Chronology of Events: April 1992 - February 1994



See original


amparo            protection of constitutional rights

autogolpe       self-coup

CCD        Congreso Constituyente Democratico (Democratic Constituent Congress)

CSJM     Consejo Supremo de Justicia Militar (Supreme Council of Military Justice)

CNDDHH              Coordinadora Nacional de Derechos Humanos (National Coordinating Committee for Human Rights) department a geographical region. Peru is divided into 24 such regions.

DINCOTE              Dirección Nacional Contra el Terrorismo (National Directorate Against Terrorism)

MRTA   Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement)

rondas campesinas       (rondas)rural village self-defence militia patrols

ronderos, ronderas       male, female members of rondas

senderistas     members of Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso)



5 April

President Alberto Fujimori suspends the constitution and the judiciary, and dissolves parliament in an autogolpe (self-coup) (Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 1; Amnesty International May 1993, 4). (For additional information on the coup, see the IRBDC Question and Answer Series Paper Peru: Impact of the April 1992 Coup, August 1992.)

6 April

The Armed Forces Joint Command issues a communiqué supporting the president (Amnesty International May 1993, 5).

The government issues Decree Law No. 25,418, which outlines the objectives of the newly created Government of Emergency and National Reconstruction. Included among these objectives are constitutional reforms, as well as changes in the administration of justice and institutions linked to it, including the overall reform of the judiciary, the Tribunal of Constitutional Guarantees, the Supreme Council of Justice and the Public Ministry. Under the decree, the country is to be ruled by the executive through decree laws that are issued by the president and approved by the Council of Ministers. The decree further states that the government agrees to respect the treaties and international agreements entered into by the state. These include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ratified 1978), the American Convention on Human Rights (ratified 1978) and the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (ratified 1988) (ibid., 5-6).

17 April

The government issues Decree Law No. 25,433, which limits writs of amparo (protection of constitutional rights) and modifies habeas corpus (El Peruano 17 Apr. 1992; Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 49).

6 May

Decree Law No. 25,475, the first of a number of antiterrorism laws, is published (Andean Newsletter 11 May 1992, 7; Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 19). The new law redefines and broadens the scope of what is considered terrorist activity and criminalizes non-violent acts such as "provoking anxiety," "affecting international relations" and apología del terrorismo (apology for terrorism, which Americas Watch describes as "seeming to favour or excuse the behaviour of suspected guerillas") (ibid., 19-20).

16 May

The law of repentance, Decree Law No. 25,499, comes into force (Xinhua 9 Dec. 1993). The law provides for sentence reductions for terrorists who abandon guerilla organizations and offer information on subversive groups to the authorities (Global de Television Network 17 May 1992). Various pieces of legislation are later enacted to modify this law (Andean Commission of Jurists 18 Feb. 1994).

9 June

Víctor Polay, leader of the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru or MRTA), is arrested, along with several other MRTA leaders, two years after escaping from prison (Panamericana Television Network 10 June 1992; EFE 10 June 1992).

27 June

Decree Law No. 25,564 is issued. It reduces from 18 to 15 the age of criminal responsibility for "crimes of terrorism" (Amnesty International May 1993, 9; Country Reports 1993 1994, 539).

16 July

Hundreds of people are seriously injured in a Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) car-bomb attack in the Miraflores district of Lima. Reports on the number of deaths vary from 13 to at least 18. The attack is one of the most damaging in a series of bomb attacks that have taken place over the past few months (Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 16; Panamericana Television Network 17 July 1992).

18 July

Nine students and one professor are abducted from Enrique Guzm n y Valle University (also known as La Cantuta), a suspected training ground for Shining Path. The university is under Peruvian military control at the time (Reuters 25 Oct. 1993; Americas Watch 27 Sept. 1993, 4). The "Colina" death squad, reportedly operated by the National Intelligence Service, and the Peruvian army are suspected of participating in the disappearances (ibid., 2).

7 August

Fujimori issues Decree Law No. 25,659, which makes the terrorist activities set out in Article 2 of Decree Law No. 25,475 treasonous (Amnesty International May 1993, 9-10). The decree repeals the right of habeas corpus for persons suspected of terrorist activity who are either in police custody or in prison awaiting trial (ibid., 32). The decree, known as the "Treason Law," also gives the military justice system jurisdiction over civilians accused of perpetrating certain terrorist acts (Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 21).

12 September

Abimael Guzm n, leader of Shining Path, is captured by the National Directorate Against Terrorism (Dirección Nacional Contra el Terrorismo or DINCOTE), the police antiterrorist unit (Andean Newsletter 21 Sept. 1992, 5-6). He is sentenced, along with Elena Iparraguirre, the second-ranked leader of Shining Path, and Zenón Walter Vargas C rdenas, to life imprisonment on 7 October 1992 (ibid. 19 Oct. 1992a, 6; Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 36).

10 October

Shining Path guerillas attack and kill 47 peasants in Huayllao, in Ayacucho department, reportedly for having formed a ronda campesina (civil defence patrol) (Amnesty International May 1993, 40; Reuters 11 July 1993; Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 16).

15 October

Fujimori announces that Peru will renounce the American Convention on Human Rights (also known as the San José Pact), ratified by Peru in 1978, in order to expand the death penalty to include terrorist activities (Global de Television Network 16 Oct. 1992; Andean Newsletter 19 Oct. 1992b, 7; Notimex 18 Oct. 1992; AFP 16 Oct. 1992). The San José Pact prohibits expansion of the death penalty and also prohibits the use of the death penalty for political or related common crimes (Human Rights Watch Dec. 1993, 127; The New York Times 6 Aug. 1993).

13 November

Twenty-five military officers stage a coup attempt. Their plans to arrest General Nicol s de Bari Hermoza Ríos, chief of the armed forces, and allegedly to kill Fujimori are discovered by the intelligence network headed by Vladimiro Montesinos, and they are all arrested (Radio Programas del Peru 13 Nov. 1992; Time 23 Aug. 1993, 31). A report from Human Rights Watch says that 33 officers were court martialled in the case (Human Rights Watch Dec. 1993, 126-127). Four of the officers claim, in statements smuggled out of prison, that they have been beaten or tortured by Montesinos or his body guards (ibid., 127; Time 23 Aug. 1993, 31). Fujimori eventually pardons 11 of the officers (Human Rights Watch Dec. 1993, 127).

17 November

Prime Minister Oscar de la Puente Raygada announces that Peru will not renounce the San José Pact after all (Andean Newsletter 23 Nov. 1992, 7).

22 November

Elections for the newly created Democratic Constituent Congress (Congreso Constituyente Democratico or CCD) are held. The CCD, a single-chamber congress, replaces the two-chamber congress suspended in April, and it is charged with drafting a new constitution and carrying out the functions of the congress as set out in the constitution (Amnesty International May 1993, 15; Country Reports 1993 1994, 529). Forty-four of the eighty seats are won by the New Majority-Change 90 party, which is backed by Fujimori (ibid.).

26 November

Fujimori enacts Decree Law No. 25,880, which makes apology for terrorism (see entry for 6 May 1992) by teachers a crime of high treason (Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 50; Global de Television Network 27 Nov. 1992). Fujimori, on television, claims that if teachers use their positions to "instill erroneous ideas in the children's minds" they will face a maximum sentence of life imprisonment (ibid.).

31 December

The Government of Emergency and National Reconstruction, initiated in April 1992, is disbanded, and the CCD assumes control over the executive and judiciary (Global de Television Network 1 Jan. 1993).


5 January

The CCD approves a law validating the 1979 constitution, confirming Fujimori as the constitutional president of the republic and stating that all the decrees passed by the president and the Council of Ministers between the suspension of the constitution in April and 30 December 1992 are valid and will remain in force until revoked or revised by the congress. This includes the antiterrorism decrees (Amnesty International May 1993, 15-16; Global de Television Network 6 Jan. 1993).

29 January

Municipal elections are held throughout the country (Country Reports 1993 1994, 537; Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 5). In the weeks leading up to the elections, Shining Path is implicated in the murders of 28 local candidates and officials. Among the victims is Ramón Moyano, who replaced Mari Elena Moyano as vice-mayor of Villa El Salvador, a large slum area of Lima, after she was killed by senderistas (members of Shining Path) in February 1992 (Human Rights Watch Dec. 1993, 128; Country Reports 1992 1993, 474).

10 February

The ten-year sentence against army lieutenant Javier Bendezú Vargas is upheld by the Supreme Council of Military Justice (Consejo Supremo de Justicia Militar or CSJM) (Amnesty International May 1993, 33). Bendezú had been convicted of leading the 4 July 1991 massacre of 15 peasants in Santa Barbara (ibid.; Country Reports 1993 1994, 531; Andean Newsletter 22 Feb. 1993, 5). The CSJM absolved him of the crime of aggravated homicide, convicting him of abuse of authority and making false statements (Amnesty International May 1993, 33, 45; Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 39).

11-12 February

Two students at the National University of Central Peru in Huancayo are reportedly "disappeared." This brings to at least 28 the number of students from the university denounced as having disappeared since April 1992. Of these, 22 are later found dead (according to Amnesty International, "in circumstances suggesting they were extrajudicially executed") and the others remain unaccounted for (Country Reports 1993 1994, 532; Amnesty International May 1993, 22, 23).

22 February

Prime Minister de la Puente, who is also Peru's minister of foreign relations, states before the 49th session of the United Nations Commission for Human Rights that Peru is committed to fair trials for suspected terrorists, with all the guarantees provided for by law (Amnesty International May 1993, 13).

23 February

The CCD approves a motion that states that there is no policy of systematically violating human rights in Peru (El Comercio 23 Feb. 1993; Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 5; Amnesty International May 1993, 16). This coincides with Peru's attempt to renegotiate its economic aid package with the US. The US government has indicated it has concerns about eligibility for economic aid in light of human rights violations described in the 1992 Department of State report on human rights in Peru (ibid.).

7 March

In apparent response to a letter he received from a group of US lawmakers who expressed concern over rape by security forces, Fujimori vows, in a television interview, that any security forces member who commits rape will be punished (Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 47).

8 March

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) makes a visit to a women's prison (AFP 18 Mar. 1993). It is the first such visit since Peru and the ICRC renewed agreements, suspended in September 1992, to allow the latter access to Peruvian prisons (Amnesty International May 1993, 16; Americas Watch Apr. 1993, 38; Country Reports 1993 1994, 533-534).

22 March

Soldiers reportedly enter the town of Aucayacu, break into nine houses and rape the women and girls they find (Country Reports 1993 1994, 533).

26 March

The CSJM upholds the six-year conviction of former lieutenant Telmo Hurtado (Amnesty International May 1993, 33). Hurtado had been convicted for his role in the army massacre of 69 peasants in 1985 (Country Reports 1993 1994, 531; Amnesty International May 1993, 33). An Amnesty International report claims that the judgements passed in the Hurtado and Bendezú cases (see entry for 10 February 1992) are "virtually unique" in the past 10 years in Peru (ibid.). Country Reports 1993 states, however, that there are credible reports that Hurtado is free and back in the army (Country Reports 1993 1994, 531).

2 April

The CCD votes to establish the Special Commission of Inquiry to investigate allegations that government forces are involved in the disappearance of the students and teacher in the La Cantuta case (see entry for 18 July 1992) after member of congress Henry Pease claims to have documents not only implicating the army in the case but also identifying military officers who had taken part in the abduction and killings. The documents apparently come from Léon Dormido (Sleeping Lion), which claims to be a group within the military that supports human rights (Amnesty International May 1993, 17, 20-21; Latin American Weekly Report 3 June 1993, 251; Americas Watch 27 Sept. 1993, 7). Subsequently, the CSJM also opens an inquiry. The military investigation is widely viewed as an attempt to thwart the efforts of the Special Commission of Inquiry. Officers refuse to testify before the congressional inquiry, claiming that it has no jurisdiction since the case is already being investigated by the military courts, and the governing majority in the CCD also argues that the existence of a military inquiry preempts a congressional one (Notisur 4 June 1993; Americas Watch 27 Sept. 1993, 11).

20 April

In response to an 18 March invitation from the minister of justice, the National Coordinating Committee for Human Rights (Coordinadora Nacional de Derechos Humanos or CNDDHH), a Peruvian non-government human rights umbrella organization, meets for the first time with the government's newly created Human Rights Commission. The minister of justice presides. Other government officials who participate are the minister of the interior, the president of the Supreme Court of Justice, the Public Ministry's attorney general, the president of the State Defence Committee and a representative of the Ministry of Foreign Relations. The CNDDHH calls for the commission to work towards the elimination of human rights abuses in the country (Amnesty International May 1993, 17). After this first meeting, the government fails to call regular meetings and downgrades its participation in the commission to mid-level representatives (Country Reports 1993 1994, 538).

General Hermoza appears before the Special Commission of Inquiry and states that the activities surrounding the La Cantuta disappearances were not sanctioned by the high command of the armed forces (Latin American Weekly Report 6 May 1993, 194; Amnesty International May 1993, 21). Afterwards, Hermoza holds a press conference in which he reportedly charges the opposition members of the CCD involved in the inquiry of appearing to be "colluding with terrorism" and trying to discredit Peru's armed forces, and he says that he will not tolerate this (ibid., 18). Fujimori is initially reported to endorse Hermoza (ibid.; Latin American Weekly Report 6 May 1993, 194), but later he states that he guarantees the autonomy of the new congress and its right to investigate branches of the government (Amnesty International May 1993, 18).

21-22 April

Fifteen army division and brigade generals release a communiqué stating their complete support of General Hermoza. On 21 and 22 April, tanks and troops are deployed at strategic points throughout Lima in a show of military support of Hermoza (Amnesty International May 1993, 18; Latin American Weekly Report 6 May 1993, 194).

23 April

Minister of Defence Víctor Malca, in an effort to defuse the tensions between the army and the congress, tells the CCD that those responsible for the La Cantuta disappearances will be punished (Amnesty International May 1993, 21-22).

5 May

General Rodolfo Robles, the third-ranking officer in the Peruvian army, accuses Vladimiro Montesinos of being the leader of a paramilitary death squad working for the National Intelligence Service and of being responsible for the disappearances of the La Cantuta victims (Amnesty International Jan. 1994, 3; Time 23 Aug. 1993, 31; Country Reports 1993 1994, 531). Montesinos, a dishonourably-discharged army officer who was a former lawyer for drug traffickers and reportedly has links to the CIA, is the senior adviser to President Fujimori (ibid.; Time 23 Aug. 1993, 31). Shortly after, the Peruvian army releases a communiqué refuting Robles' charges. It states that the general's allegations are "groundless and constitute malicious assertions by someone who has not abided by the rules of military ethics" (AFP 7 May 1993). Robles is subsequently notified that he is to be transferred to Washington, and, fearing reprisals against his sons, who are in the military, he claims asylum in the US embassy in Lima. He and his family later flee Peru for Argentina. Fujimori dismisses the allegations against Montesinos, and the latter does not respond to Robles' accusations (Time 23 Aug. 1993, 31).

24 May

CCD president Jaime Yoshiyama states that the CSJM has the authority to investigate the La Cantuta case and that this "excludes the possibility of the defendants coming to the Congress" (Panamericana Television Network 24 May 1993; Americas Watch 27 Sept. 1993, 11).

25 May

After an opposition-proposed motion to have officers testify before the Special Commission of Inquiry in the La Cantuta case is rejected, opposition deputies protest by walking out of the congress. This walkout follows General Hermoza's statement that he would not accept an investigation that discredited the army (The Globe and Mail 26 May 1993).


The Special Commission of Inquiry releases its results in two reports. The majority report claims that the military is responsible for the disappearances at La Cantuta, and the minority report absolves the army of any involvement in the disappearances, saying that paramilitary groups were possibly involved or that the 10 people had perhaps gone into hiding. The CCD accepts the minority report (Amnesty International Jan. 1994, 3; Latin American Weekly Report 8 July 1993, 305).

30 June

Fujimori announces that Shining Path is no longer a threat (Latin American Weekly Report 15 July 1993b, 322).

1 July

A report published in Latin American Weekly Report states that the special prosecutor for terrorist activities, Daniel Espich n Tumay, has released figures showing that, since May 1992, 432 terrorists have been convicted by "faceless" military judges and 163 are serving life sentences (Latin American Weekly Report 1 July 1993, 293).

4 July

During the debate on the draft constitution in the CCD, a proposal to refer all human rights cases involving the security forces to the military courts is dropped after strong resistance from opposition members (Latin American Weekly Report 15 July 1993a, 322).

8 July

Four mass graves containing remains of a number of bodies are discovered in Cieneguilla, outside Lima, after a map is sent to Ricardo Uceda, editor of the magazine ( 12 July 1993; Latin American Weekly Report 22 July 1993a, 336). The CNDDHH says that, although the remains have not been positively identified, it is "very probable" that they are those of the victims in the La Cantuta case (ibid.). Suspicion around the graves is exacerbated by the failure, for six days, of the attorney general to have the grave site sealed off after it is discovered (Human Rights Watch Dec. 1993, 128).

10 July

Shining Path guerrillas kill some 12 or 13 people, including children, in the town of Matucana Alta (Reuters 11 July 1993; 2 Aug. 1993). Six members of Shining Path are killed by an army patrol, and another three are killed by a rural defence militia in two separate incidents in Junín department (AFP 11 July 1993). Four MRTA field commanders and their units surrender. These commanders predict that the MRTA will be eliminated within two or three months (Latin American Weekly Report 22 July 1993b, 336).

16 July

At least 10 Shining Path guerrillas are killed, 8 captured and 10 wounded by security forces near the northern Peruvian community of San Marcos (AFP 18 July 1993).


The investigation into the La Cantuta case is turned over to the military courts (Americas Watch 27 Sept. 1993, 13; Andean Newsletter 30 Aug. 1993, 7).

11 August

The US Congress announces that it will withhold US$105 million in aid to Peru, stating that Peru's human rights situation must improve before the funds are released. The freeze on this aid, earmarked for debt payment, will not affect other assistance funds offered to Peru by the US government (Inter Press Service 11 Aug. 1993). The aid was reportedly still being withheld in January 1994 (Reuters 19 Jan. 1994).

13 August

In a television newscast, Fujimori states that he has sought the approval of the congress for a system akin to a presidential pardon for persons charged with terrorism-related crimes (Panamericana Television Network 13 Aug. 1993).

14 August

Fujimori, on a visit to Paraguay, predicts that the MRTA will be totally eliminated by the end of the year and that Shining Path will be defeated by June 1995 (AFP 15 Aug. 1993).

18-19 August

Shining Path is responsible for a massacre in Junín department, in the central jungle area (Radio Programas del Peru 20 Sept. 1993; Country Reports 1993 1994, 530, 532; Le Monde 23 Aug. 1993). The exact number of deaths is unknown, but reports range from 55 to 62 villagers, mostly Ashaninka Indians (ibid.; Country Reports 1993 1994, 530, 532). At least 700 people are thought to have fled the area, becoming "internal refugees" (Amnesty International 25 Aug. 1993, 1; The New York Times 25 Nov. 1993). According to Human Rights Watch, "such attacks [have become] a leading cause of forced displacement" (Human Rights Watch Dec. 1993, 128).

21 August

Edmundo Cox Beuzeville is arrested in Lima (Latin American Weekly Report 23 Sept. 1993, 436; UPI 22 Aug. 1993). Authorities perceive the detonation of a series of bombs at 11 financial institutions as Shining Path's response to the arrest of Cox, who is reported to have succeeded Guzm n as the leader of the central committee of the organization (ibid.).

28 August

The president's press office announces that the resignations of all 14 cabinet members, customarily put forward on 28 July, have been accepted. One of the accepted resignations is that of Oscar de la Puente Raygada, who is appointed Fujimori's personal adviser on foreign policy affairs (Latin American Weekly Report 9 Sept. 1993, 410). A communiqué issued by the president's press secretariat states that the resignation of the whole cabinet is "part of normal periodic readjustments within the government" (EFE 28 Aug. 1993).

29 August

Security forces arrest some 150 people in Huaraz while searching for senderistas who attacked a town 50 kilometres from there on 25 August (AFP 29 Aug. 1993).


A commission of four lawyers from Argentina, Italy and the US arrives in Lima to undertake a study of judicial independence and due process in Peru. The commission is part of the Clinton administration's conditions tying aid to human rights (Human Rights Watch Dec. 1993, 130; Country Reports 1993 1994, 535).

A study by Desco, a Lima research institute, claims that in September Shining Path was responsible for 58 attacks in Lima resulting in 10 fatalities and 39 incidents in the provinces resulting in 94 deaths (Latin American Weekly Report 14 Oct. 1993, 471; Latin American Regional Reports 11 Nov. 1993, 2).

3 September

A complete detachment of Shining Path is captured by the army in Ancash province. While the identities of those arrested are not made available, police indicate that some are important senderista military leaders (AFP 4 Sept. 1993).

4 September

The CCD approves the draft constitution. Both the left and the right opposition announce that they will urge voters to reject the draft in the referendum on the constitution slated for 31 October (Latin American Weekly Report 16 Sept. 1993, 429). According to Domingo Belaúnde, a constitutional expert, only 10 per cent of the draft contains new issues. The most important ways in which the draft differs from the 1979 constitution are as follows: it allows the president to run for a consecutive second term; it grants the president the power to dissolve congress if there is "grave conflict" between the executive and legislature; it removes the requirement of the president to obtain congressional approval to appoint senior military officers and ambassadors; it replaces the old two-house congress with a single-house congress (the CCD); it eliminates the 12 semi-autonomous regions established in the final stages of the García administration; and it provides for the possibility of handing down the death penalty for crimes of terrorism (Latin American Regional Reports 11 Nov. 1993). Under the draft constitution, treason is also punishable by death; under the 1979 constitution, the death penalty could be used only in cases of treason during war with a foreign state (Andean Newsletter 22 Feb. 1993, 7; Andean Newsletter 28 June 1993, 5-6). Human Rights Watch, in its 1993 annual report, states that the draft constitution's subsequent approval in the referendum violates Peru's obligations under the San José Pact (see entry for 15 October 1992) (Human Rights Watch Dec. 1993, 127).

6 September

Twenty-eight ronderos (members of rondas) in Hu nuco department are killed, and Shining Path is suspected of perpetrating the massacre (Latin American Weekly Report 23 Sept. 1993, 436). Witnesses claim that Shining Path guerillas killed the villagers after ordering them out of their homes and lecturing them against organizing self-defence militia units (Reuters 8 Sept. 1993).

7 September

The right-wing group Libertad, formed by Mario Vargas Llosa in August 1987 to challenge then-president Alan García, who was attempting to place the banking system under state control, is disbanded with the resignation of 32 of its main leaders. Llosa retires from politics and takes up Spanish nationality (Latin American Weekly Report 23 Sept. 1993, 436; AFP 7 Sept. 1993).

10 September

President Fujimori announces that, with many of its leaders in prison or killed, Shining Path is being reduced to a band of killers working for drug traffickers, and he again states that it will be eradicated by 1995. There are varying views on just how cohesive Shining Path remains with the arrests and deaths of so many of its top leaders. DINCOTE is reported to suggest that the remaining free members of the central committee of Shining Path, Julio César Mezzich, Alberto Ramirez Durand, Margie Calvo, Teresa Durand and Jenny Rodríguez, form a type of collective leadership (Latin American Weekly Report 23 Sept. 1993, 436-437).

Ten settlers in Delta, in Junín department, are reportedly massacred by a ronda campesina from a neighbouring town on September 10 or 11. Even though an eyewitness to the massacre identified thirteen ronderos responsible, all but four were released after being questioned by the authorities (Amnesty International Nov. 1993, 1-2; Country Reports 1993 1994, 531).

11-13 September

Senderistas carry out bomb attacks in Lima on a number of banks and a pension office to mark the anniversary of Guzm n's capture (UPI 13 Sept. 1993; Reuters 13 Sept. 1993; AFP 13 Sept. 1993). Some 18 to 20 rebels who allegedly planned to fire rockets at the congress building are arrested by police (ibid.; UPI 13 Sept. 1993).

15 September

Abimael Guzm n and Elena Iparraguirre sign a letter to Fujimori seeking an end to the war started by Shining Path in 1980 (Latin American Weekly Report 14 Oct. 1993, 471; Inter Press Service 7 Oct. 1993). The contents of the letter are not publicized until 1 October (Keesing's Oct. 1993, 39684).

23 September

A report in Latin American Weekly Report states that 12 of Peru's 24 departments, including Lima, are still under a state of emergency and individual constitutional rights are suspended in these departments. The report further states that special prosecutor for terrorist cases Daniel Espich n Tumay has claimed that, since May 1992, 700 guerillas have taken advantage of the repentance law; 500 of those have resettled successfully. Espich n added that 200 leading senderistas have been imprisoned for life since the April 1992 coup. The report notes that, when the new constitution comes into force, those convicted may face execution (Latin American Weekly Report 23 Sept. 1993, 436).

24 September

Attacks on power stations cause blackouts in several cities, including Lima. While no group claims responsibility, the attacks have the same characteristics as those previously attributed to Shining Path (Latin American Weekly Report 14 Oct. 1993, 471; UPI 25 Sept. 1993).

29 September

Using water cannons and tear-gas, police dispel a demonstration organized by workers who favour the "no" side in the upcoming constitutional referendum. They arrest Teodulo Hern ndez, the secretary-general of the General Confederation of Peruvian Workers, and charge him with "disturbing the peace and promoting disorder." Lima is under a state of emergency, which theoretically prohibits all unauthorized public gatherings (BBC Summary 1 Oct. 1993).

Juan Francisco Tulich is detained in Lima. Shining Path reportedly split into two groups after Guzm n's imprisonment, and Tulich and Edmundo Cox are rumoured to be the leaders of one of these. Their group advocates continuing Shining Path's fight in the cities, part of Guzm n's ideology, while the other group advocates returning to the countryside (Latin American Weekly Report 14 Oct. 1993, 471).


A report issued by the US Committee for Refugees states that Peru has at least 600,000 internally displaced people (Kirk Oct. 1993, 2).

1 October

While at the United Nations, Fujimori reveals the letter written on 15 September by Guzm n (Keesing's Oct. 1993, 39684). Former senator Enrique Bernales, an expert on Shining Path, comments after Fujimori publicizes the letter, that Guzm n is regarded as a figure of the past by Shining Path members. According to Bernales, Guzm n's followers are dropping him as the leader of the armed struggle while maintaining the ideology he had promoted over the past thirteen years (Latin American Regional Reports 11 Nov. 1993, 2).

3 October

Fujimori provides a video of Guzm n signing the 15 September letter to prove that it was not done under duress. The letter marks the first time that Guzm n recognizes Fujimori as the head of state (Latin American Weekly Report 14 Oct. 1993, 471).

6 October

A second letter written by Guzm n is revealed in which he again makes a plea for peace. Like the first letter, this one is dismissed by Shining Path leaders as being a government fabrication (Keesing's Oct. 1993, 39684). Guzm n appears on television reading the letter. According to the Los Angeles Times, most analysts attribute his about-face to his year in jail and see it as a signal of the end of his leadership of Shining Path (Los Angeles Times 15 Oct. 1993).

7 October

Justice Minister Fernando Vega tells reporters that the government plans to introduce to the CCD proposed modifications to the antiterrorist law. The reforms would reportedly include the elimination of in absentia convictions, the creation of an appeals process and restoration of the right to full legal defense (Notisur 8 Oct. 1993). Human Rights Watch indicates that the bill is introduced sometime in October (Human Rights Watch Dec. 1993, 127).

9 October

Fifteen members of a ronda campesina in Pirrhuabamba in Ayacucho department are killed by Shining Path guerillas (Latin American Regional Reports 11 Nov. 1993, 2).

15 October

Shining Path central committee member Edmundo Cox is convicted of treason and sentenced by a military tribunal to life imprisonment (AFP 16 Oct. 1993).

21 October

Peruvian authorities announce that 848 members of Shining Path and the MRTA have surrendered in the year since the repentance law was passed. Daniel Espich n Tumay, special prosecutor for terrorist offenses, states that 798 others have been sentenced during the year, many to life imprisonment, which is the maximum penalty for subversive activity set by Fujimori when the repentance law was passed (UPI 21 Oct. 1993). Espich n has also announced that 200 senderistas have surrendered since 1 October and many are preparing to leave Peru with a new identity in exchange for passing information to the authorities (Latin American Weekly Report 21 Oct. 1993, 490).

Fujimori hails the capture of one of the MRTA's leaders, Jaime Castillo, alias Comrade Alfredo, as a coup de grace (Latin American Weekly Report 4 Nov. 1993, 513; BBC Summary 21 Oct. 1993). The president again claims that the MRTA will be disbanded by the end of the year (ibid.).

24 October

Fujimori announces that the CSJM has ordered the arrests of "three or four" officers in the La Cantuta case (Reuters 25 Oct. 1993; Country Reports 1993 1994, 531).

26 October

Police use tear-gas and fire shots in the air to break up an anti-referendum demonstration by students in Lima (BBC Summary 29 Oct. 1993).

27 October

Fujimori presides over a ceremony to mark the surrender of 181 members of Shining Path in Ayacucho. He reportedly states that the repentance law will be modified to enable peasants recruited by force to return to their communities (Latin American Weekly Report 11 Nov. 1993b, 519).

28 October

A report in Latin American Weekly Report claims that there is continuing uncertainty surrounding the leadership of Shining Path and points to reports which speculate that Julio César Mezzich, the leading military commander of Shining Path, may be the head of the force operating in Ancash, La Libertad and Cajamarca. Other reports suggest that he was involved in the Pirrhuabamba massacre and is the head of the column operating in Ayacucho, Apurimac and Huancavelica (Latin American Weekly Report 28 Oct. 1993, 495).

29 October

Shining Path is suspected in attacks which kill six people and cause power outages in Lima and 10 of the country's departments (AFP 30 Oct. 1993).

30 October

Fujimori announces that four other imprisoned Shining Path leaders signed a letter supporting Guzm n's call for peace between Shining Path and the government (Latin American Weekly Report 11 Nov. 1993b, 519).

Rebels are suspected of setting a bomb that results in considerable damage, but no casualties, outside the congressional office in Lima on the eve of the referendum on the constitution (AFP 30 Oct. 1993).

31 October

The referendum on the draft constitution is held (AFP 30 Oct. 1993; Keesing's Oct. 1993, 39683-4; Human Rights Watch Dec. 1993, 127). The constitution is approved by a 52.2 per cent to 47.7 per cent margin (AFP 12 Dec. 1993). In general, the fringe areas of the country (San Martin, Loreto, Cusco and Tacna) vote against the draft while the larger cities (Lima, Arequipa and Huancayo) endorse it (Latin American Weekly Report 11 Nov. 1993a, 517).


Further clandestine graves containing the remains of a number of the victims in the La Cantuta case are discovered at a police shooting range east of Lima. Amnesty International says that, according to a report in the magazine Si, the victims had been shot and burried at the shooting range but some of the remains were later transferred to the site that was uncovered on 8 July (Amnesty International Jan. 1994, 4; Reuters 20 Dec. 1993).

9 November

A criminal court in Lima sentences several police officers to terms of 5 to 18 years for aggravated manslaughter in the June 1991 murder of three students. The students had been detained as guerilla suspects (Human Rights Watch Dec. 1993, 128; AP 10 Nov. 1993; Reuters 9 Nov. 1993).

13 November

The CCD approves a bill to modify the antiterrorist legislation introduced after the autogolpe (Global de Television Network 13 Nov. 1993; Keesing's Nov. 1993, 39733).

19 November

Shining Path sets off a car bomb near the Ministry of Defence and the army's general headquarters in Lima. There are no casualties. Pamphlets found at the scene claim that the armed struggle begun in May 1980 will continue (BBC Summary 22 Nov. 1993; AFP 20 Nov. 1993).

20 November

Shining Path is suspected in the bombing of the Peruvian-US Cultural Institute office in Lima; no injuries are reported (UPI 21 Nov. 1993).

25 November

The government confirms that Major Martín Rivas and three other officers are being held on suspicion of involvement in the La Cantuta case (Latin American Weekly Report 9 Dec. 1993, 574).

A law restoring the right of habeas corpus (see entry for 7 August 1992) comes into force (AFP 25 Nov. 1993; Keesing's Nov. 1993, 39733).


The international commission of lawyers that studied the judiciary in Peru hands its report to the government. While a representative of the Andean Commission of Jurists stated in mid-February 1994 that the results of the study had not yet been made public (Andean Commission of Jurists 18 Feb. 1994), an article in the Peruvian weekly Caretas of 23 December 1993 outlined some of the report's contents (Caretas 23 Dec. 1993, 12-13). According to Caretas, the report recommended that civilians be tried by civilian courts, that the judiciary's uncertain situation be settled and judges be elected, and that the death penalty not be applied until the Inter-American Human Rights Commission has been consulted. The report also commended the recent elimination of some obstacles to due process, but seriously questioned the processing of terrorism and treason cases (ibid.).

2 December

On the eve of Guzm n's birthday, members of Shining Path bomb the offices of El Peruano. They also bomb electrical installations, causing a blackout in Lima (AFP 3 Dec. 1993a).

3 December

Three members of Shining Path occupy the offices of Agence France Presse in Lima to commemorate Guzm n's fifty-ninth birthday (AFP 3 Dec. 1993b).

Fujimori, in anticipation of the promulgation of the new constitution, confirms General Hermoza as the chief of Peru's army for another year, despite the general's scheduled retirement, and is considering additional promotions within the security forces. The new constitution permits the defence minister to recommend promotions to the president who, as commander-in-chief, ratifies them (Latin American Weekly Report 16 Dec. 1993, 579; BBC Summary 7 Dec. 1993).

9 December

El Peruano reports that 1350 members of Shining Path and the MRTA have surrendered since the law of repentance came into force in 1992 (Xinhua 9 Dec. 1993).

16 December

Suspected Shining Path guerillas kill six and injure six in a bank hold-up (UPI 16 Dec. 1993).

Prosecutor Víctor Cubas charges 10 or 11 officers and soldiers with the killings of the lecturer and students in the La Cantuta case after dissatisfaction is expressed following a military investigation into the officers (The Globe and Mail 18 Jan. 1994; Amnesty International Jan. 1994, 1; The New York Times 19 Dec. 1993). Cubas had ordered investigations following the discovery of the clandestine graves that were found to contain the remains of the La Cantuta victims (Amnesty International Jan. 1994, 4). A military court has also indicted these 11 and 2 other military personnel (Country Reports 1993 1994, 529). The Supreme Court is expected to decide in January 1994 which authority, the military or civilian court, should hear the case (Country Reports 1993 1994, 531; Latin American Weekly Report 13 Jan. 1994a, 9).

20 December

The officers charged in the La Cantuta case fail to make their appearance before the civilian court. The judge in the case, Carlo Magno Chacón Flores, orders the 11 officers to be brought before him by force if necessary (Reuters 21 Dec. 1993).

27 December

Police report the emergence of a breakaway faction of Shining Path that is calling itself the New Peru Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario Nuevo Peru) and that has established itself in the provinces of Huancavelica and Puno. While police say they first heard of the new group two months before, they say attacks accompanied by slogans for the group began only within the last two weeks (Reuters 27 Dec. 1993). The Peruvian magazine also reports on the emergence of the New Peru Revolutionary Movement (UPI 10 Jan. 1994).

There are charges that Judge Carlo Magno Chacón Flores accepted a bribe of US$10,000 from military intelligence in 1992 to organize a pro-Fujimori rally two days after the April coup (ibid. 27 Dec. 1993).

29 December

Fujimori promulgates the new constitution as bomb attacks in Lima raise fears of a new offensive by Shining Path (Latin American Weekly Report 13 Jan. 1994b, 8).

An Agence France Presse report claims that, since Guzm n's arrest in 1992, an estimated 2,000 members of Shining Path have been killed and another 1,500 captured (AFP 29 Dec. 1993).

31 December

The new constitution comes into force (Country Reports 1993 1994, 529). However, Fujimori has reportedly stated that he will not implement the death penalty provision of the new constitution (ibid., 535).

Statistics for 1993 put the number of extrajudicial killings by government security forces and rondas at between 22 and 31, down from 114 estimated in 1992. Extrajudicial killings by Shining Path for 1993 are estimated at 516, down from 958 in 1992. Disappearances in 1993 are estimated at 44 to 57, down from between 145 and 280 in 1992. Most disappearances, according to the Public Ministry, implicate members of the security forces in the emergency zones (Country Reports 1993 1994, 530-532).


10 January

The Peruvian magazine reports on a schism in Shining Path. The article states that a faction of the organization has formed around Oscar Ramírez Durand (alias "Feliciano"), the number-three man in Shining Path before the capture of Guzm n and Iparraguirre. Ramirez and his followers have denounced the call for peace negotiations from Guzm n and have rejected his leadership (BBC Summary 12 Jan. 1994; EFE 11 Jan. 1994).

13 January

Eight members of the MRTA are reportedly killed in clashes with government troops in Pichanaki, in the central Peruvian jungle (Reuters 15 Jan. 1994).

20 January

Enrique Miranda Palma, a government prosecutor, reports that 53 students have disappeared from the National University of Central Peru in Huancayo since 1992. He further reports that, of this number, 22 were confirmed murdered, 26 are still missing and 5 have been found. All of the found students claim to have been detained by the military (UPI 20 Jan. 1994).

26 January

General Hermoza states that, since 19 January, 76 Shining Path rebels have surrendered under the repentance law. He further states that since the law was brought into force, 690 people have taken advantage of it (UPI 26 Jan. 1994).

10 February

After a supreme court judge rules in late January that civil rather than military courts should hear the La Cantuta case (Latin American Weekly Report 10 Feb. 1994, 53), Fujimori enacts a law that makes a simple majority enough for the supreme court to resolve questions of jurisdiction between military and civilian courts (The Globe and Mail 11 Feb. 1994; Latin American Weekly Report 24 Feb. 1994, 73). The following day, the supreme court rules, by simple majority, that the La Cantuta case is to be tried before a military court (ibid.).

16 February

Prime Minister Bustamante resigns in protest over the law enacted by Fujimori on 10 February. It was published without Bustamante's signature (The Globe and Mail 17 Feb. 1994).


Agence France Presse (AFP). 29 December 1993. "Spectacular Lima Car Bombs Mark Change to New Shining Path Leader." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 12 December 1993. "New Peruvian Constitution Approved." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 3 December 1993a. "Lima Car Bomb Attack Leaves Two Dead." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 3 December 1993b. "Un commando armé du Sentier Lumineux occupe le bureau de l'AFP à Lima (additif)." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 25 November 1993. "Habeas Corpus Reinstated in Terrorism Cases." (FBIS-LAT-93-227 29 Nov. 1993, p. 79)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 20 November 1993. Robert Koch. "Explosion de deux voitures piégées et une dizaine d'attentats a Lima : Pas de victimes." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 30 October 1993. "Rebels in Peru Attack Congressional Building on Eve of Referendum." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 16 October 1993. "In Peru, a Shining Path Rebel Leader Sentenced to Life Behind Bars." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 13 September 1993. "Five Bomb Blasts Shake Lima." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 7 September 1993. "Principal Leaders of Liberty Movement Quit Party." (FBIS-LAT-93-174 10 Sept. 1993, p. 27)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 4 September 1993. Pascal Bourdon. "Trente membres du Sentier Lumineux arretés au Pérou." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 29 August 1993. "Peru Announces Mass Arrests in Rebel Hunt." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 15 August 1993. Bruno Bartoloni. "Le president Fujimori prédit la disparition de deux mouvements de guerilla." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 18 July 1993. "13 Die in Violence in Peru." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 11 July 1993. "Ten Killed in Peruvian Violence." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 7 May 1993. "Army Says Charges 'Groundless'." (FBIS-LAT-93-087 7 May 1993, p. 41)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 18 March 1993. Alain Bommenel. "Le CICR reprend ses visites dans les lieux de détention au Pérou." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 16 October 1992. "Shining Path Leader May Still Face Death Penalty." (NEXIS)

Americas Watch. 27 September 1993. Vol. 5, No. 9. Peru: Anatomy of a Cover-up: The Disappearances at La Cantuta. New York: Americas Watch.

Americas Watch. April 1993. Human Rights in Peru One Year After Fujimori's Coup. New York: Americas Watch.

Amnesty International. January 1994. Peru: Army Officers Charged with Murdering La Cantuta University Lecturer and Students. (AI Index: AMR 46/01/94). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International. November 1993. "Peru: Ten Settlers Massacred by Civil Defence Patrol." (AI Index: AMR 46/38/93). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International. 25 August 1993. "Peru: Amnesty International Condemns 'Shining Path' Massacre of Ashaninka." (AI Index: AMR 46/WU 05/93). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International. May 1993. Peru: Human Rights since the Suspension of Constitutional Government. (AI Index: AMR 46/13/93). London, Amnesty International.

Andean Commission of Jurists, Lima. 18 February 1994. Telephone interview with representative.

Andean Newsletter [Lima]. 30 August 1993. No. 81. "Keys Provide Clues."

Andean Newsletter [Lima]. 28 June 1993. No. 79. "Ex-Mayor Escapes with His Life and Makes Statement about the Death Penalty."

Andean Newsletter [Lima]. 22 February 1993. No. 75. "Death Penalty, Pardons and the Constitution."

Andean Newsletter [Lima]. 23 November 1992. No. 72. "Fujimori Backs Off."

Andean Newsletter [Lima]. 19 October 1992a. No. 71. "Presentation and Trial of Shining Path Leader."

Andean Newsletter [Lima]. 19 October 1992b. No. 71. "Fujimori Breaks with San José Pact."

Andean Newsletter [Lima]. 21 September 1992. No. 70. "Shining Path Leader Captured."

Andean Newsletter [Lima]. 11 May 1992. No. 66. "Post-coup Justice."

Associated Press (AP). 10 November 1993. "Peru Court Sentences Six Policemen for Killing Students." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 12 January 1994. "Lima Magazine Says Shining Path Split into Two Groups, One Opposed to Peace Call." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 7 December 1993. "Fujimori Confirms Hermoza as Army Head." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 22 November 1993. "Car Bomb Explodes in Lima; Shining Path Pamphlets Found at the Scene." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 29 October 1993. "Anti-referendum Student Demonstrations in Lima End in Violence." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 21 October 1993. "Fujimori Confirms Arrest of MRTA Leader: Says Will Disband Group 'This Year'." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 1 October 1993. "Police Reportedly Arrest Union Leader after Demonstration in Lima. (NEXIS)

Caretas [Lima]. 23 December 1993. "Jalón de Orejas."

El Comercio [Lima, in Spanish]. 23 February 1993. "Congress Denies Human Rights Violations." (FBIS-LAT-93-046 11 Mar. 1993, pp. 37-38)

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993. 1994. United States Department of State. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1992. 1993. United States Department of State. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

EFE [Madrid, in Spanish]. 11 January 1994. "Shining Path 'Leader' Rejects Guzman's Orders." (FBIS-LAT-94-007 11 Jan. 1994, pp. 40-41)

EFE [Madrid, in Spanish]. 28 August 1993. "Presidency Communique on Resignations." (FBIS-LAT-93-166 30 Aug. 1993, p. 55)

EFE [Madrid, in Spanish]. 10 June 1992. "MRTA Leader Polay Campos Reportedly Arrested." (FBIS-LAT-92-112 10 June 1992, p. 49)

Global de Television Network [Lima, in Spanish]. 13 November 1993. "CCD Approves Relaxation of Antiterrorist Law." (FBIS-LAT-93-219 16 Nov. 1993, pp. 49-50)

Global de Television Network [Lima, in Spanish]. 6 January 1993. "Fujimori Named 'Constitutional Chief of State'." (FBIS-LAT-93-003 6 Jan. 1993, p. 43)

Global de Television Network [Lima, in Spanish]. 1 January 1993. "'Emergency and Reconstruction' Government Ends." (FBIS-LAT-93-001 4 Jan. 1993, p. 40)

Global de Television Network [Lima, in Spanish]. 27 November 1992. "Life Imprisonment Decreed for Terrorism Apologists." (FBIS-LAT-92-231 1 Dec. 1992, pp. 48-49)

Global de Television Network [Lima, in Spanish]. 16 October 1992. "Government to Denounce San José Pact." (FBIS-LAT-92-201 16 Oct. 1992, pp. 37-38)

Global de Television Network [Lima, in Spanish]. 17 May 1992. "Decree Benefits Rebels Who Renounce Terrorism." (FBIS-LAT-92-096 18 May 1992, pp. 26-27)

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 17 February 1994. "Peru's Prime Minister Quits."

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 11 February 1994. "Rights Case Sent to Military Court."

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 18 January 1994. James Brooke. "Test Case Will Make or Break Aid to Peru."

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 26 May 1993. "Peruvian Deputies Walk Out."

Human Rights Watch. December 1993. Human Rights Watch World Report 1994. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Inter Press Service. 7 October 1993. "Peru: Talks Continue with Jailed Guerilla Leader." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service. 11 August 1993. "Human Rights: United States Freezes Aid to Peru." (NEXIS)

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. November 1993. Vol. 38, No. 10. "Peru: Result of Constitutional Referendum."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. October 1993. Vol. 38, No. 9. "Peru: Constitutional Referendum."

Kirk, Robin. October 1993. "To Build Anew: An Update on Peru's Internally Displaced People" (issue paper). Washington: U.S. Committee for Refugees.

Latin American Regional Reports [London]. 11 November 1993. "Backing for Reform Less Than Expected."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 24 February 1994. "Washington Warns Fujimori after 'La Cantuta' Case Is Sent to Military Court."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 10 February 1994. "Civil Courts to Hear La Cantuta Case."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 13 January 1994a. "Eleven Officers to Be Tried for Killings."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 13 January 1994b. "New Constitution Comes into Force."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 16 December 1993. "Hermoza Confirmed as Army Chief."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 9 December 1993. "Major Held over La Cantuta Case."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 11 November 1993a. "Referendum Approves Peru's New Constitution--but Only Just."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 11 November 1993b. "Voice of Provinces Makes Itself Heard." (NEXIS)

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 4 November 1993. "Sendero Replies with Lima Car Bomb: Fujimori Says Chilean's Arrest Is Mortal Blow to MRTA." (NEXIS)

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 28 October 1993. "Sendero Squads Keep on Killing."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 21 October 1993. "Sendero Rejects Call to 'Fight for Peace'."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 14 October 1993. "Guzm n Calls for Talks to End War."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 23 September 1993. "Sendero Luminoso Back on Offensive."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 16 September 1993. "Fujimori Sets Date for Referendum."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 9 September 1993. "De la Puente Goes in Cabinet Clear-out."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 22 July 1993a. "Mass Graves Revive La Cantuta Case."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 22 July 1993b. "Peru: MRTA Collapses."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 15 July 1993a. "Debate Begins on New Constitution."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 15 July 1993b. "Fujimori Claims Sendero is Beaten."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 8 July 1993. "Military Absolved in La Cantuta Case."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 1 July 1993. "Sendero Offensive Nipped in the Bud."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 3 June 1993. "Congress Shuns Confrontation."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 6 May 1993. "Anniversary with Tanks on the Streets."

Los Angeles Times. 15 October 1993. Adriana Von Hagen. "Politics: A Reformed Revolutionary?: Peru's President Has Scored Points by Apparently Bringing Jailed Rebel Leader Guzman to Heel." (NEXIS)

Le Monde [Paris]. 23 August 1993. Nicole Bonnet. "Pérou: Un commando du Sentier Lumineux a massacré un soixante d'indiens." (NEXIS)

The New York Times. 19 December 1993. "11 Soldiers in Peru Charged with Kidnapping and Murder." (NEXIS)

The New York Times. 25 November 1993. "Peru's Peasant Victims Still Need Help." (NEXIS)

The New York Times. 6 August 1993. Nathaniel C. Nash. "Peru Is Expected to Extend Death Penalty to Terrorists." (NEXIS)

Notimex. 18 October 1992. "Peru to Propose Annulment of San José Treaty." (NEXIS)

Notisur. 8 October 1993. "Peru: Fujimori Rejects Sendero Luminoso Peace Offer, Asserting That Total Military Victory Is Near." (NEXIS)

Notisur. 4 June 1993. "Peru: Human Rights Investigation Continues." (NEXIS)

Panamericana Television Network [Lima, in Spanish]. 13 August 1993. "Fujimori on Creation of Terrorism-Related Pardon System." (FBIS-LAT-93-156 16 Aug. 1993, pp. 41-42)

Panamericana Television Network [Lima, in Spanish]. 24 May 1993. "Yoshiyama on Military Authority in Cantuta Case." (FBIS-LAT-93-102 28 May 1993, pp. 42-43)

Panamericana Television Network [Lima, in Spanish]. 17 July 1992. "More on Car Bomb." (FBIS-LAT-92-138 17 July 1992, p. 20)

Panamericana Television Network [Lima, in Spanish]. 10 June 1992. "Armed Forces Arrest MRTA Leader Victor Polay." (FBIS-LAT-92-113 11 June 1992, p. 27)

El Peruano [Lima, in Spanish]. 17 April 1992. "Decree Modifies Habeas Corpus, Amparo Laws." (FBIS-LAT-92-085 1 May 1992, pp. 26-27)

Radio Programas del Peru [Lima, in Spanish]. 20 September 1993. "Government Informs UN about Shining Path Massacre." (FBIS-LAT-93-182 22 Sept. 1993, p. 40)

Radio Programas del Peru [Lima, in Spanish]. 13 November 1992. "Reportage on 13 Nov Army Officials' Coup Attempt." (FBIS-LAT-92-221 16 Nov. 1992, p. 31)

Reuters. 19 January 1994. BC Cycle. "U.S. Envoy to Stress Human Rights in Peru." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 15 January 1994. "Eight Pro-Cuban Guerrillas Killed in Peru Clash." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 27 December 1993. BC Cycle. "Peru Guerrilla Faction Tries to Restart War." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 21 December 1993. BC Cycle. "Army Officers No-shows in Peru Rights Case." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 20 December 1993. BC Cycle. "Rights Case Puts Pressure on Peru's Government." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 9 November 1993. "Six Policemen Sentenced in Peru Student Killings." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 25 October 1993. BC Cycle. "Officers Ordered Arrested for Peru Disappearances." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 13 September 1993. "Peru Guerillas Attack Banks, Weekend Arrests Made." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 8 September 1993. BC Cycle. "Maoist Guerillas Kill 28 in Peruvian Jungle." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 11 July 1993. BC Cycle. "Maoist Guerrillas Kill 13 in Attack in Rural Peru." (NEXIS)

[Lima, in Spanish]. 2 August 1993. "Shining Path 'Genocide Day' in Ayacucho Recounted." (FBIS-LAT-93-183 23 Sept. 1993, pp. 63-64)

[Lima, in Spanish]. 12 July 1993. "Discovery of Possible La Cantuta Remains Recounted." (FBIS-LAT-93-160 20 Aug. 1993, pp. 41-44)

Time [New York]. 23 August 1993. Marguerite Johnson. "The President's Shadow: Controversy Gathers Around the Second Most Powerful Figure in the Country."

United Press International (UPI). 26 January 1994. BC Cycle. "Shining Path Rebels Die in Fighting with Peru's Army." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 20 January 1994. BC Cycle. "Peruvian Prosecutor: 22 of 53 Student Kidnap Victims Murdered." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 10 January 1994. BC Cycle. "Peruvian Rebels Said Split over Dialogue Call." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 27 December 1993. BC Cycle. "Charges Emerge Against Judge in Peruvian Slaying Case." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 16 December 1993. BC Cycle. "Seven Killed in Thwarted Peruvian Bank Raid."

United Press International (UPI). 21 November 1993. BC Cycle. "Bomb Explodes at U.S. Cultural Center in Lima." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 21 October 1993. BC Cycle. "Hundreds of Peruvian Rebels Surrender under Leniency Law." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 25 September 1993. BC Cycle. "Authorities Restoring Power in Peru Following Outages and Bombings." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 13 September 1993. "Shining Path Guerillas Mark Anniversary of Guzman's Capture." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 22 August 1993. BC Cycle. "Peruvian Forces Arrest Shining Path Leader." (NEXIS)

Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 9 December 1993. "Over 1,300 Peruvian Guerrillas Surrender." (NEXIS)

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