Chronology of Events: June 1940 - February 1993





On 26 June 1940 the Soviet Union acquires the territory known as Bessarabia, which includes the eastern part of Moldavia, as partial reward for signing the 1939 non-aggression Pact with Nazi Germany. The western part of Moldavia remains in Romania. When Soviet troops occupy Bessarabia, eastern Moldavia is annexed to a thin strip of land, east of the Dniester River, in Ukraine. Known as the Autonomous Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, it had been established in 1924. The expanded territory is called the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), with Kishinev as its capital. (Border Disputes 1987, 87-88; IHRLG 1993, 2; RFE/RL 26 June 1992, 39)



Romania declares war on the Soviet Union. Romanian and German troops quickly capture Bessarabia and hold it for the next three years. (Border Disputes 1987, 88)



The Red Army advances into Romania in August and the fascist Romanian government is overthrown. In September Romania signs an armistice with the Soviet Union recognizing the legality of the 1940 Soviet annexation of Bessarabia. This acknowledgement is later confirmed in the 1947 peace treaty between the Allies, including the Soviet Union, and Romania. (Border Disputes 1987, 88; RFE/RL 1 May 1992, 40-41)



The Soviet Union and the Soviet-backed Communist government of Romania sign a Treaty of Alliance that respects each other's sovereignty and pledges non-interference in the other's internal affairs. The "Bessarabia question" is therefore settled in the Soviet Union's favour. (Border Disputes 1987, 88)



In a more nationalistic climate, Nicolae Ceausescu becomes head of the Romanian Communist Party. There are disagreements between Romania and the Soviet Union over a number of foreign policy issues. These disagreements include some veiled references to the Bessarabia question. In the early 1970s there are reports of sporadic unrest, possibly related to nationalist sentiments, in the Moldavian SSR. (Ibid., 89)



Soviet-Romanian differences seem to have been overcome with the signing of a friendship treaty between Romania and the Soviet Union. (Ibid.)



The legislature of the Moldavian SSR adopts a new constitution providing that laws, decrees and notices are to be published in both the Russian and Moldavian languages, instead of only in Russian. The Moldavian language is Romanian written in Cyrillic script. (Ibid., 90)


31 August

The Supreme Soviet (legislature) of the Moldavian SSR enacts a law making Moldovan the official language in place of Russian and Moldavian. The law aims to make Romanian more widespread through such measures as conducting state business in Romanian, increasing Romanian-language library holdings and radio and television broadcasts, and initiating Romanian language tests for a certain segment of the population. (Moldovans are ethnic Romanians whose language is all but identical to Romanian. For the purposes of this paper the terms "Romanian" and "Moldovan" will be used interchangeably, as they are given in the original sources. See Helsinki Watch, "Human Rights in Moldova: The Turbulent Dniester," New York: Human Rights Watch, March 1993, p. v. ) (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 1 Sept. 1992; Ibid. 21 Apr. 1992; Moldova, Spoken Languages Law 1 Sept. 1989)

These expressions of Moldavian nationalism raise concerns among the Russian-speaking inhabitants (ethnic Russians, Ukrainians and Russified Moldavians) and lead to strikes in the predominantly Slav-inhabited region east of the Dniester River. This is the first major, largely ethnically-based disagreement between the Moldavian government and residents of the Dniester region. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta. 21 Apr. 1992)


25 February

The first free elections to the Moldavian Supreme Soviet are held, and the pro-autonomy Moldavian Popular Front wins a plurality of seats. Mircea Druc, leader of the Popular Front, becomes prime minister. The Communist Party's Mircea Snegur, with the backing of the nationalist-leaning agrarian deputies and the Popular Front faction, soon after is elected chair of the Supreme Soviet. (The Toronto Star 26 Feb. 1990, A3; RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 13; Nezavisimaia Gazeta 21 July 1992)

6 May

Eight border points between Romania and Soviet Moldavia are opened for one day to allow Romanians to travel to Soviet Moldavia without a visa for the first time in approximately 45 years. One million Romanians reportedly cross into Soviet Moldavia. (The Toronto Star 7 May 1990; The Ottawa Citizen 7 May 1990)

23 June

The Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR passes a declaration on sovereignty, changes the name of the republic from its Russian name, Moldavia, to its Romanian version, Moldova, and announces that the 1940 annexation of Bessarabia by the Soviet Union was illegal. (Keesing's 1992 1992, R122; Moscow News 19-26 July 1992, 5)

19 August

The Gagauz Soviet Socialist Republic is proclaimed by a congress of deputies from the region, and is declared to be independent from Moldova. The territory claimed is in the southwest corner of Moldova, bordering on Romania and Ukraine. It includes the districts of Comrat (the regional centre), Ciadr-Lunga, Vulcanesti, Basarabeasca and Taraclia. There are 153,000 Gagauz, a Turkic-speaking Christian minority, living in the region. They constitute 40 per cent of the population, the remainder being Moldovans, Russians and Ukrainians, and there are another 44,000 Gagauz living in the Odessa Oblast of Ukraine. To this point there has been no history of ethnic enmity between Moldovans and the Gagauz. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 8 Oct. 1992; RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 11)

2 September

The Moldovan Supreme Soviet's representatives from the Dniester region meet in a congress in the regional administrative centre of Tiraspol to proclaim the Soviet Socialist Dniester Moldavian Republic (DMR). Its territory is roughly equivalent to that of the interwar Autonomous Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, a strip of land on the left bank of the Dniester River, but it also claims areas on the right bank around the city of Bendery. It has a population of about 600,000, 55 per cent of whom are ethnic Russians and Ukrainians. The congress states that the republic will remain part of the Soviet Union, but will be independent of Moldova. The republic is proclaimed in reaction to what its residents see as increasing Moldovan nationalism and the possibility that Moldova and Romania may unite in the future. The region is of strategic and economic importance for Moldova; much of the industrial potential and natural resources are situated there, pipelines carrying natural gas for all of Moldova cross its territory, and most of the Soviet 14th Army is based there. (Le Monde diplomatique Jan. 1993, 11; Nezavisimaia Gazeta 21 Apr. 1992; Moscow News 19-26 July 1992, 5; The New York Times 29 Mar. 1992; RFE/RL 11 Sept. 1992, 41)

4 September

Mircea Snegur is re-confirmed by elected deputies as chair of the Moldovan parliament. Because the position is accorded executive powers, Snegur is being referred to as "President," although formally there is no such position. (The Ottawa Citizen 5 Sept. 1990)

10 September

Snegur and the Moldovan government issue decrees on the upcoming draft of Moldovan citizens into the USSR armed forces. Conscripts are to serve in the USSR armed forces only if they request so in writing and have the written consent of their parents. (Sovestskaia Moldova 2 Oct. 1990)

25 October

Elections in the Gagauz region are held three days ahead of schedule because of reports that the Moldovan government intends to use force to stop the elections. Unarmed Moldovan volunteer units head to the region but the regular Moldovan police forces stop them at the edge of Gagauz-inhabited regions, thus averting bloodshed. The volunteer units remain in the vicinity, however. Snegur and local communist officials in Gagauz call for Soviet troops to be brought in. (The Globe and Mail 26 Oct. 1990, A1; RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 13)

26 October

Snegur declares a state of emergency in the three Gagauz districts of Comrat, Ciadr-Lunga and Vulcanesti. (The Ottawa Citizen 26 Oct. 1990; RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 13)

29 October

Moldovan volunteer units begin to leave the periphery of Gagauz-inhabited regions after the arrival of Soviet internal affairs ministry troops. (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 13)

30 October

The Gagauz legislature, regarded as unconstitutional by Moldova, elects Stepan Topal as chair of the Supreme Soviet of the self-proclaimed Gagauz Republic. Topal is being referred to as "President." (The Globe and Mail 1 Nov. 1990)

31 October

An estimated 3,000 Moldovan nationalists storm border posts along the Moldovan-Romanian frontier threatening to kill border guards if Soviet interior ministry troops are not withdrawn from the Gagauz region. This is the first outbreak of violence over the Gagauz issue. There are no reports of casualties. Negotiations between the Moldovan government and Gagauz officials begin and tensions begin to subside. (The Ottawa Citizen 31 Oct. 1990; The Globe and Mail 1 Nov. 1990; The New York Times 1 Nov. 1990)

2 November

Three Slavs and one Moldovan policeman are reported killed and as many as 30 wounded as a result of ethnic clashes between Moldovan "vigilantes" and Russian-speaking residents in the city of Dubossary, which is located on the left bank of the Dniester River in the DMR. The violence is provoked by rumours that elections are to be held for a parliament of the DMR. (The New York Times 4 Nov. 1990, 12; The Ottawa Citizen 3 Nov. 1990; Ibid. 7 Nov. 1990)

20-25 November

Elections to the Supreme Soviet of the DMR are held in the majority of settlements in the region. ("Memorial" Human Rights Center 11 Sept. 1992, 2)

6 December

The Moldovan parliament repeals the state of emergency in the Gagauz region and soon after Soviet internal affairs ministry troops begin to withdraw. (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 14)

12 December

The first session of the communist-dominated Gagauz Supreme Soviet is held, and it reaffirms the sovereign status of the republic within the USSR. No clashes or violent incidents follow. (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 14)

22 December

Soviet President Gorbachev issues a decree that Moldova adopt more conciliatory policies toward its ethnic minorities, including restoration of Russian as an official language. The Moldovan government responds that it will consider these matters. (The Ottawa Citizen 31 Dec. 1990; RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 14)



A Moldovan draft law on "local self-government" is formulated. The proposed law would create a more autonomous Gagauz county within Moldova, but it does not meet the political demands of Gagauz officials. Discussions at the political level continue. (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 14)

17 March

A referendum is held on the idea of a renewed Soviet federation. Moldova boycotts it, but residents of the proclaimed Gagauz and Dniester republics participate and vote overwhelmingly in favour of remaining within the union. (Keesing's 1991 1991, 38492; RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 14)


The State Department for National Problems is created to oversee development of cultural facilities for Moldova's ethnic minorities. This measure is part of a general effort by the Moldovan government to recognize the cultural diversity of Moldova. (RFE/RL 1 May 1992, 43)


Gagauz moderate leaders Constantin Taushanji and Leonid Dobrov advance a proposal for Gagauz autonomy entitled Gagauz eri (Gagauz homeland). The proposal envisages economic autonomy for the region, the right to self-determination in the event that Moldova unites with Romania, and that the Romanian language would not be mandatory in Gagauzia (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 14; Nezavisimaia Gazeta 16 Jan. 1993)

22 May

Prime Minister Mircea Druc is forced from office following a vote of non-confidence in the Moldovan parliament. His Moldovan Popular Front's advocacy of immediate unification with Romania has resulted in its loss of support among the Moldovan populace. (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 15; TASS 22 May 1991)

28 May

Valeriu Muravschi becomes the new prime minister. (Keesing's 1991 1991, 38206)

5 June

Moldova passes a nationality law defining who is entitled to Moldovan nationality and how it can be acquired. (Moldova. Citizenship 5 June 1991)

9 July

Moldova's president signs a law on alternative service. (Moldova, Alternative Service 9 July 1991)

19 August

Leaders in the Gagauz and Dniester regions support the attempted coup in Moscow and approve of the State Committee for the State of Emergency, the supreme body created by the coup leaders. Leaders in Gagauz and Dniester believe restoration of a hard-line government in Moscow will halt Moldova's move toward independence and possible reunification with Romania, and ensure the return of Moscow loyalists in Moldova. By 21 August the coup has failed. (Izvestiia 8 July 1992; RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 15)

23 August

The activity of the Communist Party of Moldova is suspended. Two Communist leaders in Gagauz, including Stepan Topal, are arrested and held for three weeks. (Keesing's 1992 1992, R122; Ibid. 1991, 38373; RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 15)

27 August

Moldova declares its independence and is formally recognized by Romania. Diplomatic relations are established two days later. (Keesing's 1991 1991, 38373)

2 September

The Supreme Soviet of the DMR votes unanimously to join the USSR and to recognize the Soviet constitution, laws and symbols. The republic would also have the right to host Soviet armed forces on its territory. (RFE/RL 17 Jan. 1992, 9)

3 September

President Snegur comes out in favour of proposals for the creation of a Gagauz "homeland." (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 15)

15 October

The Moldovan government adopts the decision to create a national army. (TASS 16 Oct. 1991)

13 November

Moldovan interior ministry border guards open fire on a resident of Vulcanesti, in the Gagauz region, reportedly in an attempt to halt the movement of arms into the area. In response Gagauz militants attack and bomb the Moldovan police station in Vulcanesti and force policemen to flee under machine-gun fire. The Gagauz want Moldovan interior ministry forces to withdraw from the region. (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 15-16)

1 December

"Presidential" elections are held in the DMR and Gagauz republics, along with a referendum on independence. Igor Smirnov is elected president of the DMR and Stepan Topal is elected president of the Gagauz region. Of a 78 per cent electoral turnout for the referendum in Dniester, 98 per cent vote for independence. In the Gagauz referendum, 90-95 per cent of the roughly 85 per cent who voted favour independence. The Gagauz Supreme Soviet also passes a law preventing residents of the Gagauz region from serving in the Moldovan armed forces. In the Moldovan capital of Chisinau (Kishinev) a National Council of Reunification, consisting of 28 Moldovan and 37 Romanian parliamentarians, is formed. (Ibid.; Keesing's 1991 1991, 38657)

8 December

Mircea Snegur is the sole contender in the Moldovan presidential election, which is partially boycotted in Dniester and Gagauz. Of the eligible voters, 83 per cent cast ballots, 98 per cent of whom vote for Snegur. The Soviet Union disintegrates and is replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), to which Moldova accedes by agreements signed on 21 and 30 December. (Keesing's 1991 1991, 38657; RFE/RL 26 June 1992, 39)

11 December

Moldovan leaders declare that the referendums conducted in the Dniester and Gagauz regions are illegal. (Keesing's 1991 1991, 38657)

13-16 December

Armed conflict erupts in the Dniester city of Dubossary on 13 December. Five people are reportedly killed in the fighting between Moldovan interior ministry troops and an ethnic Russian militia of the DMR. Talks are held between Snegur and Smirnov that result in a withdrawal of armed forces on 16 December. (Ibid.; Kuranty 21 July 1992; CSCE 16 Sept. 1992, 6)


20-25 January

Moldova's relations with Romania are strengthened with the opening of Romania's diplomatic mission in Moldova on 20 January. A rally is organized in Iasi, Romania by the National Council of Reunification and is attended by parliamentarians from both countries. This occurs the day before a 25 January meeting between the Romanian and Moldovan presidents in Moldova where they speak about "a calm and balanced approach" to the question of unification. These events occur, however, at a time when the appeal of unification with Romania is losing its attraction for Moldovans, and support for politicians advocating unification is dwindling. The official Moldovan stance in its relations with Romania is "one people, two states." (Keesing's 1992 1992, 38732; RFE/RL 31 Jan. 1992, 31-32)

10-11 February

A presidential decree establishes a Moldovan ministry of defence, to be headed by Ion Costas, the former interior minister. The next day Prime Minister Muravschi says Moldova will not take part in financing the CIS armed forces; it will maintain only those ex-Soviet army units that agree to shift to Moldovan jurisdiction. (Mayak Radio Network 10 Feb. 1992; INTERFAX 11 Feb. 1992)

14 February

Moldova signs an agreement at the Minsk meeting of the CIS that will place former Soviet military units and border guards on Moldovan territory under Moldovan command by 1 March 1992. Military personnel serving on Moldovan territory can remain or go to other republics. The former Soviet 14th Army, which has its headquarters in Tiraspol in the Dniester region, is given special status and remains under CIS command. The 14th Army reportedly will be withdrawn to Russian territory within 18-24 months. (INTERFAX 18 Feb. 1992; Ibid. 11 Mar. 1992; Radio Romania Network 17 Feb. 1992; TASS International Service 21 Feb. 1992; Rompres 25 Feb. 1992)

16 February

The Moldovan Popular Front is renamed the Christian Democratic Popular Front, which has as its ultimate goal the liberation of "occupied Romanian territories" and the restoration of a unified Romania. (INTERFAX 16 Feb. 1992)

1-2 March

Fighting erupts in the Dniester region when the 1000-strong Dniester National Guard reportedly attacks Moldovan police headquarters in Dubossary. DMR President Smirnov initiates conscription into the Dniester National Guard and mercenaries begin to arrive from Russia. Although it is unclear whether CIS 14th Army troops are actually involved in combat, the 14th Army reportedly has been providing materiel, including weapons, to the Dniester National Guard. (RFE/RL 11 Sept. 1992, 42; Keesing's 1992 1992, 38829)

Moldova takes its seat at the United Nations on 2 March. (Le Monde diplomatique Jan. 1993, 11)

4-5 March

A cease-fire is reached but forces on both sides of the Dniester conflict are being reinforced and the situation remains tense. The commander of the 14th Army reaffirms its neutrality and its "exclusive subordination" to CIS command. (TASS 5 Mar. 1992; INTERFAX 4 Mar. 1992)

16-17 March

Smirnov declares a state of emergency in the Dniester region. Another cease-fire agreement is brokered on 17 March, but with continued outbreaks of fighting, it too is short-lived. There are reports that at least 30 people died in fighting during the period 2-17 March. (Keesing's 1992 1992, 38829; Facts on File 1992, 206; "Memorial" Human Rights Center 11 Sept. 1992, 5)

On 17 March Moldova adopts a defence law which sets down general defence provisions and responsibilities of the parliament, president and government on defence matters. As a result Moldovan President Snegur becomes "supreme commander" of the Moldovan armed forces. On the same day the Law on the Armed Forces is enacted. The law defines the armed forces' duties, the principles for their establishment, their structure and military command, their deployment and the military obligations of citizens. (Moldova Suverana 4 Apr. 1992a; Ibid. 4 Apr. 1992b)

20 March

The Moldovan government and CIS armed forces reach agreement on the 14th Army. Moldova secures jurisdiction over troops on the right bank of the Dniester River, except for some "strategic" forces. Negotiations on jurisdiction over forces on the left bank are deferred. (RFE/RL 28 Aug. 1992, 39)

26 March

DMR leader Smirnov signs a decree calling for a "partial mobilization" of men up to age 45, presumably into the Dniester National Guard. The document says this action is being taken in response to moves by Moldovan forces toward combat readiness. (TASS 26 Mar. 1992)

28 March

With continued fighting in the Dniester region, and with the number of people killed rising to an estimated 40-50, Moldovan President Snegur imposes emergency rule. The decree instructs the police and army to "liquidate and disarm the illegitimate armed formations" in the Dniester region. President Snegur calls Smirnov a terrorist. A reported 5,200 asylum seekers, mainly ethnic Ukrainians and Russians, flee to neighbouring Ukraine. (The New York Times 29 Mar. 1992; Keesing's 1992 1992, 38828)

31 March

The Moldovan military registration and enlistment office issues instructions for the mobilization of males between the ages of 20 and 40. The Moldovan press is brought under the control of emergency committees and is instructed to print all official materials of these committees. (Teleradiokompaniia Ostankino 31 Mar. 1992; INTERFAX 31 Mar. 1992)

1-2 April

Moldovan interior ministry troops attack the predominantly Slav-inhabited cities of Dubossary, on the left bank of the Dniester River, and Bendery, on the right bank. At least five people are killed. Russian President Yeltsin decrees that 14th Army troops in Moldova not part of the Moldovan armed forces are henceforth under Russian jurisdiction. The 14th Army is therefore split into Moldovan National Armed Forces and the Russian 14th Army, which is situated primarily in the DMR. (The Globe and Mail 1 Apr. 1992; Ibid. 2 Apr. 1992; ITAR-TASS 1 Apr. 1992; RFE/RL 28 Aug. 1992, 38-9)

6 April

Quadripartite political consultations aimed at reaching a settlement of the Dniester conflict get underway in Chisinau. Attending are the foreign ministers of Moldova, Romania, Russia and Ukraine. A cease-fire agreement is announced and a quadripartite commission is established to implement it. (CSCE 16 Sept. 1992, 8; ITAR-TASS 14 Apr. 1992)

8 April

The situation in Dniester remains tense, but a 500-metre buffer zone is established between the opposing forces. The Russian 14th Army command proposes to separate them by five to 10 kilometres. No clashes are reported. (Mayak Radio Network 8 Apr. 1992)

11 April

Moldovan President Snegur issues an order for the call-up of new conscripts to the Moldovan armed forces, this call-up to take place in May-June 1992. (ITAR-TASS World Service 11 Apr. 1992)

17 April

A second quadripartite meeting is held in Chisinau. (CSCE 16 Sept. 1992, 8)

19-22 April

A reported eleven persons die in fighting in Bendery and Dubossary. (Ibid., 6)

23 April

Armed groups from both sides begin to withdraw from the city of Bendery, largely as the result of political negotiations, but fighting continues in Dubossary. A local official in the town of Caragas in the Dniester region is murdered. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 24 Apr. 1992; IHRLG Jan. 1993, 3)

27-28 April

A cache of weapons is discovered in Bendery. President Snegur issues a decree governing the supervision, acquisition and storage of firearms. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 6 May 1992)

5 May

A session of the quadripartite commission, which is attempting to conciliate an end to the conflict in Dniester, meets in Bendery. Representatives from Dniester are in attendance. Both sides recognize the need for a cease-fire, but fighting continues in Dubossary. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 7 May 1992)

19-20 May

Fighting in Dniester intensifies. The 14th Army, previously reported as indirectly or covertly assisting the Dniester National Guard, becomes directly involved as two battalion-strength units reportedly join the Dniester National Guard. There is no evidence that the commander of the 14th Army or higher authorities in Moscow authorized this. Several reports indicate direct clashes between Moldovan forces and the Russian 14th Army, including accounts that two Russian officers are killed. President Snegur writes to President Yeltsin stating that further intervention by the 14th Army could lead to "a state of war" between Moldova and Russia. (Ibid.; RFE/RL 28 Aug. 1992, 43; Ibid. 11 Sept. 1992, 44; "Memorial" Human Rights Center, 6)

Romanian President Ion Iliescu pays a state visit to Moldova. Although communiques talk of "two Romanias" and Moldovan independence, the unification issue again comes into the spotlight. (Facts on File 1992, 648-49)

23 May

One Moldovan and one local policeman are killed in armed clashes between Gagauz paramilitary units and Moldovan forces near the town of Ciadr-Lunga. Eleven Moldovan soldiers are captured by the Gagauz. (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 16)

24-26 May

Another quadripartite meeting is held, this one in Lisbon, Portugal, to discuss the situation in the Dniester region. The Romanian side accuses Russia of direct involvement, citing the actions of the 14th Army. One report indicates that Romanian President Iliescu admits Romania is supplying Moldova with conventional arms and specialists. (Keesing's 1992 1992, 38924)

27 May

The Moldovan legislature adopts a resolution stating that the presence of 14th Army troops constitutes an "act of aggression" against Moldova. President Yeltsin says he will pull the 14th Army out of Moldova and that "there will be no war." One report indicates that since March more than 100 people have been killed in fighting in the Dniester region. (The Globe and Mail 28 May 1992)

2-4 June

Six members of the Moldovan Christian Democratic Popular Front are arrested in Tiraspol and charged with conspiracy in connection with the murder of two local officials in the town of Caragas in the Dniester region. They are called the "Triaspol Six." (IHRLG Jan. 1993, 1-3)

Negotiations continue on proposals for a cease-fire in the Dniester region. (Keesing's 1992 1992, 38976)

5-6 June

The Moldovan parliament creates another commission to study the situation in the Gagauz region, where the situation is still being described as "very tense," although there have been no major armed clashes. (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992, 17)

9 June

Moldovan Prime Minister Valeriu Muravschi and most of his cabinet resign, reportedly over the failure to stop the fighting in the Dniester region. The defence, security and interior ministers, however, remain in office. The Moldovan parliament supports proposals for a cease-fire. (ITAR-TASS 9 June 1992; The New York Times 10 June 1992; Keesing's 1992 1992, 38976)

17 June

The DMR announces the formation of its own army, amid reports that a military draft is underway. The Dniester parliament rejects the proposals for implementing a cease-fire. (RFE/RL 3 July 1992, 70; Keesing's 1992 1992, 38976)

19-21 June

The most intense fighting to date erupts in Bendery. Shooting breaks out between Dniester insurgents and Moldovan police on the evening of 19 June. Moldovan army units and Ministry of Interior troops are called in to take control of the city. On 20 June Russian 14th Army troops reportedly participate alongside the Dniester National Guard in an attack against Bendery. Heavy fighting, including artillery fire, continues for two days. By 21 June Dniester troops, aided by the 14th Army, take control of Bendery. (RFE/RL 3 July 1992, 70; Ibid. 11 Sept. 1992, 45; "Memorial" Human Rights Center 11 Sept. 1992, 9-12; Facts on File 1992, 649; Moscow News 5-12 July 1992, 4)

22 June

A cease-fire is reached and fighting stops in the city of Bendery, but only for a matter of hours. (The Globe and Mail 23 June 1992, A6; Keesing's 1992 1992, 38976)

23-27 June

Citizens flee Bendery as fighting continues. Dubossary also experiences fighting and is shelled by mortars. The presidents of Moldova, Romania, Russia and Ukraine attend the Black Sea summit in Istanbul on 25 June and discuss the situation in Dniester. They call for an immediate cease-fire, and Russia and Moldova agree to hold talks about withdrawal of the 14th Army. A three-person team from the United Nations is sent to Moldova to investigate the situation. (The New York Times 26 June 1992; CSCE 16 Sept. 1992, 8; Pravda 25 June 1992)

30 June

Major-General Aleksandr Lebed assumes command of the Russian 14th Army. (Facts on File 1992, 649)

Reports on the number of deaths caused by the fighting in June range from roughly 300 to 900. ("Memorial" Human Rights Center 11 Sept. 1992, 13; CSCE 16 Sept. 1992, 7; Moscow News 5-12 July 1992, 4; Keesing's 1992 1992, 39019)

1 July

The Moldovan parliament confirms Andrei Sangheli as prime minister. Sangheli, a former high-ranking Communist Party official and first deputy prime minister of Moldova, has experience in peace talks between the Moldovan government and secessionists in Dniester and Gagauz. (Facts on File 1992, 649; RFE/RL 27 Nov. 1992, 9)

3-7 July

On 3 July Israel's Jewish Agency announces that it has evacuated 1,000 Jews from the Dniester region over the previous two weeks. (Facts on File 1992, 649)

High-level meetings continue between Moldova, Romania, Russia and Ukraine. At a 6 July meeting of the CIS, President Yeltsin proposes a peacekeeping force for Moldova that would include troops from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Romania and Bulgaria. Presidents Snegur and Yeltsin meet to discuss the situation. The Moldovan parliament accepts the peacekeeping proposal the following day, but Belarus, Romania and Bulgaria subsequently decline participation. (The New York Times 7 July 1992, A8; Keesing's 1992 1992, 39019)

13-14 July

Russian vice-president Aleksandr Rutskoi and security minister Viktor Barannikov visit Tiraspol. Rutskoi is a Russian nationalist who is seen as a protector of Russian minorities in the republics of the former Soviet Union. (Izvestiia 8 July 1992; RFE/RL 11 Sept. 1992 46; Keesing's 1992 1992, 39019)

16-17 July

Moldovan minister of defence Ion Costas and national security minister Anatol Plugaru are replaced. As both have been associated with hard-line anti-separatist positions on the Dniester question, this can be interpreted as a conciliatory move by Moldova in preparation for peace talks. (Keesing's 1992 1992, 39019; Facts on File 1992, 650)

21 July

A peace agreement on settling the armed conflict in the Dniester region is signed by Presidents Yeltsin and Snegur. The agreement calls for an immediate cease-fire, withdrawal of military units within seven days and creation of a security zone. To implement the peace agreement a joint Control Commission is to be established in Bendery, to consist of representatives from Moldova, Russia and the Dniester region. Under this commission joint military units will be set up to guarantee security in the region. Units of the Russian 14th Army are to remain neutral and negotiations are to continue on its withdrawal from Moldova. As well, immediate negotiations are to begin on the return of asylum seekers, the supply of aid and the restoration of damaged buildings. Smirnov also attended these meetings. (Radio Chisinau Network 21 July 1992)

22-31 July

Although there is sporadic fighting, the peace agreement is being implemented. Russian peacekeeping forces begin to arrive on 29 July. Moldovan and Dniester peacekeeping forces are also being assigned to towns in the region. A Moldovan government of national accord is taking shape, and it will include ministers from the Gagauz and Dniester regions. An ethnic Bulgarian, Valentin Kunev, agrees to join the government of national accord as vice-premier. (Izvestiia 31 July 1992; Nezavisimaia Gazeta 1 Aug. 1992; Ibid. 4 Aug. 1992)

3 August

Six battalions from the Russian Army and three each from Moldova and Dniester are deployed as peacekeeping forces in the region. A 10-kilometre security zone is established along the Dniester River after the successful disengagement of opposing forces. The shooting ends, even in Bendery. Supporters of Moldova's Christian Democratic People's Front, however, view the actions of the Moldovan government as "traitorous" and regard the Russian peacekeeping force as an occupying force. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 4 Aug. 1992)

6 August

The new Moldovan government of national reconciliation (or consensus) is formed and the Moldovan parliament adjourns. A deputy premiership, two cabinet positions (one each for industry and transportation) and the position of deputy defence minister have been offered to representatives from Dniester, but Dniester leaders continue to boycott the Moldovan parliament. This contrasts with the Gagauz position, where one ethnic Gagauz has joined the new government as general director of the State Department on Standards and Measures. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 1 Aug. 1992; Ibid. 6 Aug. 1992; RFE/RL 27 Nov. 1992, 7-10)

18-26 August

Life in the Dniester region is reportedly "returning to normal," although there are still isolated instances of shooting, with some deaths. The state of emergency in Moldova is rescinded. Negotiations continue between Russia and Moldova on withdrawal of 14th Army troops. (Keesing's 1992 1992, 39060; Nezavisimaia Gazeta 18 Aug. 1992; Ibid. 27 Aug. 1992)

A Russian newspaper cites "official data" putting the number of "refugees" registered during the conflict at 109,000 (58,000 in Ukraine and 51,000 on the right bank of the Dniester River). Reportedly 15-20 per cent of these asylum seekers have returned to their homes in Dniester. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 18 Aug. 1992)

27 August

Moldova marks its first anniversary as an independent country. In his speech President Snegur states that he hopes a new constitution will be adopted to "legitimize the independence and territorial integrity of Moldova and the fundamental rights of man and the citizen." The government continues to offer some form of autonomy within the Moldovan state to the Gagauz and Dniester regions. On the question of national minorities, Snegur notes that there are 90 different nationalities represented in Moldova, and that these minorities constitute 35 per cent of the population. He alludes to the large number of schools, libraries, media and cultural societies established for their needs. (Nezavisimaia Moldova 28 Aug. 1992)

30 August

President Snegur gives a speech to mark the third anniversary of the Moldovan language law. He remarks that it was wrong to have assumed the Romanian language would "function normally on the entire territory of Moldova." There are no reported changes to the language law. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 1 Sept. 1992)

1 September

In a communique issued after their Moscow meeting, Presidents Yeltsin and Snegur express their satisfaction that peace has been restored to the Dniester region. Yeltsin announces that he will mediate in talks between Moldovan and Dniester representatives over the future of the Dniester region. (CSCE 16 Sept. 1992, 10; Keesing's 1992 1992, 39060)

7 September

The presidents of Moldova and Bulgaria sign a 10-year friendship and co-operation agreement, which contains a clause guaranteeing the rights of ethnic Bulgarians in Moldova. (Keesing's 1992 1992, 39109)

8 September

The DMR legislature approves a new government structure and a language law recognizing Moldavian, Russian and Ukrainian as official languages of equal status. Moldavian, as distinguished from Romanian, is written in the Cyrillic script. Use of the Latin alphabet will be "prosecuted by law." (Ibid.; Izvestiia 26 Sept. 1992)

16-17 September

In Chisinau talks continue on withdrawal of Russian 14th Army troops from Moldova, but they are inconclusive. There are disagreements over ownership of military equipment in Moldova. (Keesing's 1992 1992, 39109)

21 September

The joint Control Commission, established to implement the 21 July peace agreement, reports that the peace is holding, however the commission is concerned about delays in moving toward resolution of the political status of the Dniester region. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 23 Sept. 1992)

President Snegur issues a decree to strengthen implementation of the 1989 language law, which he says is not being properly observed. Among other orders, he instructs government to "ratify and put into effect as of 1 January 1994" a statute for testing the Romanian language skills of "leadership cadres" and "workers" who because of their jobs have to deal with Moldovan citizens. (Nezavisimaia Moldova 23 Sept. 1992)

13 October

With the return of relative political calm, popular attention begins to shift to the deteriorating economic situation. Students organize a protest to demand an increase in their stipends. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 16 Oct. 1992)

27 October

A new session of the Moldovan parliament opens. There are reports of power struggles among various political factions. The Christian Democratic Popular Front, even though it has lost its base of popular support, succeeds in keeping the question of Dniester's political status off the agenda. Work on drafting a new constitution continues. Snegur favours adoption of a new constitution by a nationwide referendum. (Pravda 24 Oct. 1992; Nezavisimaia Gazeta 17 Nov. 1992; RFE/RL 27 Nov. 1992, 5)

12 November

DMR leader Smirnov holds a press conference in Tiraspol and states that the only viable political options for Dniester are as an independent republic or as part of a confederation. He mentions that he has signed contractual agreements with regions in the Russian Federation. (Kommersant-Daily 12 Nov. 1992)

15 December

The DMR parliament discusses a bill that would legitimize a continued Russian 14th Army presence in Dniester. The Moldovan minister of defence has stated that the 14th Army must withdraw as quickly as possible if a political solution to the Dniester question is to be reached. (Pravda 16 Dec. 1992; Rossiiskie Vesti 12 Dec. 1992)

24 December

President Snegur proposes that a referendum be held on the independence question. (RFE/RL 26 Feb. 1993, 18; INTERFAX 19 Jan. 1993)


1 January

Dniester reportedly establishes four border posts manned by more than 300 armed guards. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 31 Dec. 1992)

6 January

The centrist Republican Party of Moldova is formed. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 6 Jan. 1993, 3)

10 January

In response to a demand by Snegur that the 14th Army withdraw from Moldova by the end of 1994, General Lebed states that such a withdrawal would take 10-15 years. (Neue Züricher Zeitung 15 Jan. 1993; INTERFAX 11 Jan. 1993; Nezavisimaia Gazeta 12 Jan. 1993, 3)

12 January

The government of the Gagauz region resigns and executive power is transferred to "President" Stepan Topal. (BBC Summary 22 Jan. 1993)

13 January

The first meeting of commissions from Dniester and Moldova is held in Bendery to begin work on a document aimed at reaching a political solution to the Dniester question. The two sides are far apart in their proposals over the political status of the Dniester region. (ITAR-TASS 13 Jan. 1993)

14 January

Moldovan President Snegur makes a speech in parliament in which he unambiguously declares himself as being against unification with Romania. A majority of parliamentary deputies support Snegur and want a referendum on the issue. According to opinion polls, such a referendum would show little support among Moldovans for unification. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 14 Jan. 1993)

15 January

Moldova annuls all diplomatic and official passports, and new passports are to be issued to Moldovan citizens. General passports were to have been introduced as well, but these will not be ready for "some months." Exit visas are not required for Moldovan citizens to travel to former socialist countries and CIS republics. (INTERFAX 14 Jan. 1993)

16 January

Gagauz politician Leonid Dobrov meets with President Snegur to discuss the Gagauz eri (Gagauz homeland) plan. After a "few changes" Snegur reportedly approves the plan and agrees to submit it to the Moldovan parliament. (Nezavisimaia Gazeta 16 Jan. 1993)

20 January

The Moldovan parliament votes on legislation authorizing a referendum on the issue of Moldovan independence. The legislation passes by just one vote over the required majority. The speaker, Alexander Mosanu of the Christian Democratic People's Front, orders a recount and the bill is defeated by just one vote. A conflict arises between Snegur and Mosanu over the issue. (Izvestiia 21 Jan. 1993, 2; Nezavisimaia Gazeta 22 Jan. 1993, 1; RFE/RL 26 Feb. 1993, 18)

A Moldovan peacekeeping force vehicle comes under fire near Bendery, "from the direction of one of the [DMR] border posts." A Moldovan presidential advisor states that these border posts contravene the Russian-Moldovan cease-fire agreement. (INTERFAX 21 Jan. 1993)

23 January

President Snegur heads a Moldovan delegation to a CIS summit meeting in Minsk. Moldova signs agreements dealing with economic and other matters. Presidents Yeltsin and Snegur agree to meet to discuss a treaty on economic cooperation. (ITAR-TASS 23 Jan. 1993)

25 January

In the town of Vulcanesti in the Gagauz region, volunteer units take over a municipal building with the intention of establishing a Gagauz administration. A Moldovan police unit is sent in to restore order. (Izvestiia 25 Jan. 1993, 1)

26 January

The joint Control Commission issues a press release in Moldova in which it blames the leadership in Tiraspol for the failure to reach a settlement on the Dniester question. (INTERFAX 26 Jan. 1993)

28-29 January

The parliamentary crisis over the referendum intensifies. A majority of deputies walk out of parliament on 28 January and demand that new elections be held in May. They contend that a minority of parliamentarians and the speaker are blocking the referendum on unification with Romania. The next day the speaker and three other senior parliamentarians resign. (ITAR-TASS 28 Jan. 1993; Radio Romania Network 29 Jan. 1993)

2 February

The Moldovan parliament accepts the resignations of speaker Mosanu and his deputy. (Teleradiokompaniia Ostankino 2 Feb. 1993)

4 February

Deputies of the Moldovan parliament elect Petru Lucinschi, former First Secretary of the Communist Party of Moldova, former Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and at the time of his election the Moldovan Ambassador to Russia, as speaker of the Moldovan parliament with 213 out of a possible 242 votes. Lucinschi cites resolution of the Dniester conflict and adoption of a new constitution as his main concerns. The next day he flies to Moscow to attend an upcoming summit meeting between Presidents Snegur and Yeltsin. (INTERFAX 4 Feb. 1993; Ibid. 5 Feb. 1993; Izvestiia 6 Feb. 1993, 2)

9 February

The Snegur-Yeltsin summit results in bilateral agreements on economic cooperation, trade and debt. At a press conference Yeltsin mentions that two regiments of the Russian 14th Army have been withdrawn from the Dniester region and a third is in the process of leaving. Yeltsin states that withdrawals cannot be conducted too quickly, that there must be guarantees that new clashes will not occur, and Snegur concurs. The two presidents also agree on returning to Moldova those citizens who were arrested in Tiraspol with the assistance of the Russian military. Overall, Russian-Moldovan relations improve. (Izvestiia 11 Feb. 1993, 1-2)

17 February

The Moldovan foreign ministry forwards a note of protest to the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about a military exercise by the Russian 14th Army. Moldova considers this exercise to be in violation of the 21 July 1992 peace agreement. (INTERFAX 17 Feb. 1993)

26 February

In an interview with Izvestiia, General Lebed states that the situation in Dniester may appear calm on the surface but in fact is tense. He approves of the results of the Yeltsin-Snegur summit, especially that no hasty deadlines were set for withdrawal of the 14th Army. Lebed says everything still hinges on a political settlement. (Izvestiia 26 Feb. 1993, 5)


BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 22 January, 1993. "Gagauz Government Resigns."

Border and Territorial Disputes. 1987. 2nd ed. Edited by Alan J. Day. Essex: Longman Group UK Ltd.

Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE), Prague. 16 September 1992. CSCE Communication No. 281. "Interim Report on the Conflict in the Left Bank Dniester Areas."

Facts on File World News Digest. 1992. Vol. 52. New York: Facts on File Inc.

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 23 June 1992. "Moldovans, Slavs Reach Reach Cease-fire."

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 28 May 1992. "Yeltsin to Pull Troops out of Moldova."

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 2 April 1992. "Moldovan Troops Attack Separatists."

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 1 April 1992. "Moldova Rebels Attack."

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 1 November 1990. "Moldovans Threaten Border Guards."

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 26 October 1990. "Moldova Moving Toward Civil War."

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 17 February 1993. "Russian Military Exercises Continue Despite Protest." (FBIS-SOV-93-031 18 Feb. 1993, p. 57)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 5 February 1993. "Speaker Flies to Moscow for Yeltsin-Snegur Talks." (FBIS-SOV-93-024 8 Feb. 1993, p. 38)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 4 February 1993. "Present Problems `Surmountable'." (FBIS-SOV-93-023 5 Feb. 1993, p. 56)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 26 January 1993. "Dniester Accused of Unwillingness to Agree on Settlement." (FBIS-SOV-93-015 26 Jan. 1993, p. 58)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 21 January 1993. "Peacekeeping Vehicle Comes Under Fire in Bendery." (FBIS-SOV-93-013 22 Jan. 1993, p. 68)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 19 January 1993. "Factions, Opponents Comment." (FBIS-SOV-93-012 21 Jan. 1993, pp. 62-63)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 14 January 1993. "Diplomatic, Official Passports Annulled 15 Jan." (FBIS-SOV-93-010 15 Jan. 1993, p. 59)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 11 January 1993. "14th Army Withdrawal to Take 10-15 Years." (FBIS-SOV-93-008 13 Jan. 1993, pp. 46-47)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 31 March 1992. "Government Introduces Press Censorship." (FBIS-SOV-92-062 31 Mar. 1992, p. 56)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 11 March 1992. "Conscripts Turning to `Alternative Service'." (FBIS-SOV-92-052 17 Mar. 1992, p. 67)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 4 March 1992. "14th CIS Army Said Neutral." (FBIS-SOV-92-044 5 Mar. 1992, p. 68)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 18 February 1992. "Defense Minister Pleased." (FBIS-SOV-92-032 18 Feb. 1992, p. 62)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 16 February 1992. "Popular Front Adopts New Policy Rules." (FBIS-SOV-92-032 18 Feb. 1992, p. 63)

INTERFAX [Moscow, in English]. 11 February 1992. "Muravschi Says No Financing for Armed Forces." (FBIS-SOV-92-030 13 Feb. 1992, p. 83)

International Human Rights Law Group (IHRLG), Washington DC. January 1993. "The Arrest and Detention of the Tiraspol Six." Washington DC: IHRLG.

ITAR-TASS [Moscow, in English]. 28 January 1993. "Deputies Boycott, Demand Elections." (FBIS-SOV-93-018 29 Jan. 1993, p. 55)

ITAR-TASS [Moscow, in English]. 23 January 1993. "President Snegur on Outcome of Minsk CIS Summit." (FBIS-SOV-93-014 25 Jan. 1993, p. 55)

ITAR-TASS [Moscow, in English]. 13 January 1993. "Dniester, Moldovan Commissions Meet for Talks." (FBIS-SOV-93-009 14 Jan. 1993, p. 53)

ITAR-TASS [Moscow, in English]. 9 June 1992. "Government Resigns; Four Ministers Remain." (FBIS-SOV-92-111 9 June 1992, p. 74)

ITAR-TASS [Moscow, in English]. 14 April 1992. "Commission Ends Meeting; Cease-Fire Observed." (FBIS-SOV-92-073 15 Apr. 1992, pp. 48-49)

ITAR-TASS [Moscow, in English]. 1 April 1992. "Decree on Troops Stationed in Moldova Issued." (FBIS-SOV-92-063 1 Apr. 1992, p. 27)

ITAR-TASS World Service [Moscow, in Russian]. 11 April 1992. "Snegur Issues Decree on Conscription." (FBIS-SOV-92-072 14 Apr. 1992, p. 52)

Izvestiia [Moscow, in Russian]. 26 February 1993. Svetlana Gamova. "A. Lebed: `V den, kogda mirotvorcheskie sily uidut iz pridnestrovia, ia nachnu serezno gotovitsia k voine'."

Izvestiia [Moscow, in Russian]. 11 February 1993. Vasilii Kononenko. "Rossiisko-Moldavskii dialog v Moskve okazalcia rezul tativnym."

Izvestiia [Moscow, in Russian]. 6 February 1993. "Parlament Moldovu vozglavil Petru Luchinskii."

Izvestiia [Moscow, in Russian]. 25 January 1993. Svetlana Gamova. "Na iuge Moldovy ustanavlivaetcia dvoevlastie."

Izvestiia [Moscow, in Russian]. 21 January 1993. Svetlana Gamova. "Raskol v parlamente Moldovy."

Izvestiia [Moscow, in Russian]. 26 September 1992. "Impact of Romanian as Official Language." (FBIS-USR-92-129 9 Oct. 1992, p. 103)

Izvestiia [Moscow, in Russian]. 31 July 1992. "Report of Peacekeeping Force in Bendery." (FBIS-USR-92-101 10 Aug. 1992, pp. 54-55)

Izvestiia [Moscow, in Russian]. 8 July 1992. "Views on Reasons for Moldovan Unrest." (FBIS-USR-92-094 26 July 1992, pp. 78-80)

Keesing's Record of World Events 1992. 1992. Vol. 38. Edited by Roger East. London: Longman Group UK Ltd.

Keesing's Record of World Events 1991. 1991. Vol. 37. Edited by Roger East. London: Longman Group UK Ltd.

Kommersant-Daily [Moscow, in Russian]. 12 November 1992. "Dniester President on Relations with Moldova." (FBIS-USR-92-155 4 Dec. 1992, p. 133)

Kuranty [Moscow, in Russian]. 21 July 1992. "Dniester Vice President on Sovereignty." (FBIS-USR-92-097 3 Aug. 1992, pp. 81-83)

Mayak Radio Network [Moscow, in Russian]. 8 April 1992. "Army to Separate Opposing Forces by 5-10 Km." (FBIS-SOV-92-069 9 Apr. 1992, p. 57)

Mayak Radio Network [Moscow, in Russian]. 10 February 1992. "Presidential Decree Sets up Defense Ministry." (FBIS-SOV-92-028 11 Feb. 1992, p. 81)

"Memorial" Human Rights Center, Moscow. 11 September 1992. "Report: Large-Scale and Gross Violations of Human Rights and the Situation in the Zone of Armed Conflict in and Around the City of Bendery."

Moldova. Citizenship of the Republic of Moldova. 5 June 1991. Translated from Russian by the Department of the Secretary of State of Canada.

Moldova. Citizenship of the Republic of Moldova. Zakon Republiki Moldova: Ob Alternativnoi Sluzhbe [Law on Alternative Service]. 9 July 1991.

Moldova. Citizenship of the Republic of Moldova. Legea Republicii Sovietici Socialiste Moldovenesti Cu Privire La Functionarea Limbilor Vorbite Pe Teritoriul R.S.S. Moldovenesti [Regarding the Functioning of Spoken Languages in the Territory of the Moldovan S.S.R.]. 1 September 1989.

Moldova Suverana [Chisinau, in Moldovan]. 4 April 1992a. "Republic's Defense Law." (FBIS-USR-92-069 8 June 1992, pp. 110-12)

Moldova Suverana [Chisinau, in Moldovan]. 4 April 1992b. "Law on Republic's Armed Forces." (FBIS-USR-92-059, 18 May 1992, pp. 51-52)

Le Monde diplomatique. January 1993. "La Moldavie sous la menace étrangère."

Moscow News [Moscow, in English]. 19-26 July 1992. Oazu Nantoi. "On Moldova and not it Alone."

Moscow News [Moscow, in English]. 5-12 July 1992. Alexander Kakotkin. "War With no Special Cause."

Neue Züricher Zeitung. 15 January 1993. "Kein russischer Rückzug aus der Moldau."

The New York Times. 7 July 1992. "Yeltsin Plans Peacekeepers for Moldova."

The New York Times. 26 June 1992. "Moldovans Join a Long Line of Refugees Fleeing Fighting."

The New York Times. 10 June 1992. "Moldova Chief Quits over Regional Unrest."

The New York Times. 29 March 1992. "Moldova Imposes Emergency Rule and Orders Disarming of Militias."

The New York Times. 4 November 1990. "Moldavia to Investigate Killings of Separatists."

The New York Times. 1 November 1990. "Moldavia Averts Ethnic Violence."

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 22 January 1993. Aleksandr Tago. "Parlament raskololcia na storonnikov i protivnikov referenduma."

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 16 January 1993. "Gagauz Mayor Reviews Relations with Chisinau." (FBIS-USR-93-013 5 Feb. 1993, pp. 105-06)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 14 January 1993. "Snegur Statement on Unification Assessed." (FBIS-USR-93-011 29 Jan. 1993, pp. 50-51)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 12 January 1993. "Moldova."

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 6 January 1993. "Moldova."

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 31 December 1992. "Trans-Dniester Reinforces Border Control." (FBIS-USR-93-008 23 Jan. 1993, p. 129)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 17 November 1992. "Clashes in Parliament, Need for New Elections Viewed." (FBIS-USR-92-155 4 Dec. 1992, p. 132)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 16 October 1992. "Anti-Government Student Protests in Moldova." (FBIS-USR-92-139 30 Oct. 1992, p. 101)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 8 October 1992. "Moldovan, Gagauz Leaders for Coexistence." (FBIS-USR-92-138 28 Oct. 1992, p. 86)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 23 September 1992. "Uneasiness Lingers in Dniester Region." (FBIS-USR-92-129 9 Oct. 1992, pp. 103-04)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 1 September 1992. "Romanian as State Language Viewed." (FBIS-USR-92-118 16 Sept. 1992, pp. 83-84)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 27 August 1992. "Independence Viewed at One-Year Mark." (FBIS-USR-92-118 16 Sept. 1992, pp. 80-81)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 18 August 1992. "Aftermath of War in Dniester Area Reported." (FBIS-USR-92-115 8 Sept. 1992, p. 89)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 6 August 1992. "New Cabinet Ministers Described." (FBIS-USR-92-107 24 Aug. 1992, pp. 52-53)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 4 August 1992. "Buffer Zone in Dniester Region Criticized." (FBIS-USR-92-105 19 Aug. 1992, pp. 58-59)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 1 August 1992. "Snegur for Government of National Accord." (FBIS-USR-92-105 19 Aug. 1992, pp. 57-58.

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 21 July 1992. "Profile of New Ambassador to Moscow." (FBIS-USR-92-097 3 Aug. 1992, pp. 83-84)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 7 May 1992. "Conciliation Commission Meetings Continue." (FBIS-USR-92-061 22 May 1992, p. 100)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 6 May 1992. "Economic State Worsens in Dniester Region." (FBIS-USR-92-061 22 May 1992, p. 99)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 24 April 1992. "Reasons for Right Bank Compromise Viewed." (FBIS-USR-92-055 8 May 1992, pp. 83-84)

Nezavisimaia Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 21 April 1992. "Historical Perspective on Dniester Crisis." (FBIS-USR-92-056 9 May 1992, pp. 75-77)

Nezavisimaia Moldova [Chisinau, in Russian]. 23 September 1992. "Presidential Ukase on Official Language Legislation." (FBIS-USR-92-136 23 Oct. 1992, pp. 90-91)

Nezavisimaia Moldova [Chisinau, in Russian]. 28 August 1992. "Text of Snegur Independence Anniversary Speech." (FBIS-USR-92-128 7 Oct. 1992, pp. 96-101)

The Ottawa Citizen. 31 December 1990. "Moldavia Averts Showdown."

The Ottawa Citizen. 7 November 1990. "Thousands Mourn Victims of Unrest."

The Ottawa Citizen. 3 November 1990. "Six Die in Fighting as Moldavia Nears War."

The Ottawa Citizen. 26 October 1990. "Moldavia Declares State of Emergency."

The Ottawa Citizen. 31 October 1990. "Moldavian Militants Attack Border Posts."

The Ottawa Citizen. 5 September 1990. "Soviet Moldova Elects President."

The Ottawa Citizen. 7 May 1990. "Moldavian Reunion Strengthens Unity Demands."

Pravda [Moscow, in Russian]. 16 December 1992. "Transdniester Representative in Russia Interviewed." (FBIS-USR-92-166 30 Dec. 1992, p. 105)

Pravda [Moscow, in Russian]. 24 October 1992. "Moldova's Status in Commonwealth Analyzed." (FBIS-USR-92-142 6 Nov. 1992, pp. 95-97)

Pravda [Moscow, in Russian]. 25 June 1992. "Pravda Views Crisis in Dniester Region." (FBIS-USR-92-083 3 July 1992, p. 108)

Radio Chisinau Network [Chisinau, in Romanian]. 21 July 1992. "`Text' of Peace Agreement on Dniester." (FBIS-SOV-92-142 23 July 1992, p. 9)

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 26 February 1993. RFE/RL Research Report [Munich]. Vol. 2, No. 9. Vladimir Socor. "Moldova: Another Major Setback for Pro-Romanian Forces."

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 27 November 1992. RFE/RL Research Report [Munich]. Vol. 1, No. 47. Vladimir Socor. "Moldova's New `Government of National Consensus'."

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 11 September 1992. RFE/RL Research Report [Munich]. Vol. 1, No. 36. Vladimir Socor. "Russia's Fourteenth Army and the Insurgency in Eastern Moldova."

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 28 August 1992. RFE/RL Research Report [Munich]. Vol. 1, No. 34. Vladimir Socor. "Russian Forces in Moldova."

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 14 August 1992. RFE/RL Research Report [Munich]. Vol. 1, No. 32. Cassandra Cavanaugh. "Conflict in Moldova: The Gagauz Factor."

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 3 July 1992. RFE/RL Research Report [Munich]. Vol. 1, No. 27. "Weekly Review."

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 26 June 1992. RFE/RL Research Report [Munich]. Vol. 1, No. 26. Vladimir Socor. "Moldovan-Romanian Relations Are Slow to Develop."

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 1 May 1992. RFE/RL Research Report [Munich]. Vol. 1, No. 18. Bohdan Nahaylo. "Ukraine and Moldova: The View from Kiev."

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 31 January 1992. RFE/RL Research Report [Munich]. Vol. 1, No. 5. Vladimir Socor. "Why Moldova Does Not Seek Reunification with Romania."

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 17 January 1992. RFE/RL Research Report [Munich]. Vol. 1, No. 3. Vladimir Socor. "Creeping Putsch in Eastern Moldova."

Radio Romania Network [Bucharest, in Romanian]. 29 January 1993. "Parliament Chairman Mosanu, Others Resign." (FBIS-SOV-93-018 29 Jan. 1993, p. 54)

Radio Romania Network [Bucharest, in Romanian]. 17 February 1992. "Republic to Take over Troops." (FBIS-SOV-92-032 18 Feb. 1992, p. 63)

Rompres [Bucharest, in English]. 25 February 1992. "Defense Ministry Appeals to Officers, Soldiers." (FBIS-SOV-92-038 26 Feb. 1992, p. 57)

Rossiiskie Vesti [Moscow, in Russian]. 12 December 1992. "Republic's Problems, Future Pondered." (FBIS-USR-92-166 30 Dec. 1992, pp. 104-05)

Sovetskaia Moldova [Kishinev, in Russian]. 2 October 1990. "Moldova Government Resolution on Military Service." (JPRS-UMA-91-002 14 Jan. 1991, p. 12)

The Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) [Moscow, in English]. 26 March 1992. "Dnestr Leader Issues Decree on Mobilization." (FBIS-SOV-92-060 27 Mar. 1992, p. 58)

The Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) [Moscow, in English]. 5 March 1992. "Cease-Fire Declared." (FBIS-SOV-92-044 5 Mar. 1992, p. 68)

The Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) [Moscow, in English]. 16 October 1991. Fyodor Angeli. "National Army to be Formed in Moldavia." (NEXIS)

The Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) [Moscow, in English]. 22 May 1991. "Moldovan Legislature Votes to Remove Druk." (FBIS-SOV-91-100 23 May 1991, pp. 73-74)

TASS International Service [Moscow, in Russian]. 21 February 1992. "Defense Minister on Creation of National Army." (FBIS-SOV-92-039 27 Feb. 1992, p. 63)

Teleradiokompaniia Ostankino Television First Program Network [Moscow, in Russian]. 2 February 1993. "Parliament Accepts Resignations." (FBIS-SOV-93-021 3 Feb. 1993, p. 42)

Teleradiokompaniia Ostankino Television First Program Network [Moscow, in Russian]. 31 March 1992. "Mobilization of Males Reportedly Begins." (FBIS-SOV-92-062 31 Mar. 1992, p. 56)

Toronto Star. 7 May 1990. "Moldavians Hold Reunion at Soviet `Bridge of Flowers'."

Toronto Star. 26 February 1990. "Soviet Moldavians Vote in First Free Elections."

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