Chronology of Events January 1994 to February 1995 (Supplement to the Country Review)

 

GLOSSARY

AJK                Azad Jammu and Kashmir

ANP               Awami National Party

HRCP     Human Rights Commission of Pakistan

ISI           Inter Service Intelligence

JI             Jamaat-i-Islami Pakistan (Islamic Assembly)

JUI          Jamaat Ulema Islam (Conference of Ulema of Islam)

MNA      Member of National Assembly

MQM-A                Mohajir Quami Mahaz-Altaf (Mohajir National Movement)

MQM-H Mohajir Quami Mahaz-Haqiqi

NPT        Nuclear Proliferation Treaty

NWFP    North West Frontier Province

PML-J    Pakistan Muslim League-Junejo

PML-N   Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz

PPP         Pakistan People's Party

SSP         Sipah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (Forces of the Lions of Pakistan)

TJP         Tehrik-i-Jafria Pakistan

TNSM    Tehrik-i-Nawaz-i-Shariat Mohammed (Movement for the Enforcement of Islamic Law)

MAP

See original

INTRODUCTION

Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party (PPP) government was challenged in several ways throughout 1994 and early 1995. Bhutto faced open public criticism from her brother and mother, and the parliamentary opposition, led by the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), employed a variety of tactics to bring down the government. The spread of fundamentalist Islam to tribal areas led to several armed confrontations, and the blasphemy laws were a continuing source of controversy. Sectarian conflict between Sunnis and Shiites increased and spread beyond Punjab province. The situation in Karachi deteriorated markedly, with hundreds of deaths due to sectarian conflict, increasing crime and conflicts between both the Mohajir Quami Mahaz (MQM) and the government and between MQM factions.

 The following chronology provides details on these trends. This paper is a supplement to the chronology included in the the DIRB's April 1994 Pakistan: Country Review and should be read in conjunction with that paper. For additional background information, please consult the January 1994 DIRB Question and Answer Series paper Pakistan: Ahmadis Update December 1991-October 1993, and the June 1994 DIRB Human Rights Brief Women in Pakistan.

CHRONOLOGY

1994

4 January

In response to reports that 5,000 to over 40,000 Afghans have entered Pakistan since fighting renewed in Afghanistan on 1 January 1994, the government imposes visa restrictions on all Afghans entering the country (Radio Pakistan 9 Jan. 1994; The News 4 Jan. 1994).

5 January

Several hundred supporters of Murtaza Bhutto, the prime minister's brother, attempt to stage a march from the Bhutto family home in Larkana to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's grave about 15km away (AP 5 Jan. 1994; The Houston Chronicle 16 Jan. 1994; AFP 5 Jan. 1994). Over 12,000 police are deployed in a 20km radius around the site to allow Prime Minister Bhutto to commemorate her father's birthday without meeting her brother's supporters (ibid.; Reuters 5 Jan. 1994; FEER 20 Jan. 1994). At least two people are killed when police fire upon some of Murtaza Bhutto's supporters at Larkana (The Herald Jan. 1994, 34; Asiaweek 9 Feb. 1994b, 42; AP 5 Jan. 1994); some sources report as many as four killed and 20 wounded (Current History Mar. 1994, 143; Time 17 Jan. 1994; The Houston Chronicle 16 Jan. 1994). Although police later state that they were returning gunfire from the crowd (The Herald Jan. 1994, 34; AP 5 Jan. 1994; AFP 5 Jan. 1994), Bhutto's widow claims the police fired without provocation (ibid.; AP 5 Jan. 1994).

Bhutto's widow later describes her daughter as a "dictator" (ibid.; Keesing's Jan. 1994a, 39819), comparing her to General Mohammed Zia ul-Haq (Time 17 Jan. 1994; FEER 20 Jan. 1994). Mother and daughter reportedly reach a "truce" later in the month, with both making statements of rapprochement (Dawn 17 Jan. 1994; The Nation 18 Jan. 1994; Asiaweek 9 Feb. 1994b, 42), but it is not clear how their differences on Murtaza will be resolved (ibid.; The Nation 18 Jan. 1994). [ This confrontation is only the latest in a Bhutto family conflict that has grown since Murtaza's November 1993 return to Pakistan after 16 years of self-imposed exile in Syria, and his subsequent arrest on charges of terrorism (AP 5 Jan. 1994; Financial Times 8 Jan. 1994; AFP 5 Jan. 1994). Bhutto's widow maintains that Murtaza should inherit her husband's political legacy and be involved in the PPP leadership (Asiaweek 9 Feb. 1994b, 42; AFP 8 Jan. 1994; Newsweek 24 Jan. 1994).]

8 January

At least ten people are injured when a bomb explodes near the Karachi city courts (AFP 8 Jan. 1994; The News 9 Jan. 1994). Sources within the city administration suggest the bombing may be linked to the recent confrontation at Larkana (ibid.; AFP 8 Jan. 1994).

Suresh Kumar, an "active member of the Murtaza Bhutto Committee" who was injured during the 5 January demonstration (The Muslim 9 Jan. 1994), is rearrested after escaping custody (ibid.; AFP 8 Jan. 1994). According to one source, Sindh information minister Perves Ali Shah has described Kumar as a "known terrorist" (The Muslim 9 Jan. 1994).

12 January

Thousands are stranded in Afghanistan when the Torkham border post is closed because of the large number of Afghans seeking asylum in Pakistan (AFP 13 Jan. 1994; The News 13 Jan. 1994b; UNHCR 14 Jan. 1994; UNCHR 14 Feb. 1994). Sources indicate that the government does not recognize these new arrivals as "refugees" (PTV Television Network 13 Jan. 1994) and has denied that the border is closed (The News 13 Jan. 1994b; The Muslim 14 Jan. 1994; Radio Pakistan 26 Jan. 1994). The government states that people with "valid" travel documents are still allowed entry to Pakistan (ibid.; AFP 13 Jan. 1994; Jang 18 Jan. 1994), and the UNCHR notes that the sick and wounded have been permitted entry (UNCHR 14 Feb. 1994; Jang 18 Jan. 1994). The government decides to contribute to the relief effort underway in the camps near Jalalabad (ibid.; The News 13 Jan. 1994b; PTV Television Network 13 Jan. 1994).

13 January

Federal interior minister Naseerullah Babar states that the army security presence in Sindh province will likely continue until June (The News 13 Jan. 1994a).

According to Radio Pakistan, government officials claim Indian troops have been "indiscriminately firing from across the Line of Control" between Pakistani and Indian Kashmir (Radio Pakistan Overseas 13 Jan. 1994).

15 January

In what the presiding judge describes as a poorly investigated case, two Christian men charged with blasphemy are granted bail by the Lahore High Court after a lower court had denied it (The Herald Feb. 1994b, 16). Along with Salamat Masih, an illiterate 13-year-old boy, Manzoor Masih and Rehmat Masih were originally accused of writing anti-Islamic graffiti on a mosque wall (ibid.). Conviction on blasphemy charges brings a mandatory death sentence in Pakistan (also see 5 April 1994 entry) (AP 5 Apr. 1994; UPI 5 Apr. 1994; Reuters 21 Apr. 1994).

21 January

Five people are killed and at least 15 wounded in a grenade attack outside a Shiite mosque in Punjab province (Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran 21 Jan. 1994). Other sources report from four to seven deaths and up to 25 injured (BBC Summary 24 Jan. 1994; Asiaweek 2 Feb. 1994, 7; Reuters 5 Feb. 1994). The attack is believed linked to the ongoing sectarian conflict between Sunnis and Shiites (The Herald Mar. 1994e, 107; Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran 21 Jan. 1994).

22 January

Amir Kazi Hussain Ahmad resigns as leader of the Jamaat-i-Islami Pakistan (JI), the main Islamic political party (UPI 22 Jan. 1994; The Herald Feb. 1994a, 66; Keesing's Jan. 1994b, 39819). On 27 February, in what is interpreted as a mandate to reform the JI, Ahmad is reelected leader (Keesing's Feb. 1994c, 39865).

An attack on a Sunni mosque in Punjab province that leaves two dead and eight injured is believed to be a response to the 21 January attack on a Shiite mosque (Reuters 5 Feb. 1994).

23 January

In response to requests from Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia and other Arab countries to extradite nationals who participated in the war in Afghanistan, the government instructs all "Arab Islamists" to leave Pakistan by the end of the month. The requesting governments suspect that many of their nationals are involved in terrorist or insurrectionary activities in their home countries (Keesing's Jan. 1994b, 39819; Al-Sharq Al-Awsat 6 Jan. 1994; Dawn 24 Jan. 1994; UPI 26 Jan. 1994). Earlier in the month the Pakistani government stated that the passports of foreign nationals would not be renewed (The News 13 Jan. 1994a).

In March justice and law minister Iqbal Haider states that Pakistan has recently expelled 2,000 veterans of the war in Afghanistan believed connected to attacks in Egypt (AFP 27 Mar. 1994). In April, in reference to the continued presence of Arab nationals, interior minister Babar states that Pakistan will not be used as a base for terrorism (Xinhua 3 Apr. 1994). On April 18 the government states that Arab nationals must leave the country immediately or "face severe action" (The News 19 Apr. 1994; The Frontier Post 21 Apr. 1994). One source reports that most Arab war veterans simply cross the border into Afghanistan (ibid.). On 27 April the National Assembly amends the penal code to allow the prosecution of people who engage in acts of terrorism against "friendly countries" (AFP 28 Apr. 1994b). The government effort to remove Arab militants continues into May; on 17 May 1994, alleged "Jihad cadre" Ali Eid is extradited and other members of "militant cells" are arrested (Middle East International 29 May 1994a).

25 January

The country's first all women police station is opened in Rawalpindi by Prime Minister Bhutto (Le Devoir 26 Jan. 1994; Time 7 Feb. 1994; Middle East Times 20 Feb. 1994).

30 January

Mohajir Quami Mahaz-Haqiqi (MQM-H) activist Zafar Abbas is killed in Karachi (Radio Pakistan 31 Jan. 1994a; Xinhua 1 Feb. 1994). The following day, in an unrelated incident, two people are killed and several injured in an attack on a passenger van (AFP 31 Jan. 1994; Reuters 31 Jan. 1994; Radio Pakistan 31 Jan. 1994b).

5 February

A nationwide strike is held to express solidarity with the Kashmiri people under "Indian occupation" and their desire for self-determination. The strike is endorsed by the government and opposition and is observed on both sides of the Line of Control (PTV Television Network 5 Feb. 1994; Keesing's Feb. 1994d, 39866; BBC Summary 7 Feb. 1994).

Two people are killed and at least seven injured in an attack on a Sunni mosque near Multan. Reuters reports the location of the attack as Kabirwala while The Herald reports it as Kukkar Hatta (Reuters 5 Feb. 1994; The Herald Mar. 1994e, 107).

6 February

The government announces that Pakistan will no longer carry out public executions (FEER 17 Feb. 1994; Le Devoir 2 Feb. 1994; AI Mar. 1994, 4); executions in jails will continue, however, as will the practice of public stoning (ibid.).

7 February

The PPP introduces a no-confidence motion against the PML-N coalition government in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) assembly. The motion is reportedly timed to coincide with the expiry of an ordinance preventing assembly members from switching parties (also see 23 February 1994 entry) (Keesing's Feb. 1994b, 39865).

9 February

According to Asiaweek, five women allege that they were raped by eight men for voting for Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto (Asiaweek 9 Feb. 1994a, 5).

10 February

At least 12 people are killed in Baluchistan in tribal feuds involving the Tarin and Nasar tribes and the Raisini and Rind tribes (Reuters 10 Feb. 1994; Libération 11 Feb. 1994).

12 February

Maulana Samiullah Jhangvi, the Lahore vice-president of the Sunni organization Sipah-i-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP), is shot by two men on motorcycles (The Herald Mar. 1994e, 107).

A woman whose husband administered electric shocks to her, stopping only when he felt her life was in danger, is admitted to hospital in Rawalpindi with "severe internal burns" (The Herald Apr. 1994d, 17). The husband is later arrested, charged with attempted murder (ibid., 18; Xinhua 11 Mar. 1994; AFP 19 Mar. 1994) and sentenced to 30 years imprisonment (ibid. 14 July 1994). The woman is taken to London for surgery (ibid.; The Herald Apr. 1994d, 18; UPI 12 June 1994).

18 February

Five Iraqi Kurds engaged in a hunger strike since 17 January are taken to hospital. They have been demanding the resettlement of 1,200 Kurdish asylum seekers to western countries (AFP 18 Feb. 1994a).

The government announces that the Council of Islamic Ideology, a group chartered under the constitution to advise the government on religious matters, will review the blasphemy law with a view to ending abuses. According to Maulana Kausar Niazi, a "distinguished religious scholar" and former religious affairs minister who heads the council, "the law needs modifications to ensure it is not abused by unscrupulous elements for their selfish ends" (AFP 18 Feb. 1994b). The council's recommendations will be forwarded to the Pakistan Law Commission, whose head expressed concern about the "abuse of authority by police vis-à-vis the blasphemy act and its misuse by political and sectarian organizations" (see entries for April-May 1994, 10 July 1994 and 9 Feb. 1995) (ibid.).

19 February

A special court acquits Prime Minister Bhutto on the first of seven corruption charges laid soon after she was dismissed from office in 1990 (Keesing's Feb. 1994a, 39865; Middle East Times 6 Mar. 1994; Reuters 19 Feb. 1994).

23 February

Three Afghans who hijacked a school bus in Peshawar on February 20 are killed and their child hostages freed when security forces mount an operation on the Afghanistan embassy in Islamabad (Le Monde 23 Feb. 1994; PTV Television Network 24 Feb. 1994; The Herald Mar. 1994a, 45). Among the hijackers' demands were the reopening of the Torkham border crossing, aid for Kabul and a cash ransom (ibid., 49; Le Monde 23 Feb. 1994; Asiaweek 9 Mar. 1994, 5).

The speaker stops proceedings in the NWFP assembly when fist fights break out during debate on the 7 February PPP-sponsored no-confidence motion on the PML-N led coalition government (UPI 23 Feb. 1994; Keesing's Feb. 1994b, 39865; The Economist 4 Mar. 1994). Direct federal rule is imposed on 25 February when President Leghari transfers power to Governor Khurshid Ali Khan and suspends the assembly (ibid.; FEER 10 Mar. 1994, 23; Keesing's Feb. 1994b, 39865). One source describes the events as a "constitutional crisis" (see entry for 24 April 1994) (The Herald Mar. 1994c, 44).

24 February

Three rockets are reportedly fired at the Torkham border post from within Afghanistan, and there are reports of skirmishes with Afghans attempting to cross into Pakistan. The border remains closed (The News 25 Feb. 1994).

28 February

The prime minister's husband, Asif Ali Zardari, has the last of 13 charges against him dismissed by a special court. The corruption-related charges were filed shortly after Bhutto's removal from power in 1990 (Keesing's Feb. 1994a, 39865; FEER 28 Apr. 1994, 33).

March

As a result of the recent surge in violence in Karachi, police are reportedly "shoot[ing] to kill" when dealing with criminal suspects and street demonstrations (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1246; The Herald Mar. 1994d, 20). At least 20 young men were killed by police in the previous four months (ibid.).

1 March

Opposition members led by PML-N leader Nawaz Sharif march on the National Assembly to protest Prime Minister Bhutto's policies (The Herald Mar. 1994c, 44a; UPI 2 Mar. 1994a), in particular the dismissal of the NWFP government, and pledge to "oust Bhutto 'within six months'" (ibid.; ibid. 2 Mar. 1994b).

2 March

Elections are held for half of the 87 senate seats (UPI 2 Mar. 1994a; The Herald Mar. 1994b, 17-18). The PPP wins 16 seats, the PML-N six, the Awami National Party (ANP) three, the Pakistan Muslim League-Junejo (PML-J), Jamhoori Watan and MQM-Altaf (MQM-A) two each, and a number of other parties each win single seats (Keesing's Mar. 1994, 39914; Radio Pakistan 2 Mar. 1994). PPP senate seats now total 22 with support from the PML-J and Jamaat Ulema Islam (JUI), while the opposition PML-N has 20 seats with support from five ANP and two Pakhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party members (The Herald Mar. 1994b, 18).

7 March

Five Ahmadi journalists charged with blasphemy are released on bail (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1252; AI Apr. 1994, 2). A lower court had previously rejected bail for lesser charges but then added the blasphemy charges (ibid.). The original complaint was registered on 15 January 1994 by an official of Punjab province (ibid., 1), with the additional charges following on 21 January 1994 and 7 and 15 February 1994 (ibid., 2). The charges relate to articles that appeared in the Ahmadi publications Al Fazal and Ansarullah in June and July 1993, in which the journalists allegedly "passed themselves as Muslims and thereby have injured the religious feelings of Muslim[s]" (ibid.).

The Nation reports that the United States is considering withdrawing Pakistan's "most favoured nation" trading status because it is not abiding by International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions on bonded and child labour, practices reported to be widespread in some industries (The Nation 7 Mar. 1994).

8 March

Prime Minister Bhutto is acquitted by a Lahore special court on charges of improperly appointing PPP members to "top bureaucratic posts" during her first term in office (Asiaweek 23 Mar. 1994).

Good attendance is reported at International Women's Day events in several cities (The Herald Apr. 1994c, 82).

9 March

Radio Pakistan reports that one person is killed and two injured when Indian forces fire across the Line of Control in three separate incidents in Azad Kashmir (Radio Pakistan 10 Mar. 1994).

17 March

Officials reportedly detain for questioning 350 people in Karachi and 50 to 70 in other cities in Sindh province after a suspected MQM "ambush" of policemen in Karachi (AFP 18 Mar. 1994b; ibid. 17 Mar. 1994; AI 5 Apr. 1994). Reports indicate that between four and eight police officers are killed (ibid.; Xinhua 20 Mar. 1994; AFP 17 Mar. 1994). Reports on the number of detentions vary, with the MQM claiming up to 500 arrested (Reuters 17 Mar. 1994).

18 March

A bomb explodes in a bus in Gurat Punjab, killing six people and wounding 25. There are no immediate arrests or claims of responsibility (AFP 18 Mar. 1994a).

18-19 March

Over 30 development organizations and women's, human rights, labour and minorities groups hold a two-day national convention in Islamabad to press for reforms to laws that discriminate against women (UPI 19 Mar. 1994; The Herald Apr. 1994c, 81; WIN News Autumn 1994, 54). A joint action committee, Action for Legal Reforms, is formed to develop a consensus and apply pressure to the government and religious groups (ibid.; The Herald Apr. 1994c, 81).

20 March

In what is described as an "assassination attempt," Begum Nasim Wali Khan, the ANP leader in NWFP, is shot at while driving near Peshawar. Two suspects are arrested by police (PTV Television Network 20 Mar. 1994; AFP 20 Mar. 1994). An ANP spokesperson blames the PPP for the attack (ibid.).

21 March

Manzoor Gichki, the PPP senate chair candidate from Baluchistan, loses to the PML-N incumbent Wasim Sajjad (Keesing's Mar. 1994, 39914; UPI 21 Mar. 1994). According to one source, the loss is Bhutto's first since her election as prime minister five months earlier (ibid.).

21-25 March

Applied Socio-Economic Research (ASR), a "Lahore-based women's research institute," holds a conference to bring together members of the women's movement and to stimulate discussion on developing a women's studies centre in Lahore (The Herald Apr. 1994a, 89-90).

25 March

At a press conference in Karachi, a young girl claims she was humiliated during a police search of her home for MQM activists. Naheed Butt states that she was forced to strip in front of male officers and was subjected to abusive and threatening remarks (The Herald Apr. 1994b, 70; AI 5 Apr. 1994).

26-27 March

Prime Minister Bhutto is acquitted in a special court in Lahore of an additional two of the seven charges relating to abuse of power during her first term in office (Keesing's Apr. 1994a, 39962; AFP 26 Mar. 1994).

27 March

Violence erupts in Karachi during a "day of mourning" called by the MQM to protest arrests of its supporters and police "humiliation" of Naheed Butt. The strike shuts down schools, offices and businesses (UPI 27 Mar. 1994; Xinhua 27 Mar. 1994; BBC Summary 31 Mar. 1994a). Reports on the number of killed and injured vary from "two feared dead" to four killed and 10 injured (ibid.; Radio Pakistan 27 Mar. 1994; UPI 27 Mar. 1994; Xinhua 27 Mar. 1994).

29 March

The Press Trust of India (PTI) news agency reports that three Pakistanis were killed at a border post in Jammu and Kashmir. According to PTI, the three were killed in an exchange of gunfire with the Indian Border Security Force (BSF) (BBC Summary 31 Mar. 1994b).

April

Despite government efforts to restrict the flow, the interior ministry estimates that 60,000 displaced Afghans have entered Pakistan in the last six months, with half thought to be residing in Islamabad. According to The Nation, the government has asked the UNHCR not to provide financial assistance to asylum seekers through its local offices (The Nation 18 Apr. 1994).

4 April

Pakistan formally requests that the Afghanistan government work toward the release of several Chinese engineers and Pakistani officials believed to have been kidnapped by Afghanistan national Mullah Salam Rocketi (also see 22 July 1994 entry) (BBC Summary 11 Apr. 1994).

5 April

One Christian is killed and three wounded in an attack by three men on motorcycles outside a Lahore courthouse. All four had been charged under the country's blasphemy laws with writing anti-Islamic graffiti on a mosque wall (AP 5 Apr. 1994; UPI 5 Apr. 1994; AI 6 Apr. 1994). According to witnesses, the attackers are members of an Islamist party (ibid.; UPI 5 Apr. 1994; Reuters 21 Apr. 1994). The Herald reports in May that two suspects have been arrested but are being secluded by the police on orders from the interior ministry (The Herald May 1994e, 46a). The accused are freed on bail by the end of the year (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1252).

15 April

MQM "dissident" and former MNA Rehman Umer Farooqi is shot and killed in Karachi by four men suspected of belonging to a rival MQM group (Japan Economic Newswire 16 Apr. 1994; Reuters 15 Apr. 1994).

16 April

Unidentified attackers throw a grenade at a Shiite mosque in Karachi, injuring at least five people (Japan Economic Newswire 16 Apr. 1994; Reuters 16 Apr. 1994).

17 April

According to a local press report, the Pakistan Supreme Appellate Court has ruled that a man convicted of killing his wife or children cannot receive the death sentence because it is not provided for in religious law (UPI 17 Apr. 1994).

20 April

The Punjab provincial assembly unanimously passes a resolution urging the national government not to remove the death penalty for blasphemy (AFP 21 Apr. 1994; Reuters 21 Apr. 1994; Los Angeles Times 25 Apr. 1994).

21 April

In Lahore thousands of Christians demonstrate against the blasphemy laws and demand their repeal (AFP 21 Apr. 1994; Reuters 21 Apr. 1994; Los Angeles Times 25 Apr. 1994). A similar demonstration in Karachi attracts an estimated 3,000 people (ibid.).

Near Lahore Dr. Hafiz Farooq Sajjad, accused of burning the Koran, is stoned to death and his corpse burned by a mob (UPI 10 Dec. 1994; The Herald May 1994f, 46b-50). Although recognized in his community as a "devout Muslim" (ibid.), he was initially beaten and then taken to a police station. A local maulvi, described by The Herald as a jealous competitor of Farooq's (ibid.), then announced over the loudspeakers of his neighbourhood mosque that a Christian had burned a copy of the Koran. An enraged crowd took Farooq from the police, stoned him, set his corpse on fire and dragged it through the streets behind a motorcycle (ibid.; AI July 1994, 15-16).

22 April

A grenade attack on a Sunni mosque in Lahore injures at least 25 people, including four children (AFP 23 Apr. 1994; The Muslim 23 Apr. 1994; Reuters 22 Apr. 1994).

24 April

The PPP wins a Supreme Court-ordered no-confidence vote in NWFP, with Aftab Ahmad Khan Sherpao assuming power from PML-N chief minister Sabir Shah (Keesing's Apr. 1994b, 39962; Radio Pakistan Overseas 24 Apr. 1994; AFP 4 May 1994b). In protest the opposition parties boycott the session (ibid.; FEER 5 May 1994) and the National Assembly (PTV Television Network 24 Apr. 1994; AFP 25 Apr. 1994; Radio Pakistan 25 Apr. 1994). Several days later Punjab opposition members mount a sympathy boycott (FEER 12 May 1994, 20).

In response to demands for better protection of women's rights, the government states that it will set up shelters and grant free legal aid to abused women (Middle East Times 24 Apr. 1994).

25 April

Three MQM senators-Ishtiaq Azhar, Nasreen Jalil and Aftab Shaikh-are arrested for "inciting people to violence" during the 27 March MQM strike in Karachi (Reuters 25 Apr. 1994; AFP 28 Apr. 1994a). A few days later three Sindh provincial assembly members and another senator are arrested (ibid.; Reuters 1 May 1994; Radio Pakistan 5 May 1994). Sources state that the MQM leaders are beginning a "concerted" anti-government campaign and invited their own arrests (AFP 28 Apr. 1994a; The Herald May 1994b, 38a).

The government extends the franchise to the northern areas, promising party-based elections in October and two reserved seats for women in the proposed 24-member council (Keesing's May 1994c, 40010; Radio Pakistan 28 Apr. 1994).

27 April

A relative of the judge presiding in cases involving Murtaza Bhutto is killed by masked men, as is his bodyguard (Xinhua 28 Apr. 1994).

28 April

The Bhutto government introduces a constitutional amendment bill to reserve 25 seats for women in the National Assembly, nine in the Senate and others in the provincial assemblies. The move is opposed by the Islamic parties. A previous measure introduced in 1973 expired in 1988 (Reuters 28 Apr. 1994; Middle East International 29 May 1994b). Two-thirds majorities are required in both the National Assembly and the Senate to pass a constitutional amendment (News India 13 May 1994). On 7 December law and justice minister Haider states that the government is still pursuing the issue and that the bill is still in committee (Xinhua 7 Dec. 1994).

29 April-7 May

Two or three people are killed by police during an MQM street demonstration in Karachi on 29 April (UPI 29 Apr. 1994; Reuters 1 May 1994; AFP 2 May 1994; The Herald May 1994c, 28). To protest this incident and the arrest of several MQM politicians, the MQM calls a strike, which leads to further violence (ibid.; FEER 12 May 1994; AFP 1 May 1994). Over the next few days in Karachi there are reports of "masked gunmen ... roaming the streets" (AFP 2 May 1994), "intermittent sniper firing" (Radio Pakistan 3 May 1994a), and a government ban on "assembl[ies] of more than five persons" (ibid. 2 May 1994). The army is called in to restore order (Le Devoir 4 May 1994; Reuters 2 May 1994; Xinhua 3 May 1994), but the government blames the MQM for the continuing violence (Radio Pakistan 3 May 1994b; The Herald May 1994c, 28; Keesing's May 1994b, 40009). Estimates of the number of dead and injured range from 20 dead and 85 injured to 32 dead and several hundred injured (ibid.; Le Devoir 4 May 1994; AFP 4 May 1994a; BBC Summary 5 May 1994; Asiaweek 18 May 1994, 30). Although Radio Pakistan reports that only 20 people were arrested (Radio Pakistan 4 May 1994), other sources estimate the number of detained at 200 to 500 (Keesing's May 1994b, 40009; Reuters 2 May 1994; AP 27 May 1994). Country Reports 1994 indicates that over 800 MQM activists were arrested between 4 and 7 May, but that most were released within a week (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1248).

April-May

The Supreme Court of Pakistan interprets the blasphemy law to mean that all prophets of Islam, not just the Prophet Mohammed, are to be protected. The court believes this will provide greater protection for minorities (Asiaweek 4 May 1994, 6). However, some Christians fear the worship of Jesus as the son of God could be interpreted as "blasphemous," as could Biblical stories involving aspects of the Islamic canon (The Economist 13 May 1994, 110).

Reports indicate that the government is considering changes to the blasphemy law to prevent it being used to settle personal vendettas (The Herald May 1994e, 46a; Inter Press Service 27 May 1994). One change would require that a charge first be presented in court before it could be filed with police, while another change would provide "severe" penalties for persons giving false evidence (FEER 26 May 1994; UPI 7 June 1994; International Herald Tribune 18 June 1994). These amendments have been ready for months, but the government has yet to introduce them in the National Assembly (also see 10 July entry) (ibid.).

In its 1993 annual report, the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) estimates that one woman is raped every three hours, and of these 50 per cent are minors and 25 per cent are gang-raped (HRCP 1994, vii). Women also continue to be victims of public humiliation, police excesses and domestic violence (ibid., 57-62). While noting that the incidence of political harassment declined in 1993, HRCP remains concerned about excesses in the name of religious laws, prospects for the poor, and child and bonded labour (ibid., i).

According to the HRCP, official discrimination against and general harassment of Ahmadis continued in 1993 (HRCP 1994, 7, 28, 39-40). A movement to declare Zikris, a religious group of about one million concentrated in Baluchistan, to be non-Muslims gained momentum in 1993 (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1253; India Abroad 3 June 1994; HRCP 1994, 48), and a bill to this effect was referred to a parliamentary standing committee (ibid.). Zikris have been subjected to violence and harassment (ibid.), and according to India Abroad, the PPP has assured the JUI, its political ally in Baluchistan, that it will move to declare Zikris non-Muslims (India Abroad 3 June 1994).

3 May

At least four young men are killed by police in Sukker, 350km north of Karachi; while the HRCP accuses police of "executing" them (VOA 15 May 1994; Country Reports 1994 1995, 1246), the police claim the men were "dangerous criminals" killed in a two-hour gun battle (ibid.; The Herald May 1994d, 37; AP 27 May 1994). The HRCP conducts its own inquiry and concludes that the men had been arrested, their hands bound behind their backs and taken to the home of a policeman and shot (ibid.; Country Reports 1994 1995, 1246).

4-5 May

Two Indian "terrorists" are arrested as they attempt to cross the Line of Control in Azad Kashmir. Confiscated weapons reportedly include two rocket launchers and 18kg of explosives (Xinhua 9 May 1994; PTV Television Network 9 May 1994).

16 May

Sources report that the army has intervened in the Malakand tribal area in NWFP, killing as many as 11 people and wounding up to 28 (The Herald May 1994a, 60-61; Le Devoir 17 May 1994; Inter Press Service 27 May 1994; UPI 16 May 1994). The deaths occurred when the army attempted to open a road that had been blocked by an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 tribes people demanding the enforcement of Islamic law (ibid.; Reuters 17 May 1994; Pakistan News Service 20 May 1994; Keesing's May 1994d, 40010). The gathering occurred at the urging of the Tehrik-i-Nawaz-i-Shariat Mohammed (Movement for the Enforcement of Islamic Law, or TNSM) after a recent Supreme Court ruling struck down British colonial law, which had been in force for over a century (ibid.; Reuters 16 May 1994; The Herald May 1994a, 60-61). The following day the government promises to introduce Sharia law in Malakand (Reuters 17 May 1994; AFP 17 May 1994). Religious fundamentalists reportedly interpret Islamic law to mean that people must drive on the right side of the road, contrary to traffic law. A number of accidents occur before the fundamentalists' directive is withdrawn (Reuters 16 May 1994; Inter Press Service 27 May 1994).

27 May

Several hundred children march through Karachi streets to demand that Pakistan end child labour (Journal of Commerce 31 May 1994; Reuters 27 May 1994). They attempt to present a petition to the government but are stopped by police. Rally organizers estimate that 19 million children are working in Pakistan (ibid.).

29 May

The opposition PML-N ends its boycott of the National Assembly, which was begun to protest removal of the NWFP government, and returns to parliament for the upcoming budget debate (Keesing's May 1994a, 40010; AFP 29 May 1994; PTV Television Network 29 May 1994).

30 May

A protest over a water shortage in Islamabad leaves one person dead and more than 50 injured (VOA 30 May 1994). Two people were killed in a similar protest in Karachi a week earlier (ibid.; Pakistan News Service 3 June 1994).

31 May

Three policemen and one civilian are killed by unidentified gunmen in Karachi (Xinhua 31 May 1994).

5 June

Murtaza Bhutto, detained on charges of terrorism, is granted bail by a special court for speedy trials (Keesing's June 1994a, 40056-57; Radio Pakistan 5 June 1994). He has spent more than six months in jail since returning to Pakistan (The Herald June 1994, 49; FEER 16 June 1994, 13; Asiaweek 22 June 1994, 26). Immediately upon release he criticizes the Bhutto government (ibid.; Middle East Times 19 June 1994; The San Francisco Chronicle 9 June 1994), calling his sister's administration "corrupt and incompetent," and promising to work for her removal from office (ibid.). Middle East Times reports that "thousands of people" turn out to greet him three weeks later on his first public tour since returning to Pakistan, and speculates that "he might pose a tangible threat to his sister" (Middle East Times 10 July 1994).

9 June

The Special Court for the Suppression of Terrorism sentences Altaf Hussain and 18 other MQM leaders to 27 years each for involvement in the kidnapping and torture of a military intelligence officer 30 months earlier (Xinhua 9 June 1994; FEER 23 June 1994, 20; UPI 10 June 1994). Hussain is living in London in self-imposed exile, while many other MQM leaders are believed to be in hiding in Pakistan (ibid.; Xinhua 9 June 1994). Following his sentencing Hussain promises that there will be "strong retaliation" (AFP 11 June 1994a), and MQM gunmen reportedly fire from Karachi rooftops "as a show of strength" (UPI 10 June 1994). Three people are killed as a result of the shooting (ibid.).

11 June

Police raid a youth camp near Muzaffarabad in Pakistani Azad Kashmir. Twelve people are injured, including four policemen, and eight students are arrested. The students were engaged in a hunger strike in solidarity with Yasin Malik, a Kashmiri leader recently released by India (AFP 11 June 1994b).

12 June

At least two people are killed in Karachi in factional fighting between MQM-A and MQM-H supporters (Xinhua 12 June 1994).

16 June

Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) reports that opposition leader Nawaz Sharif's car is stoned by a "mob" in Muzaffargarh. Banners reading "do not turn the sale of personal property into a political issue" were displayed, in reference to Sharif's allegation that President Farooq Ahmed Khan had sold barren farm land to six Karachi residents (Radio Pakistan 16 June 1994).

The government posts troops in major towns and cities in order to prevent sectarian conflict during the Islamic month of moharram. Shiites traditionally march to morn the death of the grandson of the prophet Mohammed, and the occasion is often marked by confrontations with Sunnis. According to UPI, Sunni leader and MNA Azam Tariq had earlier threatened to "wage war against the Shiites" (UPI 16 June 1994).

18 June

At least two people are killed as fundamentalist Sunnis fire upon Shiite worship sites in Karachi and Hyderabad. At least 10 people have been killed in sectarian clashes in Sindh province in the last month (Xinhua 19 June 1994; Keesing's June 1994b, 40056).

25 June

A clash between Shiites and Sunnis outside a Shiite mosque in a Sindh village results in one person killed, 16 injured and 158 arrested (Reuters 26 June 1994).

26 June

Pashtoon tribes people in NWFP battle Arab veterans of the war in Afghanistan who are wanted for political violence in their home countries. The Arab veterans' "attempts to enforce strict Islamic Law" (UPI 26 June 1994) reportedly drove the tribes people to declare a "Jihad" against them (VOA 28 June 1994; Reuters 14 July 1994). Reports indicate that three to five Arabs and five tribes people are killed (ibid.; UPI 26 June 1994; AFP 29 June 1994).

26-27 June

The Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FPCCI) calls a strike to protest the government's recent budget. Industrial areas and shopping centres are closed in Karachi, as are major shopping centres in Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Peshawar (Radio Pakistan Overseas 26 June 1994; PTV Television Network 27 June 1994; The Economist 22 July 1994). The business community is opposed to proposed new sales taxes, fines for tax evaders and increased powers to tax collectors (UPI 27 June 1994).

27 June

G.M. Syed, the 91-year-old leader of the Jeay Sindh Movement, is in very poor health after 30 months under house arrest. Syed is awaiting trial on sedition charges (AI 27 June 1994).

28 June

"Heavily armed gunmen" kill six police officers in Karachi. The senior officer was investigating several cases against the MQM (Radio Pakistan 28 June 1994; AP 28 June 1994; AFP 28 June 1994). MQM "Black Tigers" are suspected of responsibility (The Gazette 10 July 1994).

10 July

Minister of justice and law Iqbal Haider receives death threats from religious fundamentalists for suggesting that the blasphemy laws should be reformed (The Pakistan Observer 11 July 1994a; Chicago Tribune 28 July 1994; UPI 10 July 1994). Religious groups hold demonstrations and strikes in several areas of the country (Jang 11 July 1994; The Frontier Post 11 July 1994; FBIS 11 July 1994). The prime minister states that there will be no change to the law (PTV Television Network 11 July 1994), a position adopted by cabinet on 11 July (ibid.; Radio Pakistan Overseas 11 July 1994). Haider is quoted by one source as stating that the government does not want to weaken the law, only to discuss ways of improving procedures to make blasphemy cases "foolproof" (The Pakistan Observer 11 July 1994b). At year's end the government still had done nothing to amend the law (also see 9 February 1995 entry) (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1253).

11 July

The vice-president of Tehrik-i-Jafria Pakistan (TJP) is killed near Islamabad by two unidentified men on a motorcycle (AFP 12 July 1994).

12 July

The Associated Press of Pakistan reports at least two people killed and 27 injured in a bomb explosion at a Sunni mosque in Lahore (VOA 23 July 1994; AFP 12 July 1994; AP 12 July 1994). No one claims responsibility but the attack is believed related to the ongoing conflict between Shiite and Sunni extremists (ibid.; DPA 12 July 1994). Another bombing in a Lahore garbage depot injures two others (ibid.; AFP 12 July 1994; AP 12 July 1994).

14 July

Dawn reports that 37 lawyers protesting the "manhandling and arrest" of another lawyer are themselves arrested in Quetta (Pakistan News Service 21 July 1994).

Pakistan and Egypt sign an extradition treaty that allows fugitive nationals to be extradited to their home countries (Xinhua 14 July 1994; DPA 14 July 1994; Reuters 14 July 1994).

16 July

At least four people, including a young child, are killed in fighting between MQM factions in Karachi (AFP 16 July 1994; Country Reports 1994 1995, 1247). Two of the corpses are identified as belonging to MQM-Altaf members and show signs of torture (ibid.).

22 July

Afghan commander Mullah Rocketi releases seven Pakistani and two Chinese hostages, several of whom have been held for over a year (Radio Pakistan Network 22 July 1994). His initial demands had included the release of his brother, the return of weapons and cash (The News 6 July 1994).

Lt.-Gen. Hamid Gul, the former chief of Inter Service Intelligence (ISI), announces the formation of a new political party. The party's stated purpose is to end "communalism and ethnic prejudice" and to better provide for Pakistan's defence needs. A founding convention is promised for the near future (Radio Pakistan 23 July 1994; Reuters 22 July 1994).

23 July

At least nine people are killed and 40 injured in Sunni-Shiite violence in Karachi (Keesing's July 1994, 40103).

23-24 July

An attack on a bus in Karachi leaves six Shiites dead and up to 28 injured (VOA 23 July 1994; Xinhua 24 July 1994; Kayhan International 28 July 1994; AFP 24 July 1994). Some sources, including the speaker of the Iranian parliament, blame the attack on Sunni militants, specifically the SSP (ibid.; Xinhua 24 July 1994). Clashes between Shiites and Sunnis the following day result in attacks on Shiite mosques, with another two to four killed and up to 13 injured (ibid.; VOA 24 July 1994). Police believe "religious hit squads" may be operating on the streets of Karachi (VOA 11 Aug. 1994).

24 July

An opposition bill that would have extended the scope of the blasphemy laws is defeated in the Senate, with only 11 of 88 senators supporting it. The proposal would have made blaspheming the family and associates of the Prophet Mohammed subject to the death penalty (UPI 24 July 1994).

25 July

Retired general Imtiaz Ahmed, the former chief of Pakistan's intelligence service, is arrested on charges of attempting to "topple" the previous Bhutto government by buying MNAs' support (AFP 25 July 1994; FEER 8 Sept. 1994; UPI 25 July 1994). Ahmed is considered a "close aide" of opposition leader Nawaz Sharif (ibid.; FEER 8 Sept. 1994).

The Senate passes a law that permits the death penalty in some drug trafficking cases and raises the minimum penalty from two to 25 years (Reuters 26 July 1994). The legislation was passed by the National Assembly in April 1994 (ibid.; AFP 26 Apr. 1994).

28 July

About 17,000 oil tank truck drivers strike after Saifur Rahman, the secretary of the tanker drivers association, is arrested and allegedly tortured by police. The strike soon spreads to other cities, halting an estimated 38,000 tanker trucks and forcing the authorities to begin rationing fuel (UPI 30 July 1994).

31 July

According to AFP, the UNHCR plans to scale back its aid to Afghan asylum seekers in Pakistan by early 1996 (AFP 31 July 1994). The UNHCR reportedly states that the majority of the estimated one million displaced Afghans can be considered "self-sufficient," but it pledges continued assistance to those "truly in need" (ibid.).

August

The government appoints 20 new judges, 13 of whom are PPP members (FEER 8 Sept. 1994; India Today 15 Dec. 1994, 75-76; Keesing's Aug. 1994, 40144). The opposition claims the government is trying to pack the courts with PPP sympathizers in anticipation of the upcoming corruption cases of PML leader Sharif and his supporters (ibid.).

The government proposes to introduce legislation to restrict public criticism of politicians. According to FEER, the proposals are widely condemned in the press as presuming the guilt of anyone charged (FEER 8 Sept. 1994, 22).

10-11 August

At least five people are killed in Karachi in two days of Sunni-Shiite sectarian violence. In one incident a Shiite man and his father are shot and killed on the street, while in another two Shiites are killed by gunfire (VOA 11 Aug. 1994; Xinhua 11 Aug. 1994).

16 August

The opposition announces a boycott of all parliamentary standing committees to protest government corruption (Keesing's Aug. 1994, 40144). PML leader Nawaz Sharif pledges to engage in a "long march" to "push the government into the sea" if it does not resign by 11 September (also see entries for 11 and 16 September 1994) (ibid.; Radio Pakistan 16 Aug. 1994; FEER 8 Sept. 1994).

18 August

Prime Minister Bhutto rejects opposition calls for new elections (Keesing's Aug. 1994, 40144; Xinhua 22 Aug. 1994). She states that the government will complete its mandate and asks the opposition to play its "due role" in parliament (ibid.). She further predicts that opposition's long march will "fizzle out" (ibid.).

23 August

Government and opposition lawmakers agree to form a panel to review the eighth amendment to the constitution, which allows the president to remove the prime minister. The panel, the creation of which is informally approved in the National Assembly, will report its findings and recommendations to the government (VOA 23 Aug. 1994).

25 August

Interior minister Naseerullah Babar states that the government is planning to expel about one million illegal immigrants residing in Karachi because of their involvement in drug trafficking and violence in the city (Los Angeles Times 26 Aug. 1994; News India 2 Sept. 1994; Reuters 25 Aug. 1994). Government officials believe most are from neighbouring countries such as India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burma and Iran. Karachi's population is estimated to be about 10 million (ibid.).

27 August

Nine people are killed and over 20 wounded in a tribal clash between Bugtis and Raisani in Quetta, Baluchistan (FEER 6 Oct. 1994, 20; UPI 27 Aug. 1994). A curfew is imposed and the army deployed, but people remain fearful of revenge killings (ibid.).

The government bans the public display of all weapons in Karachi. President Leghari is reported to have recently met with the MQM to discuss the violence in the city (Dawn 28 Aug. 1994).

11 September

A government spokesman states that security forces will not stop Sharif's "long march," but emphasizes that any street demonstrations must remain peaceful (Radio Pakistan 11 Sept. 1994).

12 September

The Washington Post publishes an interview in which Nawaz Sharif alleges that in 1991, Pakistan's army and security intelligence officials proposed a "detailed" plan to pay for covert military operations by trafficking in heroin (The Washington Post 12 Sept. 1994, A13; Le Point 24 Sept. 1994; UPI 14 Sept. 1994). The government denies the allegations (ibid.), while Sharif denies that the interview ever took place and says he will sue the paper for US$100 million (ibid.; FEER 6 Oct. 1994, 20). The Washington Post stands by its story (ibid.; UPI 14 Sept. 1994).

14 September

A bomb explodes in a refugee camp near Kotli in Kashmir, killing 10 and wounding 17 (Reuters 15 Sept. 1994).

The Supreme Court of Azad Jammu and Kashmir upholds an earlier judgement from the Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) High Court that the Northern Areas, including Gilgit and Baltistan, are part of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) "as it existed on 14th of August 1947" (The News 15 Sept. 1994). However, it also rules that the Northern Areas are not defined as such in the AJK interim constitution of 1974, and therefore sets aside the lower court ruling that administrative responsibility for the area be assumed by AJK (ibid.; The Frontier Post 16 Sept. 1994; Country Reports 1994 1995, 1254-55).

15 September

An Ahmadiya mosque in Rawalpindi is razed by city officials on grounds that it could incite "religious riots" since authority to build had neither been granted nor sought (UPI 16 Sept. 1994). One source notes that the site had served as a place of worship for 40 years (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1253).

16 September

Sharif's "long march" concludes. He calls for a national strike on 20 September and announces that the opposition parties have agreed to set up a "supreme council," to be led by Sharif, to deliberate on opposition strategy (Xinhua 16 Sept. 1994; The News 16 Sept. 1994).

In Karachi, six SSP supporters are killed. The following day six supporters of the rival TJP are killed (AFP 19 Sept. 1994).

19 September

After three days of sectarian violence in Karachi that results in at least 12 killed, the army begins a "massive" crackdown involving house-to-house searches for weapons and criminals (Asiaweek 28 Sept. 1994; AP 19 Sept. 1994; AFP 19 Sept. 1994). According to Karachi residents, an undeclared curfew is in effect (ibid.). Religious "hit squads" are again said to be operating (AP 19 Sept. 1994).

20 September

The parliamentary opposition begins a national strike to protest against the Bhutto government (The News 30 Sept. 1994; Inter Press Service 21 Sept. 1994). Businesses close throughout the country despite the deployment of police to prevent violence. Clashes occur between police and opposition supporters after the government bans public gatherings in all major cities (ibid.). The following day Sharif calls the strike an "unprecedented success" (The News 21 Sept. 1994; Inter Press Service 21 Sept. 1994), but some analysts believe the closure of shops and businesses may have been due more to a fear of violence than a sign of support for the opposition (ibid.).

26 September

Shaukat Ali Kashmiri, secretary-general of the Jammu and Kashmir People's National Party (JKPNP), is released from an army detention centre at Attok Fort (AI 30 Sept. 1994; Country Reports 1994 1995, 1248). On 22 September Amnesty International had called for an inquiry into his disappearance after reports that he was taken into custody by ISI on 26 August. Kashmiri had been prohibited from leaving Pakistan on 17 May 1994 and was reportedly set to enter a local election in Gilgit and Baltistan when he disappeared (AI 22 Sept. 1994).

Two bomb blasts kill 13 people in Azad Kashmir. According to the All India Radio Network, the bombings are the work of ISI, which is "forcing the muhajirs to undergo arms training" (All India Radio Network 28 Sept. 1994).

27 September

The Sindh home department bans PML leader Nawaz Sharif and several senior PML and ANP officials from entering Sindh province (AFP 28 Sept. 1994; Dawn 28 Sept. 1994; Radio Pakistan 27 Sept. 1994). The order is in effect until 7 October (ibid.). According to PML-N sources, the ban and the detention of 500-600 party activists is timed to coincide with a planned series of opposition rallies (ibid.; AFP 28 Sept. 1994). One PML source claims there were over 11,000 arrests, primarily in Punjab province (Libération 7 Oct. 1994). Sharif and his supporters vow to defy the ban (AFP 28 Sept. 1994; Reuters 28 Sept. 1994).

29 September

Just hours before his arrival, the Sindh government lifts the order preventing Sharif from entering the province. According to The News, the day of opposition protest is "peaceful" and no violent incidents are reported anywhere in the country. Crowd sizes are said to vary from "poor" in Rawalpindi to "reasonably good" in Peshawar and other parts of NWFP (The News 30 Sept. 1994).

Early October

A Pakistani delegation in Geneva refuses a UNHCR request to grant permanent residency to asylum seekers from Afghanistan. A government spokesman states that the asylum seekers are in Pakistan temporarily and must "return to their country at the first available opportunity." An estimated 1.4 million Afghans are living in camps in Pakistan (The News 24 Oct. 1994; Country Reports 1994 1995, 1253).

3 October

Pointing to "serious violations" of human rights, the HRCP demands the army's withdrawal from Sindh province (AFP 3 Oct. 1994).

10 October

On the eve of a nationwide general strike, police reportedly arrest thousands of opposition supporters (AFP 8 Oct. 1994; VOA 10 Oct. 1994). Opposition sources allege that over 3,000 people have been arrested in Sindh, while a police spokesperson, denying that there has been a crackdown, states that 1,100 people have been detained to prevent violence during the strike (ibid.; Index on Censorship Nov.-Dec. 1994, 245). According to Country Reports 1994, among those detained are 45 members of the Sindh provincial assembly. Few of those detained are charged and within a month most are released (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1248).

11 October

The general strike is alternately described as a "complete success" by the PML-N and a "flop" by the PPP government (AFP 12 Oct. 1994). PTV Television reports that the response to the strike was poor in Islamabad and Rawalpindi PTV Television Network (11 Oct. 1994), while VOA states that Karachi was "virtually paralysed" by the strike and that most shops were closed in Islamabad and Peshawar (VOA 11 Oct. 1994). Current History reports that at least three were killed and 12 wounded in Karachi gunfire (Current History Dec. 1994, 442).

Pointing to the 12 September 1994 Washington Post article about the Pakistan army's plan to finance covert operations with the proceeds from "large-scale narcotics deals," 19 American politicians urge President Clinton to put Pakistan on the US State Department's "terrorist watch list" (Reuters 11 Oct. 1994).

16 October

Law and justice minister Haider tells a UNICEF delegation that the government will soon set up a permanent commission to "curb abuses against children" and "suggest appropriate measures to protect children" (Xinhua 16 Oct. 1994).

16-18 October

Violence erupts in Karachi, with reports of torture, sectarian and factional conflicts and dozens of deaths (AFP 18 Oct. 1994; FEER 3 Nov. 1994, 22; Libération 19 Oct. 1994; ibid. 20 Oct. 1994). Security forces conduct house-to-house searches (The Herald Nov. 1994c, 63; The Nation 24 Oct. 1994) and make over 100 arrests (ibid.).

19 October

According to a Radio Pakistan report, the Sindh government and MQM have agreed on a number of points, including curbing the activities of "miscreants and antisocial elements," examining cases filed against MQM members, returning properties taken during the PPP's term in office, permitting legal MQM political activities, and provision of federal and provincial government grants to rebuild services and amenities in Karachi (BBC Summary 27 Oct. 1994).

24 October

Chinese engineers employed on a canal project in Jaffarabad district are fired upon by unidentified attackers, causing them to refuse to continue working (Dawn 26 Oct. 1994).

25 October

The election results for a Northern Areas council are announced: of the 24 seats the TJP wins eight, the PPP seven, independents seven and the PML-N one, with one seat not yet decided (Radio Pakistan 26 Oct. 1994; DPA 29 Oct. 1994). A later report indicates that the final seat is won by an independent (ibid.).

A Jang photographer is beaten and arrested by soldiers while photographing a security operation in Karachi (La lettre de Reporters sans frontières Dec. 1994; Index on Censorship Nov.-Dec. 1994, 245). He is released after protests from fellow journalists (ibid.).

29 October

The opposition walks out of parliament to protest the government's refusal to allow detained MNAs to attend the session (Xinhua 29 Oct. 1994). "Dozens" of opposition MNAs were arrested during the earlier anti-government campaign (ibid.; The Herald Nov. 1994a, 41).

30 October

Eight people, including two soldiers and a policeman, are reported killed in Karachi in confrontations between rival MQM factions, and in clashes with police (UPI 30 Oct. 1994).

2 November

"Scores" and perhaps "hundreds" of hostages, including two judges, are taken by tribes people who want Sharia law introduced in Malakand (Keesing's Nov. 1994a, 40280; U.S. Department of State 8 Nov. 1994; The Herald Nov. 1994b, 46; FEER 1 Dec. 1994). The following day a PPP NWFP provincial assembly member, also taken hostage, is reportedly killed (Reuters 3 Nov. 1994; MNS News 7 Nov. 1994; Index on Censorship Nov.-Dec. 1994, 245).

The conflict between the government and the tribes people reportedly resurfaced when two judges were appointed to Malakand, a move the TNSM regarded as government refusal to honour its promise to implement Sharia in the region (The Herald Nov. 1994b, 46). The government sends in the military and reaffirms its commitment to enforce Sharia in Malakand (ibid.; MNS News 7 Nov. 1994; Keesing's Nov. 1994a, 40280). In response the TNSM leader orders the hostages released, but the "rebellion" by "thousands of heavily armed" tribes people continues (ibid.; The Herald Nov. 1994b, 45-48; FEER 1 Dec. 1994; India Today 15 Dec. 1994, 75). According to India Today, the insurgency is supported by "Afghan refugees, drug lords and gunrunners" who do not want Pakistani law to prevail in the area (ibid.). The revolt is eventually crushed by security forces (FEER 1 Dec. 1994), but not before as many as 200 people are killed (Keesing's Nov. 1994a, 40280; FEER 12 Jan. 1995, 22).

10 November

MQM-Haqiqi secretary-general Mansoor Ahmed Khan is shot and killed in his car in Karachi, along with his wife, baby and sister-in-law (AFP 11 Nov. 1994). His killing sparks an outbreak of violence over the next few days (ibid.; The Herald Nov. 1994c, 64; U.S. Department of State 14 Nov. 1994), with reports of up to 17 deaths (Keesing's Nov. 1994b, 40280).

13 November

Mian Mohammed Sharif, the father of opposition leader Nawaz Sharif, is arrested on charges of tax evasion, fraud, forgery and impersonation (UPI 13 Nov. 1994; Keesing's Nov. 1994c, 40280; FEER 24 Nov. 1994, 13; Reuters 17 Nov. 1994). He is released on 16 November (ibid.; Keesing's Nov. 1994c, 40280), reportedly because of poor health (Reuters 17 Nov. 1994; FEER 1 Dec. 1994). At year end his case is still before the courts (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1250).

14 November

Fist fights break out between government and opposition MNAs when President Leghari is shouted down while addressing a joint session of parliament (India Today 15 Dec. 1994, 76; Keesing's Nov. 1994c, 40280; The Daily Telegraph 15 Nov. 1994). Security measures are needed to protect both the president and prime minister (ibid.; FEER 1 Dec. 1994; Xinhua 14 Nov. 1994).

19-20 November

Seven people are killed by snipers as rival MQM factions battle in Karachi (Reuters 19 Nov. 1994). A total of 13 are killed and more than 20 wounded in "running gun battles" during the two days of fighting (AFP 20 Nov. 1994; Keesing's Nov. 1994b, 40280).

23 November

Karachi business people hold a "peace march" (AFP 27 Nov. 1994a; Xinhua 27 Nov. 1994). One source notes that "violence and killing are becoming a daily routine" in Karachi, with the situation "deteriorating day by day" (ibid.).

25 November

Six members of a Shiite party are killed and 17 wounded in an attack on a bus near Islamabad (Middle East Times 10 Dec. 1994).

27 November

PML-N member and former interior minister Chaudry Shujaat Hussain is released on "interim" bail after his 22 November arrest on charges of fraud (AFP 27 Nov. 1994b). He is rearrested after failing to raise the required amount (AFP 8 Dec. 1994).

Gul Masih, a Christian sentenced to death for blasphemy in 1992, is acquitted by the Lahore Court of Appeal (Libération 28 Nov. 1994; AI 28 Nov. 1994; The Herald Dec. 1994e, 20). The original charge resulted from a dispute between Masih and his plumber. According to The Herald, Masih was detained "in what appeared at that time to be more a case of protective custody," but he was charged under the blasphemy laws, tried and sentenced to death (ibid.). Despite his release there are still concerns about his safety (ibid.; AI 28 Nov. 1994).

November-December

After 29 months on the streets of Karachi, the army withdraws to its barracks on November 30 (The Herald Dec. 1994b, 30; AFP 3 Dec. 1994; UPI 19 Dec. 1994), resulting in an immediate surge in violence and factional fighting (Libération 12 Dec. 1994; AFP 5 Dec. 1994; UPI 19 Dec. 1994). Ethnic leader Altaf Hussain alleges that the recent disturbances have been "staged" by government agencies that want the army returned (ibid.). Some business organizations want the army returned, but with increased powers (The Herald Dec. 1994d, 33; FEER 12 Jan. 1995, 22). The number of casualties rises as the month progresses, with UPI reporting on 19 December that 130 people have been killed since December 1.

3 December

A peace march in Karachi led by intellectuals and sports and entertainment personalities is attended by an estimated 5,000 people (AFP 3 Dec. 1994).

4 December

Mohammed Salahuddin, editor of the conservative Urdu-language Karachi weekly Takbeer, is killed outside his office by unidentified gunmen (Asiaweek 14 Dec. 1994, 19; Libération 12 Dec. 1994; UPI 9 Dec. 1994). According to The Herald, Salahuddin was as outspoken critic of "terrorism, parochialism, ethnicism and anti-Pakistani elements" (The Herald Dec. 1994a, 38) and a well-known critic of both the MQM and PPP (ibid., 38a; Xinhua 5 Dec. 1994b; Country Reports 1994 1995, 1251), and there is "little doubt" that he was killed because of his differences with the MQM (The Herald Dec. 1994a, 38a). Two days later Ghulum Mohammed Samdani, general manager of the Urdu daily Parcham, is killed in his office by masked gunmen (ibid. Jan. 1995, 97; Country Reports 1994 1995, 1251; VOA 9 Dec. 1994b; UPI 9 Dec. 1994). The All Pakistan Newspapers Society calls a nationwide strike for 9 December to protest the killings (ibid.; VOA 9 Dec. 1994b; Index on Censorship Jan.-Feb. 1995, 244).

5 December

After indications that the UNHCR will reduce assistance by 40 per cent by 1 January 1995, and terminate all assistance by 30 September 1995, information minister Khalid Kharal states that the government will provide "incentives" to displaced Afghans to return home (UPI 7 Dec. 1994; Xinhua 5 Dec. 1994a). Several days later a Yugoslav Telegraph Service report states that the Pakistan government will provide US$5.5 million in assistance to displaced Afghans over the next year, and that the UNHCR is expected to propose to its executive committee in October 1995 that aid be continued (BBC Summary 16 Dec. 1994).

7 December

Abdul Sattar Edhi, a man described as "Karachi's patron saint" because of his long-term work with the poor, leaves Karachi for London, stating that his life is in danger and he is under pressure to become involved in politics (also see entries for January 1995 and 7 January 1995) (The Herald Dec. 1994c, 38b; VOA 9 Dec. 1994a).

An attack on a Sunni mosque in Karachi leaves eight people dead, including a leader of the SSP (AI 13 Dec. 1994; VOA 8 Dec. 1994). Shiite sources deny responsibility (ibid.).

10 December

Intellectuals and human rights and political activists march in Islamabad to demand an end to the sectarian and ethnic violence responsible for the deaths of about 70 people during the previous week (UPI 10 Dec. 1994).

14 December

Religious "hit squads" in Karachi kill four Shiite activists and one Sunni cleric (AP 14 Dec. 1994). Bomb threats result in several school districts being closed until 1 January 1995 (ibid.). According to AP, this is the "first time the threat of violence has moved into Karachi's rich suburbs" (ibid.).

The National Assembly unanimously decides to establish a parliamentary committee to investigate the causes of the Karachi violence (Keesing's Dec. 1994b, 40322).

18 December

Three people are killed in Karachi during a strike called by the SSP (Current History Feb. 1995, 94; AFP 18 Dec. 1994). The strike was called to protest the 7 December attack on the Sunni mosque in Karachi (ibid.; UPI 19 Dec. 1994; Current History Feb. 1995, 94).

22 December

At least eight people are killed in Karachi on the same day President Leghari arrives for talks with MQM representatives. In one incident, four men seeking to avenge the deaths of comrades killed the previous week capture and execute four members of the paramilitary Rangers (UPI 22 Dec. 1994).

24 December

Three people are killed and several injured when a bus is bombed near Lahore. It is unknown who is responsible, but Reuters alludes to the continuing tension and violence between Shiites and Sunnis (Reuters 24 Dec. 1994).

26 December

Alleging that India has been encouraging the Karachi violence, the government orders the Indian consulate in Karachi closed (Keesing's Dec. 1994a, 40322; Asiaweek 6 Jan. 1995, 6; AFP 7 Jan. 1995).

28 December

President Leghari and JI leader Senator Kurshid Ahmad meet to discuss the JI's planned protest of a mid-January visit from a delegation containing US Defence Secretary William Perry (The Muslim 29 Dec. 1994). According to The Muslim, President Leghari urges the JI to call off the demonstration and assures him that the government has no plans to 'unilaterally' sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) (ibid.). Despite these assurances the rally goes ahead in Rawalpindi on 6 January. Thousands are reported as attending. Senator Ahmad alleges that the purpose of the visit is to "pressure" Pakistan to abandon its nuclear program and sign the NPT (ibid. 7 Jan. 1995; AFP 6 Jan. 1995).

31 December

A JI member is shot and killed while protesting against new year's celebrations, which he considered anti-Islamic. Protestors and police blame each other for the death. In response to threats from fundamentalist parties, the government reportedly asks five star hotels and clubs not to hold new year's eve parties (Inter Press Service 4 Jan. 1995).

1995

January

Sources report that a "third force" has been formed, to represent, from outside established political structures and parties, the interests of "millions of Pakistanis disgusted and disillusioned with corrupt politicians" (India Today 15 Feb. 1995, 107). At the centre of the movement is the former ISI chief, Lt.-Gen. Hamid Gul, who has also enlisted the support of popular former Pakistani cricket team captain Imran Khan (ibid.; FEER 9 Mar. 1995b, 20; The Herald Feb. 1995b, 26). Also involved is the Pasban, a group that began as the Jamaat-i-Islami youth wing but split from the JI in May 1994. The Pasban's strengths include fund-raising, grassroots organizing and attracting the young and others who have not traditionally supported conservative Islamic views. According to The Herald, it was after being approached by Gul's supporters that Abdul Sattar Edhi decided to flee the country on 7 December 1994 (ibid., 26-30).

5 January

Ninety-one people are arrested and illegal arms confiscated by police in a government campaign to "restore law and order in Karachi" (Xinhua 5 Jan. 1995). About 140 people were arrested over the previous two days (ibid.).

Pakistan denies Russian accusations that Afghan mercenaries are being recruited from Pakistan refugee camps to fight Russian forces in Chechnya (AFP 5 Jan. 1995; The Herald Feb. 1995c, 69).

7 January

Abdul Sattar Edhi returns from London to Karachi, where he states that he will continue his work with the poor (AFP 7 Jan. 1995; VOA 7 Jan. 1995).

10 January

Two Afghans arrested in August 1993 are sentenced to death for blasphemy by a district court in Islamabad. They had asked a printing press to reproduce a sketch of the Prophet Mohammed (DPA 10 Jan. 1995).

12 January

Four people are shot and killed outside a Sunni mosque in Karachi. All are believed to have been SSP supporters (AFP 13 Jan. 1995).

14 January

The Lahore High Court acquits Arshad Javed of blasphemy charges, ruling that he could not be criminally liable because of his mental condition (AI 1 Feb. 1995). According to Amnesty International, Javed, who was arrested in February 1989 and spent five years in jail, is only the second person in Pakistan to be acquitted on blasphemy charges (ibid.).

22 January

The government announces that it will no longer permit direct foreign funding of Muslim religious schools and institutions. All contributions must now be routed through the government, a move intended to reduce sectarian violence (PTV Television Network 22 Jan. 1995; FEER 9 Mar. 1995c, 25; AFP 22 Jan. 1995). Many of these schools, funded by Islamic states such as Shiite Iran and Sunni Saudi Arabia (AFP 22 Jan. 1995; FEER 9 Mar. 1995b, 20), are believed to be providing students with military and political training (PTV Television Network 22 Jan. 1995; FEER 9 Mar. 1995c, 25; AFP 22 Jan. 1995). SSP and TJP spokesmen promise "retaliation" and "confrontation" if the government interferes in the affairs of religious schools (AFP 25 Jan. 1995).

23 January

According to PTV Television, the prime minister has threatened The News with legal action after it published a report alleging that she had asked Britain to extradite MQM-Altaf leader Altaf Hussain (PTV Television Network 23 Jan. 1995). The prime minister denies ever having asked Britain to extradite Hussain (ibid.).

25 January

In what police refer to as attacks by "armed bandits," ten people are killed in several incidents in Karachi (Xinhua 26 Jan. 1995).

26 January

Demonstrators in Azad Kashmir mark Indian Republic Day as a "black day," with protest rallies in all major towns in the region (PTV Television Network 26 Jan. 1995).

1 February

MNA Haji Nawaz Khokhar defects from the PML-N and announces the formation of a 12-member bloc within the party. In giving his reasons for the split, he expresses dissatisfaction with Sharif's "erroneous policies" and his confrontational relationship with the government (The News 2 Feb. 1995; The Economist 18-24 Feb. 1995).

5 February

At least 20 people are killed in Karachi during a nationwide strike called by the prime minister to demonstrate solidarity with Muslims in Indian Kashmir (Radio Pakistan 5 Feb. 1995; The Ottawa Citizen 6 Feb. 1995). Officials believe that 12 of the killings are in retaliation for attacks in Karachi on 4 February that resulted in 12 deaths. Most of those killed today are Sunnis, while on 4 February most of the victims were Shiites. While the government describes support for the strike as "complete," with businesses, government offices, public and private transportation, schools and markets reported closed throughout the country (ibid.; Radio Pakistan 5 Feb. 1995), one source reports low turnouts at rallies in major cities (The Ottawa Citizen 6 Feb. 1995). The following day the interior minister claims to know who is responsible for the February 5 killings and, implying that some are foreign agents, states that they will soon be arrested (Dawn 7 Feb. 1995).

7 February

N.D. Khan, the new minister for law and justice, indicates that the government will use "political, administrative, and economic measures" to deal with Karachi's problems (Radio Pakistan 7 Feb. 1995). Among these measures is the provision of additional funding to Karachi police, a "massive economic package" of Rs 121 billion, and continued talks with the MQM (ibid.).

Ramzi Ahmed Yusuf, a suspect in the 1993 World Trade Centre bombing, is extradited to the US (AFP 9 Feb. 1995; The News 10 Feb. 1995; The Nation 10 Feb. 1995). The Jamaat-i-Islami, Jamaat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Tanzeem-i-Islami and representatives of other Muslim countries all criticize the government action (Dawn 13 Feb. 1995; ibid. 12 Feb. 1995; The Nation 13 Feb. 1995).

8 February

Opposition member Shaikh Rasheed is sentenced by a special "anti-terrorist" court to seven years' "rigorous imprisonment" for illegal possession of an assault rifle (The Economist 18-24 Feb. 1995; Radio Pakistan 9 Feb. 1995; The Herald Feb. 1995a, 48, 50).

9 February

In Lahore, Salamat and Rehmat Masih are sentenced to death for blasphemy (AI 10 Feb. 1995; UPI 27 Feb. 1995; Reuters 13 Feb. 1995). Prime Minister Bhutto later reaffirms the government's intention to amend the blasphemy law (ibid.; FEER 23 Feb. 1995, 20). On 16 February the defence lawyer in the case is threatened, and her driver beaten, by a large crowd outside the Lahore High Court (also see 23 February 1995 entry) (AFP 16 Feb. 1995; The Independent 19 Feb. 1995).

10 February

Seven more people are killed in various incidents in Karachi, including three MQM-Haqiqi members who are tortured and then killed after their house is broken into by six armed men. Three other people, including "a supporter of a militant Shiite" group, are killed in other incidents (Reuters 10 Feb. 1995).

13 February

A strike is held in Vehari and Karampur towns in Punjab to protest nine recent killings, six of them at mosques and involving both Shiite and Sunni victims. The strikers demand that those responsible be found (AFP 13 Feb. 1995).

15 February

The government announces its intention to look into the causes of the Karachi violence. France and Turkey offer to assist in the undertaking (AFP 15 Feb. 1995).

18 February

Four TJP supporters are tortured and killed in Karachi, possibly by SSP supporters (AFP 18 Feb. 1995).

PML-N senior vice-president Ijaz ul-Huq, son of former president Zia ul-Huq, is arrested after displaying an unlicensed AK-47 at a February 16 rally in Islamabad and daring police to arrest him. The rally was called to protest the arrest of Shaikh Rasheed on the same charge (UPI 18 Feb. 1995).

19 February

Members of the UN Military Observers Group, in Pakistan to investigate reported Indian cease-fire violations, are reportedly fired upon by Indian troops from across the Line of Control (Radio Pakistan 20 Feb. 1995). Another UN observer is fired upon the following day (ibid. 21 Feb. 1995).

23 February

At least 150 people are arrested in Lahore in confrontations with police after the Lahore High Court acquits Salamat Masih and Rehmat Masih of blasphemy charges because of lack of evidence (Reuters 24 Feb. 1995; UPI 27 Feb. 1995; The Houston Chronicle 25 Feb. 1995).

24 February

Thirty-three SSP and TJP members are arrested in Punjab province in connection with cases involving murder, attempted murder and bombings. Officials indicate that a similar crackdown is likely in Karachi (AFP 23 Feb. 1995). According to FEER, the government is beginning a new crackdown on sectarianism (FEER 9 Mar. 1995a, 24).

25 February

Twenty worshippers in two Shiite mosques are shot and killed in Karachi by Sunni gunmen (UPI 27 Feb. 1995; FEER 9 Mar. 1995a, 24; AFP 25 Feb. 1995).

27 February

Salamat Masih and Rehmat Masih, the two Christians acquitted of blasphemy charges, are reported to have fled to Germany because they feared for their safety (Reuters 27 Feb. 1995). More than 100 journalists, teachers, social workers and writers rally outside the parliament building in Islamabad to demand repeal of the blasphemy law (ibid.; UPI 27 Feb. 1995).

NOTES ON SELECTED SOURCES

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]

Far Eastern Economic Review is a weekly magazine founded in 1946 which covers economic, social and political news in 30 Asian countries (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1250-1251; Country Reports 1994 1995, 1251). The government also reportedly influences editorial policy through its control of allocations of duty-free newsprint and government advertisements, and through bribery (ibid.). Nevertheless, sources indicate that the Pakistani press, especially those newspapers that are privately owned, can deliver high-quality, varied news coverage that critically examines government policies (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1251). The Herald and the Jang publishing groups are the largest independent publishers. The Herald Group publishes, among others, Dawn, an influential English daily newspaper founded in 1947, and The Herald, an English monthly news magazine founded in 1970 and reportedly respected for its independent editorial line (Country Reports 1994 1995, 1251; The World's News Media 1991, 382-384).

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Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 9 March 1995b. Ahmed Rashid. "Islam: March of the Militants."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 9 March 1995c. Ahmed Rashid. "Schools for Soldiers: Islamic Schools Mix Religion and Politics."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 23 February 1995. Ahmed Rashid. "No Mercy for Masih: A 14-Year-Old Gets Death for Blasphemy."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 12 January 1995. Ahmed Rashid. "Riches to Rubble: Karachi's Collapse Rocks Bhutto Government."

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Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 26 May 1994. Ahmed Rashid. "In God's Name: Blasphemy Law Becomes a Tool of Personal Vendettas."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 12 May 1994. Ahmed Rashid. "Roll of Dishonour: Bank Scandal Taints Government and Opposition."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 5 May 1994. "Pakistan: Provincial Politics."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 28 April 1994. Ahmed Rashid. "Wheeler-Dealer: Opposition Baits Bhutto By Lashing Out at Her Husband."

Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER) [Hong Kong]. 10 March 1994. Ahmed Rashid. "Divide and Rule: Prime Minister Bhutto Makes a Power-Grab."

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The Herald [Karachi]. February 1995b. Vol. 26, No. 2. Zaigham Khan. "Who's Afraid of Imran Khan?"

The Herald [Karachi]. February 1995c. Vol. 26, No. 2. "Under Pressure."

The Herald [Karachi]. January 1995. Vol. 26, No. 1. Zohra Yusuf. "Under Pressure."

The Herald [Karachi]. December 1994a. Vol. 25, No. 12. Idrees Bakhtiar. "In the Line of Duty."

The Herald [Karachi]. December 1994b. Vol. 25, No. 12. Idrees Bakhtiar. "Look Back in Anger."

The Herald [Karachi]. December 1994c. Vol. 25, No. 12. Hasan Iqbal Jafri. "'They Wanted to Use Me to Change the Faces at the Top'."

The Herald [Karachi]. December 1994d. Vol. 25, No. 12. H.I. Jafri and A. Abbas. "The Business of Fear."

The Herald [Karachi]. December 1994e. Vol. 25, No. 12. Aamer Ahmed Khan. "Free to Kill?"

The Herald [Karachi]. November 1994a. Vol. 25, No. 11. Zaffar Abbas. "Conduct Unbecoming."

The Herald [Karachi]. November 1994b. Vol. 25, No. 11. Zaffar Abbas. "Turban Guerrillas."

The Herald [Karachi]. November 1994c. Vol. 25, No. 11. Idrees Bakhtiar. "State of Seige."

The Herald [Karachi]. June 1994. Vol. 25, No. 6. Idrees Bakhtiar and Hasan Iqbal Jafri. "'This is No Noora Kushti'."

The Herald [Karachi]. May 1994a. Vol. 25, No. 5. Zaffar Abbas. "Showdown in Malakand."

The Herald [Karachi]. May 1994b. Vol. 25, No. 5. Idrees Bakhtiar. "This is Genocide."

The Herald [Karachi]. May 1994c. Vol. 25, No. 5. Idrees Bakhtiar. "What Does the MQM Really Want?"

The Herald [Karachi]. May 1994d. Vol. 25, No. 5. Idrees Bakhtiar and Hasan Iqbal Jafri. "'We Cannot Enter into a Dialogue with a Person Who is Instigating Crime'."

The Herald [Karachi]. May 1994e. Vol. 25, No. 5. Aamer Ahmed Khan. "The Blasphemy Law: The Bigot's Charter?"

The Herald [Karachi]. May 1994f. Vol. 25, No. 5. Aamer Ahmed Khan. "Madness in Gujranwala."

The Herald [Karachi]. April 1994a. Vol. 25, No. 4. Saira Akhtar. "Room to Breathe."

The Herald [Karachi]. April 1994b. Vol. 25, No. 4. Idrees Bakhtiar. "Conduct Unbecoming."

The Herald [Karachi]. April 1994c. Vol. 25, No. 4. Zohra Yusuf. "In the Name of the Law."

The Herald [Karachi]. April 1994d. Vol. 25, No. 4. Hasan Zaidi. "Living Hell."

The Herald [Karachi]. March 1994a. Vol. 25, No. 3. Zaffar Abbas. "Hijacking the Future."

The Herald [Karachi]. March 1994b. Vol. 25, No. 3. Zaffar Abbas. "House Warming."

The Herald [Karachi]. March 1994c. Vol. 25, No. 3. Zaffar Abbas. "Irreconcilable Differences?"

The Herald [Karachi]. March 1994d. Vol. 25, No. 3. "Firing Line."

The Herald [Karachi]. March 1994e. Vol. 25, No. 3. Aftab Alexander Mughal. "Day of the Bigot."

The Herald [Karachi]. February 1994a. Vol. 25, No. 2. Aamer Ahmed Khan. "Down but Not Out."

The Herald [Karachi]. February 1994b. Vol. 25, No. 2. Aftab Alexander Mughal. "Bailing Out."

The Herald [Karachi]. January 1994. Vol. 25, No. 1. Idrees Bakhtiar. "Battle of the Bhuttos."

The Houston Chronicle. 25 February 1995. 2 Star Edition. John Stackhouse. "Pakistan's Religious Minorities Fare Poorly." (NEXIS)

The Houston Chronicle. 16 January 1994. 2 Star Edition. John Stackhouse. "Pakistan's Political Soap Opera; Premier Bhutto, Mother and Brother Feud in Power Struggle." (NEXIS)

Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP). 1994. State of Human Rights in Pakistan 1993. Lahore: HRCP.

The Independent [London]. 19 February 1995. Tim McGirk. "Unholy Terror Puts a Boy on Death Row." (NEXIS)

Index on Censorship [London]. January-February 1995. Vol. 24, No. 1. "Index: Pakistan."

Index on Censorship [London]. November-December 1994. Vol. 23, No. 6. "Index: Pakistan."

India Abroad. 3 June 1994. A.R. Deo. "Pakistan Still Divided by Sectarian Conflicts." (The Ethnic NewsWatch/NEXIS)

India Today [New Delhi]. 15 February 1995. Vol. 20, No. 3. Zahid Hussain. "Imran Khan: Preparing His Pitch?"

India Today [New Delhi]. 15 December 1994. Vol. 19, No. 23. Zahid Hussain. "Pakistan: From One Crisis to Another."

Inter Press Service. 4 January 1995. Beena Sarwar. "Pakistan-Religion: Celebrate and Be Damned." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service. 21 September 1994. Beena Sarwar. "Pakistan: Opposition Calls Anti-Bhutto Strike a Success." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service. 27 May 1994. Rahul Bedi. "Pakistan: Religious Right Puts Bhutto in a Spot." (NEXIS)

International Herald Tribune [Neuilly-sur-Seine, Fra.]. 18 June 1994. John Ward Anderson. "Islamic Vigilante Justice: Critics Say Pakistani Blasphemy Laws Fuel a Rise in Religious Fanaticism." (NEXIS)

Jang [Lahore, in Urdu]. 11 July 1994. "Editorial Urges End to Row over Law Minister Remarks." (FBIS-NES-94-136 15 July 1994, pp. 55-56)

Jang [Lahore, in Urdu]. 18 January 1994. "Spokesman Denies Border Closed, Views Aid." (FBIS-NES-94-011 18 Jan. 1994, p. 86)

Japan Economic Newswire. 16 April 1994. "Six Injured in Grenade Attack on Karachi Mosque." (NEXIS)

Journal of Commerce [New York]. 31 May 1994. "Pakistani Children Protest Child Labor." (NEXIS)

Kayhan International [Tehran, in English]. 28 July 1994. "Concern Noted over Attacks on Pakistani Shiites." (FBIS-NES-94-151 5 Aug. 1994, p. 39)

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. December 1994a. Vol. 40, No. 12. "Pakistan: Closure of Indian Consulate."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. December 1994b. Vol. 40, No. 12. "Pakistan: Renewed Violence in Karachi."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. November 1994a. Vol. 40, No. 11. "Pakistan: Tribal Insurgency."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. November 1994b. Vol. 40, No. 11. "Escalating Violence in Karachi."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. November 1994c. Vol. 40, No. 11. "Arrest of Sharif."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. August 1994. Vol. 40, No. 8. "Pakistan: Opposition Boycott of Parliamentary Committees."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. July 1994. Vol. 40, No. 7. "Pakistan: Sectarian Clashes."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. June 1994a. Vol. 40, No. 6. "Pakistan: Release of Murtaza Bhutto."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. June 1994b. Vol. 40, No. 6. "Pakistan: Renewed Violence."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. May 1994a. Vol. 40, No. 5. "Pakistan: Ending of Opposition Parliamentary Boycott."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. May 1994b. Vol. 40, No. 5. "Pakistan: Escalation in Political Violence."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. May 1994c. Vol. 40, No. 5. "Pakistan: Political Reform for Northern Areas (Azad Kashmir)."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. May 1994d. Vol. 40, No. 5. "Pakistan: Pro-Islamic Protest."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. April 1994a. Vol. 40, No. 4. "Pakistan: Further Acquittals of Bhutto."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. April 1994b. Vol. 40, No. 4. "Pakistan: New PPP Government in NWFP-Unrest in Sindh."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. April 1994c. Vol. 40, No. 4. "Pakistan: Unrest in Sind."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. March 1994. Vol. 40, No. 3. "Pakistan: Senate Elections."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. February 1994a. Vol. 40, No. 2. "Pakistan: Acquittal of Bhutto and Zardari."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. February 1994b. Vol. 40, No. 2. "Pakistan: Federal Rule in NWFP-Government Defeat over Central Bank Independence."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. February 1994c. Vol. 40, No. 2. "Pakistan: Re-election of Islamic Party Leader."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. February 1994d. Vol. 40, No. 2. "Pakistan: Relations With India."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. January 1994a. Vol. 40, No. 1. "Pakistan: Clashes Between Bhutto Supporters."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. January 1994b. Vol. 40, No. 1. "Pakistan: Resignation of Islamic Party Leader."

La lettre de Reporters sans frontières [Montpellier, Fra.]. December 1994. "Pakistan: 25 octobre; Opération militaire." (DIRB Indexed Media Review [Ottawa], 13-26 Dec. 1994, Vol. 8, No. 24)

Libération [Paris]. 12 December 1994. "Des Pakistanais se dressent contre la violence." (DIRB country file)

Libération [Paris]. 28 November 1994. "Pakistan: Condamné à mort pour blasphème contre le prophète Mahomet." (DIRB country file)

Libération [Paris]. 20 October 1994. "Pakistan: Des dizaines de personnes ont été tuées ces dernières semaines...." (DIRB Indexed Media Review [Ottawa], 18-24 Oct. 1994, Vol. 8, No. 16)

Libération [Paris]. 19 October 1994. "Pakistan: Seize personnes, dont trois policiers, ont été tués dans des heurts inter-communautaires à Karachi...." (DIRB Indexed Media Review [Ottawa], 18-24 Oct. 1994, Vol. 8, No. 16)

Libération [Paris]. 7 October 1994. "Arrestations massives d'opposants au Pakistan avant la grève générale." (DIRB country file)

Libération [Paris]. 11 February 1994. "Au moins douze personnes ont été tuées dans des affrontements ethniques...." (DIRB Indexed Media Review [Ottawa], 8-14 Feb. 1994, Vol. 7, No. 7)

Los Angeles Times. 26 August 1994. Home Edition. "World in Brief: Pakistan; Expulsion of Illegal Immigrants Planned." (NEXIS)

Los Angeles Times. 25 April 1994. John-Thor Dahlburg. "After Attacks, Christians Feel Threatened in Pakistan: Leaders of Religious Minority Denounce Government in Muslim Nation for Failing to Repeal Blasphemy Law." (NEXIS)

MNS News. 7 November 1994. "Paramilitary Forces in Northwestern Pakistan...." (Web)

Middle East International [London]. 29 May 1994a. "Afghan Arabs Pack Up in Pakistan." (DIRB Indexed Media Review [Ottawa], 24-30 May 1994, Vol. 7, No. 22)

Middle East International [London]. 29 May 1994b. Jane Macartney. "Pakistan Moves to Restore Special Seats for Women." (DIRB Indexed Media Review [Ottawa], 24-30 May 1994, Vol. 7, No. 22)

Middle East Times [Athens]. 10 December 1994. "Iran Says Stop the Attacks." (DIRB country file)

Middle East Times [Athens]. 10 July 1994. "Bhutto Tour Draws Thousands." (DIRB country file)

Middle East Times [Athens]. 19 June 1994. "Bhutto's Brother Predicts End of Government." (DIRB country file)

Middle East Times [Athens]. 24 April 1994. "Pakistan Plans Free Legal Aid for Abused Women." (DIRB country file)

Middle East Times [Athens]. 6 March 1994. "Bhutto Cleared of Power Abuse." (DIRB Indexed Media Review [Ottawa], 1-7 Mar. 1994, Vol. 7, No. 10)

Middle East Times [Athens]. 20 February 1994. "Bhutto Opens First All-Women Police Station." (DIRB country file)

Le Monde [Paris]. 23 February 1994. "Pakistan: Un commando tue les trois preneurs d'otages afghans." (NEXIS)

The Muslim [Islamabad, in English]. 7 January 1995. "Government Accused of 'Selling Out'." (FBIS-NES-95-005 9 Jan. 1995, pp. 65-66)

The Muslim [Islamabad, in English]. 29 December 1994. "Leghari, Jamaat Leader Discuss Anti-U.S Protest." (FBIS-NES-95-002 4 Jan. 1995, p. 79)

The Muslim [Islamabad, in English]. 23 April 1994. "Thirty-Five Injured in Grenade Attack on Mosque." (FBIS-NES-94-079 25 Apr. 1994, pp. 88-89)

The Muslim [Islamabad, in English]. 14 January 1994. "Official: Balochistan Border Open." (FBIS-NES-94-010 14 Jan. 1994, pp. 54-55)

The Muslim [Islamabad, in English]. 9 January 1994. "Military Arrests Murtaza Bhutto Committee Member." (FBIS-NES-94-007 11 Jan. 1994, pp. 57-58)

The Nation [Islamabad, in English]. 13 February 1995. "Violation of International Conduct Seen." (FBIS-NES-95-029 13 Feb. 1995, pp. 70-71)

The Nation [Islamabad, in English]. 10 February 1995. "Interior Minister Reviews Arrest." (FBIS-NES-95-028 10 Feb. 1995, pp. 65-66)

The Nation [Islamabad, in English]. 24 October 1994. "Army Begins to Seize Illegal Arms in Karachi." (FBIS-NES-94-206 25 Oct. 1994, pp. 71-72)

The Nation [Islamabad, in English]. 18 April 1994. "Flow of Afghan Refugees into Islamabad Continues." (FBIS-NES-94-076 20 Apr. 1994, p. 71)

The Nation [Islamabad, in English]. 7 March 1994. "Efforts to Hold Off U.S. Trade Sanctions Noted." (FBIS-NES-94-045 8 Mar. 1994, p. 73)

The Nation [Islamabad, in English]. 18 January 1994. "'Temporary Truce' Viewed." (FBIS-NES-94-012 19 Jan. 1994, p. 75)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 10 February 1995. "Two-Year 'Man-Hunt' Ends." (FBIS-NES-95-028 10 Feb. 1995, pp. 64-65)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 2 February 1995. "'Serious Split' Surfaces in Muslim League." (FBIS-NES-95-025 7 Feb. 1995, p. 81)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 24 October 1994. "Government Denies UNHCR Request to Settle Refugees." (FBIS-NES-94-206 25 Oct. 1994, p. 72)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 30 September 1994. "Opposition Rallies Mark Peaceful Protest Day." (FBIS-NES-94-190 30 Sept. 1994, pp. 55-56)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 21 September 1994. "Sharif Says Prime Minister 'An Economic Risk'." (FBIS-NES-94-184 22 Sept. 1994, p. 67)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 16 September 1994. "Nawaz Sharif Calls for Strike 20 Sept." (FBIS-NES-94-180 16 Sept. 1994, p. 46)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 15 September 1994. "Court Declares Northern Areas Part of Kashmir." (FBIS-NES-94-179 15 Sept. 1994, pp. 57-58)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 6 July 1994. "Afghan Rocketi Warns More Kidnappings in Balochistan." (FBIS-NES-94-131 8 July 1994, pp. 59-60)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 19 April 1994. "Arab Nationals from Afghanistan War Told to Leave." (FBIS-NES-94-076 20 Apr. 1994, p. 72)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 25 February 1994. "Rockets Reportedly Fired from Across Afghan Border." (FBIS-NES-94-038 25 Feb. 1994, pp. 44-45)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 13 January 1994a. "Army Likely to Stay in Sindh Until June." (FBIS-NES-94-009 13 Jan. 1994, pp. 43-44)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 13 January 1994b. "Border Sealed; Refugees Stranded." (FBIS-NES-94-010 14 Jan. 1994, p. 54)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 9 January 1994. "Bomb Explodes Near City Courts in Karachi." (FBIS-NES-94-006 10 Jan. 1994, pp. 72-73)

The News [Islamabad, in English]. 4 January 1994. "Visa Restrictions Imposed on Afghans." (FBIS-NES-94-002 4 Jan. 1994, p. 60)

News India. 2 September 1994. Raja Asghar. "Pakistan Plans To Oust 1 Million Immigrants." (The Ethnic NewsWatch/NEXIS)

News India. 13 May 1994. Jane Macartney. "Benazir Seeks Women's Seats." (The Ethnic NewsWatch/NEXIS)

Newsweek [New York]. 24 January 1994. Russell Watson and Fazal Qureshi. "'Dynasty' Meets 'Family Feud': South Asia: Politics Divides Some Ruling Houses." (DIRB Indexed Media Review [Ottawa], 18-24 Jan. 1994, Vol. 7, No. 4)

The Ottawa Citizen. 6 February 1995. Gerald Bourke. "20 Sunnis Die Defending Cause of Kashmir's Muslim Separatists; Bhutto Government Calls General Strike to Show Solidarity." (NEXIS)

Pakistan News Service. 21 July 1994. Rehan Haque. "37 Quetta Lawyers Arrested." (DIRB country file)

Pakistan News Service. 3 June 1994. "Police Opened Fire at a Crowd of Demonstrators...." (DIRB country file)

Pakistan News Service. 20 May 1994. "11 Killed in Malakand." (DIRB country file)

The Pakistan Observer [Islamabad, in English]. 11 July 1994a. "Security Increased for Haider." (FBIS-NES-94-132 11 July 1994, p. 87)

The Pakistan Observer [Islamabad, in English]. 11 July 1994b. "Law Minister: 'No Proposal' to Weaken Blasphemy Law." (FBIS-NES-94-136 15 July 1994, p. 55)

Le Point [Paris]. 24 September 1994. "Pakistan: Révélations compromettantes." (DIRB country file)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 26 January 1995. "Islamabad TV Reports on Jammu Bombing." (FBIS-NES-95-018 27 Jan. 1995, p. 65)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 23 January 1995. "Bhutto Serves Notice to Paper for False Reporting." (FBIS-NES-95-015 24 Jan. 1995, pp. 55-56)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 22 January 1995. "High-Level Meeting Held on Sectarianism." (FBIS-NES-95-014 23 Jan. 1995, p. 71)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 11 October 1994. "Response to Strike Call Reviewed." (FBIS-NES-94-197 12 Oct. 1994, p. 90)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 11 July 1994. "Cabinet Rules Out Amendment to Blasphemy Law." (FBIS-NES-94-136 15 July 1994, p. 54)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 27 June 1994. "Strike Enters Second Day." (FBIS-NES-94-124 28 June 1994, pp. 85-86)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 29 May 1994. "Bhutto Lauds Opposition for Ending Assembly Boycott." (FBIS-NES-94-105 1 June 1994, pp. 73-74)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 9 May 1994. "Two Indian 'Terrorists' Arrested; Explosives Found." (FBIS-NES-94-090 10 May 1994, p. 56)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 24 April 1994. "Bhutto Defends Election." (FBIS-NES-94-079 25 Apr. 1994, pp. 87-88)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 20 March 1994. "Opposition Leader Escapes Assassination Attempt." (FBIS-NES-94-054 21 Mar. 1994, pp. 70-71)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 24 February 1994. "Ministry Debates Temporary Closure of Embassy in Kabul." (FBIS-NES-94-038 25 Feb. 1994, p. 44)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 5 February 1994. "'Complete Strike' Held in Solidarity with Kashmir." (FBIS-NES-94-025 7 Feb. 1994, pp. 70-71)

PTV Television Network [Islamabad, in English]. 13 January 1994. "Government to Open Relief Camps in Afghanistan." (FBIS-NES-94-010 14 Jan. 1994, p. 53)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 21 February 1995. "Another UN Observer 'Fired At' by Indian Troops." (FBIS-NES-95-035 22 Feb. 1995, p. 71)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 27 September 1994. "Nawaz Sharif, Others Barred from Entering Sindh." (FBIS-NES-94-188 28 Sept. 1994, p. 42)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 11 September 1994. "Government Calls March 'Unwarranted'." (FBIS-NES-94-177 13 Sept. 1994, p. 88)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 16 August 1994. "Nawaz Sharif Demands New Elections, Threatens Ouster." (FBIS-NES-94-159 17 Aug. 1994, p. 56)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 23 July 1994. "Former ISI Chief Forms New Political Party." (FBIS-NES-94-143 26 July 1994, p. 68)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 16 June 1994. "Mob Stones Opposition Leader Sharif's Car." (FBIS-NES-94-116 16 June 1994, p. 43)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 5 May 1994. "Karachi Situation Updated; MQM Leaders Arrested." (FBIS-NES-94-087 5 May 1994, p. 58)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 4 May 1994. "Army Deployed to Help Situation." (FBIS-NES-94-086 4 May 1994, p. 67)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 3 May 1994a. "Intermittent Sniper Fire Reported in Karachi; 2 Killed." (FBIS-NES-94-086 4 May 1994, p. 67)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 3 May 1994b. "Sindh Chief Expresses Commitment To Eliminate 'Terrorism'." (FBIS-NES-94-086 4 May 1994, p. 72)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 2 May 1994. "Violence Continues to Affect Karachi Districts." (FBIS-NES-94-085 3 May 1994, p. 81)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 25 April 1994. "Bhutto Calls for Reconciliation." (FBIS-NES-94-080 26 Apr. 1994, p. 57)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 10 March 1994. "Indian Forces Fire Across Control Line; 1 Killed." (FBIS-NES-94-047 10 Mar. 1994, p. 45)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 2 March 1994. "Bhutto Party Wins 16 Seats in Senate Elections." (FBIS-NES-94-042 3 Mar. 1994, p. 45)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 31 January 1994b. "Two Killed, Five Injured in Karachi Violence." (FBIS-NES-94-021 1 Feb. 1994, p. 59)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 26 January 1994. "Secretary Denies Borders with Afghanistan Closed." (FBIS-NES-94-017 26 Jan. 1994, p. 71)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in Urdu]. 9 January 1994. "Government, UN Respond to Afghan Refugees." (FBIS-NES-94-006 10 Jan. 1994, pp. 69-70)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in English]. 20 February 1995. "UN Observers 'Miraculously' Escape Shooting." (FBIS-NES-95-034 21 Feb. 1995, p. 94)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in English]. 9 February 1995. "Nawaz Sharif's Party MP Sentenced to 7 Years." (FBIS-NES-95-028 10 Feb. 1995, p. 70)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in English]. 7 February 1995. "Minister Says Karachi Events Linked to Kashmir." (FBIS-NES-95-026 8 Feb. 1995, p. 70)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in English]. 5 February 1995. "Rallies, Violence Mark Pro-Kashmir Strike." (FBIS-NES-95-024 6 Feb. 1995, p. 70)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in English]. 26 October 1994. "Unofficial Results Announced." (FBIS-NES-94-209 28 Oct. 1994, p. 56)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in English]. 22 July 1994. "Captive Pakistanis, Chinese Released." (FBIS-NES-94-141 22 July 1994, pp. 55-56)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in English]. 28 June 1994. "Unidentified Gunmen Kill 6 Police Officers." (FBIS-NES-94-124 28 June 1994, p. 83)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in English]. 5 June 1994. "Court Grants Bail for Mir Murtaza Bhutto." (FBIS-NES-94-108 6 June 1994, p. 84)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in English]. 28 April 1994. "Commentary Views Reform Package for Northern Areas." (FBIS-NES-94-085 3 May 1994, p. 83)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in English]. 27 March 1994. "5 Vehicles Burned in Karachi; 2 Killed in Shooting." (FBIS-NES-094-060 29 Mar. 1994, p. 60)

Radio Pakistan Network [Islamabad, in English]. 31 January 1994a. "Further on Incidents." (FBIS-NES-94-021 1 Feb. 1994, p. 59)

Radio Pakistan Overseas Service [Islamabad, in English]. 11 July 1994. "Government Affirms Commitment to Blasphemy Law." (FBIS-NES-94-136 15 July 1994, p. 54)

Radio Pakistan Overseas Service [Islamabad, in English]. 26 June 1994. "Chambers of Commerce Members Strike Over Budget: Commerce Minister Comments." (FBIS-NES-94-124 28 June 1994, p. 85)

Radio Pakistan Overseas Service [Islamabad, in English]. 24 April 1994. "Bhutto's Aide Elected Leader of NWFP Assembly." (FBIS-NES-94-079 25 Apr. 1994, p. 87)

Radio Pakistan Overseas Service [Islamabad, in English]. 13 January 1994. "Reports on Clashes with India 'Baseless'." (FBIS-NES-94-009 13 Jan. 1994, pp. 44-45)

Reuters. 27 February 1995. BC Cycle. Tahir Ikram. "Freed Pakistani Christians Fly to Germany-Sources." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 24 February 1995. BC Cycle. "Riots Erupt After Pakistanis Cleared of Blasphemy." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 13 February 1995. BC Cycle. "Bhutto Vows to Change Death-Penalty Blasphemy Law." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 10 February 1995. BC Cycle. "Seven More Die in Continuing Karachi Violence." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 24 December 1994. BC Cycle. "Bus Bomb Kills Three in Pakistan." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 19 November 1994. BC Cycle. "Seven Killed, Eight Wounded in Karachi Violence." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 17 November 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan Releases Opposition Leader's Ill Father." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 3 November 1994. BC Cycle. "Islamic Activists Said to Kill Deputy in Pakistan." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 11 October 1994. BC Cycle. "U.S. Lawmakers Want Pakistan on Terrorism List." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 28 September 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistani Opposition Says Hundreds Held by Police." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 15 September 1994. BC Cycle. "Bomb Kills 10 in Pakistani Kashmir Refugee Camp." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 25 August 1994. BC Cycle. Raja Asghar. "Pakistan Plans to Oust 1 Million Immigrants." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 26 July 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan Passes Law on Death for Drug Trafficking." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 22 July 1994. BC Cycle. "Former Pakistan Spy Chief Jumps into Politics." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 14 July 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan, Egypt Sign Pact to Extradite Fugitives." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 26 June 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan Shi'ite-Sunni Clash Kills One, Injures 16." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 27 May 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistani Children Protest Against Child Labor." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 17 May 1994. BC Cycle. Sanaullah Khan. "Pakistan Introduces Islamic Law to Halt Protests." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 16 May 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan Tribesmen Block Road to Demand Islamic Law." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 2 May 1994. BC Cycle. Ovais Subhani. "Pakistan Recalls Army to Violence-Hit Karachi." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 1 May 1994. BC Cycle. Ibrahim Khan. "Ethnic Protestors Burn Bus Driver in Pakistan." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 28 April 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan Wants to Restore Special Women Seats." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 25 April 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistani Police Arrest Three Senators." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 22 April 1994. BC Cycle. "One Killed, 25 Injured in Pakistani Violence." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 21 April 1994. BC Cycle. Aurang Zeb. "Pakistani Christians March Against Blasphemy Law." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 16 April 1994. BC Cycle. "Bomb Attack on Pakistani Mosque Injures Five." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 15 April 1994. BC Cycle. "Gunmen Kill Former Pakistan Parliament Member." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 17 March 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan Arrests 55 People After Karachi Violence." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 19 February 1994. BC Cycle. "Court Clears Pakistan's Bhutto of Power Abuse Charge." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 10 February 1994. BC Cycle. "Twelve Killed in Pakistan Tribal Feuds." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 5 February 1994. BC Cycle. "Shiites Kill Two in Pakistan Sunni Mosque-Police." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 31 January 1994. BC Cycle. "Gunmen Shoot Dead Two in Pakistani Bus Attack." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 5 January 1994. BC Cycle. Ibrahim Khan. "Pakistan Police Kill One, Injure 9 in Bhutto Feud." (NEXIS)

The San Francisco Chronicle. 9 June 1994. Final Edition. Rahul Bedi. "Bhutto Gives in to Militants: Approval of Islamic Law in Tribal Area Criticized." (NEXIS)

Time [New York]. 7 February 1994. "Chronicles: Talk of the Streets."

Time [New York]. 17 January 1994. Marguerite Michaels. "Pakistan: Uneasy Wears the Crown."

United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR). 14 February 1994. (E/CN.4/1994/53). Final Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Afghanistan. (United Nations Information Database)

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Geneva. 14 January 1994. "Pakistan at a Glance." (DIRB country file)

The United Press International (UPI). 27 February 1995. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Protest Against Pakistan's Blasphemy Law." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 18 February 1995. BC Cycle. "Opposition Leader Jailed in Pakistan." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 22 December 1994. BC Cycle. "At Least 8 Killed in Karachi." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 19 December 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Bhutto Vows to Fight Karachi Violence." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 10 December 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Pakistanis Protest Against Violence." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 9 December 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Journalists Strike Throughout Pakistan." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 7 December 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Pakistan Asks Afghan Refugees to Leave." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 13 November 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan Police Arrest Sharif's Father." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 30 October 1994. BC Cycle. "Eight Die in Pakistan Violence." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 16 September 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistanis Destroy Minority Mosque." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 14 September 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan Denies Army Involved in Drugs." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 27 August 1994. BC Cycle. "Tribal Clash in Pakistan Kills 9." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 30 July 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Strike Causes Gas Crisis in Pakistan." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 25 July 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Pakistani Opposition Cancels Talks." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 24 July 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistani Parliament Rejects Religion Bill." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 10 July 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Pakistani Minister Gets Death Threats." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 27 June 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Pakistani Government Offers Concessions to Strikers." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 26 June 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Pakistani Tribals Kill Three Arabs." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 16 June 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan Posts Troops to Prevent Riots." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 12 June 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Abused Pakistani Woman Returns Home." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 10 June 1994. BC Cycle. "Gunmen Kill Three in Karachi." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 7 June 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Pakistani Religious Fundamentalists Resist Change." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 16 May 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Pakistan Troops Kill 8 Muslim Activists." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 29 April 1994. BC Cycle. "Three Die in Demonstration in Pakistan." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 17 April 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Lesser Penalty for Killing Wife in Pakistan." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 5 April 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Pakistani Gunmen Kill Accused Blasphemer." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 27 March 1994. BC Cycle. "Police Arrest Hundreds of Strikers in Pakistan." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 21 March 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan Prime Minister Tastes Defeat in Parliamentary Election." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 19 March 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistani Women Demand End to Religion in Politics." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 2 March 1994a. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Pakistani Senate Elections Improve Bhutto's Position." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 2 March 1994b. BC Cycle. "Pakistani Opposition Launching Protests of Bhutto." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 23 February 1994. BC Cycle. Anwar Iqbal. "Fight Breaks Out Among Pakistani Lawmakers." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 26 January 1994. BC Cycle. "Pakistan Offers Extradition Treaty to Arabs." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 22 January 1994. BC Cycle. "Fundamentalist Pakistani Leader Quits After Election Defeat." (NEXIS)

U.S. Department of State, Office of the Spokesman. 14 November 1994. "State Department Travel Information: Pakistan." (Compuserve)

U.S. Department of State, Office of the Spokesman. 8 November 1994. "State Department Travel Information: Pakistan." (Compuserve)

Voice of America (VOA). 7 January 1995. Jennifer Griffin. "Pakistan Edhi." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 9 December 1994a. Jennifer Griffin. "Karachi Edhi." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 9 December 1994b. Jennifer Griffin. "Karachi Strike." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 8 December 1994. Douglas Bakshian. "Karachi Unrest." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 11 October 1994. Douglas Bakshian. "Pakistan Strike." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 10 October 1994. Douglas Bahskian. "Pakistan Strike." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 23 August 1994. Douglas Bakshian. "Pakistan 8th Amendment." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 11 August 1994. Douglas Bakshian. "Karachi Violence." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 24 July 1994. Douglas Bakshian. "Karachi Violence." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 23 July 1994. Douglas Bakshian. "Pakistan Bus." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 28 June 1994. Douglas Bakshian. "Pakistan/Arabs." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 30 May 1994. Douglas Bakshian. "Pakistan: Water Riot." (Web)

Voice of America (VOA). 15 May 1994. Douglas Bakshian. "Sukkur Killings." (Web)

Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran First Program Network [Tehran, in Persian]. 21 January 1994. "Wahhabis Blamed for Punjab Mosque Attack." (FBIS-NES-94-015 24 Jan. 1994, pp. 74-75)

The Washington Post. 12 September 1994. John Ward Anderson and Kamran Khan. "Heroin Plan by Top Pakistanis Alleged."

WIN News [Lexington, Mass.] Autumn 1994. Vol. 20, No. 4. I.A. Rehman and Shirkat Gah. "Pakistan: National Convention for Legal Reforms."

The Xinhua News Agency. 26 January 1995. "Ten Killed in Karachi in Fresh Violence Wave." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 5 January 1995. "91 Arrested in Karachi, Pakistan." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 7 December 1994. "Pakistan to Restore Women's Seats in Parliament." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 5 December 1994a. "Pakistan Urges Afghan Refugees to Go Home." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 5 December 1994b. "Weekly Editor Assassinated in Pakistan." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 27 November 1994. Hu Xiaoming. "Roundup: Violence Rampant in Karachi." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 14 November 1994. "Pakistan Opposition Stages Protest in Joint Session." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 29 October 1994. "Pakistan Opposition Boycotts Parliament Session." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 16 October 1994. "Pakistan to Monitor Child Abuses." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 16 September 1994. "Pakistan Opposition Calls for Nationwide Strike." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 22 August 1994. "Benazir Rules Out Fresh Elections." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 11 August 1994. "Five Killed in Karachi Factional Clash." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 24 July 1994. "Death Toll of Karachi Violence Rises to [Ten]." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 14 July 1994. "Pakistan-Egypt Sign Extradition Treaty." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua News Agency. 9 June 1994. "Pakistan Political Party Leaders Sentenced." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 19 June 1994. "Two Killed in Karachi Sectarian Violence." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 12 June 1994. "Two Killed in Factional Clash in Karachi." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 31 May 1994. "Three Police, One Civilian Killed in Karachi." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 9 May 1994. "2 Indian Terrorists Apprehended in Pakistan." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 3 May 1994. "Troops Called Out in Karachi." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 28 April 1994. "Judge's Cousin Killed by Masked Men in Karachi." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 3 April 1994. "Pakistan Not to be Used for Terrorism: Minister." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 27 March 1994. "3 Confirmed Killed in Karachi Firing." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 20 March 1994. "2 Policemen Killed in Karachi, Pakistan." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 11 March 1994. "Pakistani Woman Becomes Victim of Husband's Excess." (NEXIS)

The Xinhua General Overseas News Service. 1 February 1994. "3 Persons Killed in Violence in Karachi, Pakistan." (NEXIS)

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