1993. Christopher Walker. "Sudanese Fuel Shortage Sparks Three-Day Riot." (NEXIS)

United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child. 2 August 1993. (CRC/C/3/Add.20). Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Initial Reports of States Parties due in 1992: Addendum: Sudan.

United Nations Economic and Social Council. 6 March 1995. (E/CN.4/1995/NGO/50). Written Statement Submitted by Christian Solidarity International, a Non-Governmental Organization on the Roster: Disappearances and "Cultural Cleansing" of Children in the Sudan.

United Nations Economic and Social Council. 30 January 1995. (E/CN.4/1995/58). Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan: Report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. Gaspar Biro, Submitted in Accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1994/79.

United Nations Economic and Social Council. 1 February 1994. (E/CN.4/1994/48). Situation of Human Rights in the Sudan: Report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. Gaspar Biro, Submitted in Accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1993/60.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 28 February 1995. UNHCR Fact Sheet: Sudan. (Web)

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 15 November 1994. UNHCR Fact Sheet: Sudan. (Web)

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 15 December 1993. UNHCR Update on Refugee Developments in Africa: Sudanese Minors Begin Dangerous Trek. Geneva: UNHCR.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 25 August 1993. UNHCR Update on Refugee Developments in Africa: Over 100,000 Sudanese Refugees Flee to Uganda. Geneva: UNHCR.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 11 June 1993. UNHCR Update on Refugee Developments in Africa: Ethiopians in Sudan Going Back Home. Geneva: UNHCR.

The United Press International (UPI). 2 March 1995. BC Cycle. "Amnesty Says Sudan Police Beat Marchers." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 16 December 1993. BC Cycle. "Some 700 Sudanese Minors Slip Out of Refugee Camp." (NEXIS)

Voice of America (VOA). 4 November 1994. Alex Belida. "Sudan Evacuation." (Web)

West Africa [London]. 20-26 February 1995. No. 4037. Ruth Evans. "Women in Conflict."

World Organization Against Torture, Geneva. 14 April 1994. "Case SDN 140494."

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 11 December 1994. "About 500 Southern Sudanese Children Repatriated Home." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 25 March 1994. "Sudanese Government Reaches Agreement with Rebels." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 27 January 1994a. "Sudanese Peace Talks Collapse." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 27 January 1994b. "South Sudan Rebel Movement Detain 14,000 Children." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 21 December 1993. "Sudan Invincible Forces of Democracy Established." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 12 November 1993. "Sudan Pledges Safety for Rebels Who Lay Down Arms." (NEXIS)

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