Chronology of Events: December 1992-June 1994




8 December

At Kismayo, a port city in the South, supporters of Colonel Jess begin a series of massacres which leave over 100 members of the Harti clan dead over the coming days (UPI 29 Dec. 1992).

9 December

Within the framework of operation "Restore Hope", US Marines land on a Somali beach (Keesing's Dec. 1992, 39225).

11 December

The two warlords of the capital, Mogadishu, General Mohamed Farah Aidid and acting President Ali Mahdi, undertake to stop their war through negotiations (Keesing's Dec. 1992, 39225).

15 December

A woman leaving a French Army jeep is accused of prostitution by the crowd and beaten in the streets of Mogadishu (The New York Times 16 Dec. 1992).

23 December

US and French troops take control of the town of Baidoa (Afrique contemporaine 2nd quarter 1993, 96).

26 December

General Mohamed Farah Aidid and acting President Ali Mahdi Mohamed sign an agreement covering the peaceful resolution of longstanding conflicts, the creation of a political committee responsible for resolving political differences and an end to hostilities throughout the country (AFP 27 Dec. 1992).

28 December

In Mogadishu, the two warlords Aidid and Mahdi appear together in public to mark the dismantling of the "green line" separating their respective territories (The Washington Post 28 Dec. 1992; Le Devoir 29 Dec. 1992).

29 December

US and Canadian soldiers enter the town of Belet Huen (Le Devoir 29 Dec. 1992).

31 December

US President George Bush begins a two-day visit to Mogadishu and Baidoa (Keesing's Jan. 1993, 39255).

North of Mogadishu, artillery, mortar and heavy machine gun fighting between the Mursades and the Habar Gedirs, two sub-clans of the Hawiyes, leaves at least 17 people dead and 25 injured. The dispute between the two sub-clans is territorial (The Washington Post 2 Jan. 1993).


2 January

A British UNICEF employee in Kismayo is shot to death. According to one source, he had made statements on the massacres in Kismayo on 8 December 1992 (Reuters 3 Jan. 1993).

3 January

During his visit to Mogadishu, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali is prevented from visiting the UN office by hundreds of demonstrators supporting General Aidid (The Los Angeles Times 4 Jan. 1993).

4 January

A preparatory meeting of Somali armed factions, including those of General Aidid, Colonel Omar Jess and "acting President" Ali Mahdi, opens in Addis Ababa under the chairmanship of the UN Secretary-General (Libération 5 Jan. 1993).

7 January

While discussions continue in Addis Ababa in preparation for a possible conference of reconciliation, heavy machine gun fire between rival factions resounds in the Somali capital, probably between rival members of the Mursade clan (Le Devoir 7 Jan. 1993).

Fighting between US troops and Somali factions apparently kills at least one American and 30 Somalis (AFP 7 Jan. 1993).

8 January

For the second time in a month, fighting breaks out between Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF) militia and General Aidid's forces in and around the town of Galcaio, in the centre of the country (AFP 12 Jan. 1993).

In Hargeisa, Somaliland, there are reports that five women were stoned for adultery (AI 1994, 307).

11 January

In Addis Ababa, the leading warlords agree to call an immediate ceasefire and begin disarmament (Reuters 11 Jan. 1993). The agreement is signed on 15 January (AFP 15 Jan. 1993).

According to a spokesman for General Aidid, a committee of seven is charged with studying criteria for taking part in a conference of national reconciliation planned for mid-March in Addis Ababa, as well as the agenda for the conference. There are differences of opinion between Aidid's National Alliance and other factions as to criteria for participation (ibid.).

22 January

The meeting of the seven-member committee responsible for drawing up the agenda for the conference of reconciliation scheduled for mid-March breaks up at Addis Ababa after General Aidid's representatives accuse the other factions of violating the ceasefire agreement signed on 15 January (AFP 22 Jan. 1993).

23 January

Two Somalis are killed by Belgian forces deployed at Kismayo (AFP 24 Jan. 1993).

29 January

General Aidid releases 25 officers and 362 soldiers of deposed President Siad Barre's army whom he had detained at Mogadishu (AFP 29 Jan. 1993; The New York Times 30 Jan. 1993).

3 February

Fighting between two opposing Somali clans claims dozens of victims in the region of Kismayo (Libération 4 Feb. 1993).

4 February

The UN embarks on the disarmament process (Afrique contemporaine 2nd quarter 1993, 97).

22 February

At least 7 are dead and 21 injured following armed clashes in Kismayo between supporters of General Mohamed Said Hersi "Morgan", former President Siad Barre's son-in-law, who is seeking to recapture the city, and supporters of Colonel Omar Jess (Reuters 22 Feb. 1993; Libération 23 Feb. 1993).

Also, at Afgoye, bandits are reported to have killed an Irish woman working for the non-governmental organization (NGO) Concern (Libération 23 Feb. 1993; Le Devoir 23 Feb. 1993).

15 March

A new Somali peace conference opens in Addis Ababa. In addition to the various factions engaged in the conflict, reports indicate that it includes representatives of women, intellectuals and traditional chiefs. The goal of the conference is [translation] "national reconciliation" and the "restoration of a State" (Libération 16 Mar. 1993; Le Devoir 16 Mar. 1993; AFP 12 Mar. 1993).

17 March

General Mohamed Farah Aidid and his allies suspend their participation in the Addis Ababa conference in protest against the attack by General Morgan's troops on their partisans at Kismayo. Five hundred US soldiers are sent to restore order in Kismayo (Le Devoir 18 Mar. 1993; BBC Summary 19 Mar. 1993).

19 March

The conference of reconciliation resumes work with the participation of General Aidid (Afrique contemporaine 3rd quarter 1993, 99).

27 March

The Addis Ababa peace conference ends and faction leaders agree to set up a "National Transitional Council" consisting of 74 members and to implement general disarmament (The Washington Post 28 Mar. 1993). A peace agreement is signed the following day (Africa contemporaire 3rd quarter 1993, 99).

1 April

A Canadian Army spokesman announces that four members of the Canadian military have been arrested for the murder of a Somali at Belet Huen, Somalia (La Presse 2 Apr. 1993).

2 April

Because of the [translation] "growing insecurity", the International Committee of the Red Cross leaves the Somali port of Kismayo (Afrique contemporaine 3rd quarter 1993, 99).

8 April

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) announces that following the peace agreement signed on 28 March, 5,000 Somali refugees have been repatriated, with their consent, from the Kenyan camps where they had been staying (AFP 8 Apr. 1993; BBC Summary 15 Apr. 1993).

1st week of May

US soldiers leave Somalia and operation "Restore Hope" is replaced by UNSOM II, United Nations Operation in Somalia, whose goal is to enforce the peace (Le Devoir 4 May 1993; ibid. 5 May 1993; Afrique contemporaine 3rd quarter 1993, 99).

5 May

At Borama, a vote by the Council of Elders chooses as President of Somaliland, Mohamed Ibrahim Egal, Prime Minister of Somalia from 1967 to 1969 (AFP 8 May 1993).

7 May

Fighting between Belgian UN troops and warlord Omar Jess' militia in Kismayo kills 13. Jess accuses the peacekeepers of favouring his rival, General Mohamed Said Hersi (AFP 7 May 1993).

5 June

At least 22 Pakistani peacekeepers are killed and over 50 others are wounded in an attack by partisans of General Aidid. The next day, the UN Security Council passes Resolution 837 condemning this aggression and demanding that those responsible be arrested, tried and punished (Keesing's June 1993, 39499; AFP 7 June 1993).

6 June

US helicopters attack three of General Aidid's arms depots (Keesing's June 1993, 39499; La Presse 7 June 1993).

13 June

Pakistani peacekeepers, shooting at Somali demonstrators, kill at least 14, including women and children, and wound about 50 more (Keesing's June 1993, 39499; The Los Angeles Times 14 June 1993).

UN forces launch air attacks on several objectives thought to be General Aidid's arms depots (UPI 13 June 1993;The Los Angeles Times 13 June 1993). The death toll is 28 Somalis and five peacekeepers (Libération 20 June 1993).

17 June

The UN Security Council issues a warrant for General Aidid's arrest (Keesing's June 1993, 39499).

19 June

Five thousand Somalis demonstrate in the streets of Mogadishu to denounce attacks by UN forces (La Presse 20 June 1993).

2 July

Three Italian peacekeepers are killed and over 20 more are injured by Aidid's militia (The Los Angeles Times 3 July 1993; Keesing's July 1993, 39456).

10 July

The UN promises US$25,000 to anyone who captures or provides information leading to the capture of General Aidid (Afrique contemporaine 4th quarter 1993, 266; Jeune Afrique 28 July 1993).

12 July

UN forces launch an attack on the suspected headquarters of General Aidid's Somali National Alliance (SNA) in southern Mogadishu. Following this attack, an angry crowd kills three foreign journalists (The Ottawa Citizen 12 July 1993).

13 July

The Red Cross reports at least 54 dead and 174 injured in the previous day's attack. The UNSOM reports 13 dead. General Aidid's Somali National Alliance (SNA) reports 73 Somalis dead (La Presse 14 July 1993). Following the attack, the Italian Government protests and demands a halt to fighting, and the Organization for African Unity (OAU) calls on the UN to [translation] "reconsider its operation and intensify dialogue" (Libération 14 July 1993; Afrique contemporaine 4th quarter 1993, 266).

30 July

The human rights group Africa Rights issues a report denouncing what they call the unjustified killings of civilians in Mogadishu, the assassinations of unarmed civilians, the acts of brutality, thefts and destruction of weapons and ammunition in conditions hazardous to the population by UNSOM forces. In the report, Africa Rights is especially critical of Belgian peacekeepers based in Kismayo, who they claim have earned the hatred of the population by a series of murders, tortures, wrongful detentions and expulsions. UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali states in a press release that measures would be taken if these accusations proved founded. He adds that the accusations are [translation] "false or based on hearsay" (La Presse 31 July 1993; AFP 31 July 1993; The Ottawa Citizen 30 July 1993).

8 August

Four US soldiers are killed south of Mogadishu when a mine explodes, blowing up their vehicle. US President Bill Clinton promises to retaliate (Libération 9 Aug. 1993; Keesing's Aug. 1993, 39586).

9 August

Because of the previous day's incident, UN forces decide to [translation] "confine non-essential land missions" to Mogadishu (Afrique contemporaine 4th quarter 1993, 266).

11 August

Peacekeepers kill seven Somalis, presumed to be supporters of Aidid, who fired on a surveillance helicopter (Keesing's Aug. 1993, 39586).

13 August

In deep disagreement with the strategy used by the UN to fight Aidid, Italy decides to withdraw its troops from Mogadishu (Afrique contemporaine 4th quarter 1993, 266; The Washington Post 14 Aug. 1993).

18 August

The UN Secretary-General asks for 3,000 more soldiers to strengthen the UN operation in Somalia (UNSOM) (Afrique contemporaine 4th quarter 1993, 266).

24 August

The USA decides to send 400 more soldiers to Mogadishu to quell the [translation] "unacceptable" violence and "restore security" (Libération 25 Aug. 1993; Afrique contemporaine 4th quarter 1993, 286).

25 August

An investigation by an independent expert into the murder on 5 June 1993 of 24 Pakistani soldiers finds General Aidid responsible. Henceforth he [translation] "and his chief colleagues are liable to prosecution" (AFP 25 Aug. 1993).

30 August

UN forces storm and capture the headquarters of two humanitarian organizations, one of which is Action internationale contre la faim (AICF). They take eight prisoners, all employees of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) (Libération 12 Sept. 1993; Afrique contemporaine 4th quarter 1993, 266).

5 September

During an ambush in a neighbourhood of the capital inhabited by supporters of General Aidid, seven Nigerian peacekeepers are killed, at least six more are wounded and another disappears (AFP 5 Sept. 1993; The Los Angeles Times 6 Sept. 1993). According to witnesses, at least two Somalis are killed in this clash (AFP 5 Sept. 1993). With the loss of these Nigerian soldiers, the death toll since the start of UNSOM II reaches 47 (AFP 5 Sept. 1993; The Los Angeles Times 6 Sept. 1993).

9 September

In Mogadishu, a US helicopter fires on a crowd and kills "about 200 Somalis, most of them women and children". The crowd is said to have opposed UN forces when they were fighting militia (Keesing's Sept. 1993, 39627).

10 September

Fighting occurs between the Habar Gedir and Hawadle clans in the south of the capital, Mogadishu (AFP 10 Sept. 1993).

The Italian Minister of Defence condemns the UN actions in Somalia. He denounces the destruction of Mogadishu and states that [translation] "firing on the crowd is the very antithesis of the humanitarian mission" (La Presse 11 Sept. 1993; The Independent 11 Sept. 1993).

14 September

UN forces arrest two colonels in General Aidid's militia (Afrique contemporaine 4th quarter 1993, 267).

21 September

US soldiers capture four Somalis in Mogadishu, including Osman Hassan Ali ("Osman Ato"), General Aidid's chief financier. Osman Ato is suspected of having orchestrated the massacre of 24 Pakistani peacekeepers on 5 June and is held in administrative detention under UN Security Council resolution 837 authorizing soldiers "to use force to capture those involved in the massacre of 5 June" (AFP 21 Sept. 1993; Keesing's Sept. 1993, 39627).

22 September

The UN Security Council unanimously passes Resolution 865 "stressing the importance of ending [UNSOM] peacekeeping operations in Somalia by March 1995" (Keesing's Sept. 1993, 39627) and asking the Secretary-General to [translation] "advance the process of national reconciliation and political rule" and take the necessary steps toward the restoration of the police, judicial and penal systems (La Presse 23 Sept. 1993; Keesing's Sept. 1993, 39627).

27 September

The French humanitarian organization Médecins sans frontières leaves Somalia, criticizing the UN for favouring military action at the expense of humanitarian work (La Presse 28 Sept. 1993; Afrique contemporaine 1st quarter 1994, 82).

28 September

The human rights organization Africa Rights issues a report denouncing the high level of violations suffered by Somali refugees in Kenya, especially women, [translation] "thousands of whom have been raped". Africa Rights accuses "the Kenyan Government up to the highest level of being responsible for the violations" and also condemns the attitude of the UNHCR (AFP 28 Sept. 1993).

3 October

In fighting between peacekeepers and Somali militias, at least 15 US soldiers are killed (The Washington Post 11 Oct. 1993). In the space of a few days, 357 Somalis are killed (Afrique contemporaine 1st quarter 1994, 82), and the Red Cross estimates that [translation] "over 750 Somali civilians suffered bullet wounds" during the weekend (Libération 6 Oct. 1993).

9 October

General Aidid, pursued by the UN since June, unilaterally declares a ceasefire (Keesing's Oct. 1993, 39675).

14 October

General Aidid releases a US soldier detained by his supporters since 3 October. Another Nigerian peacekeeper is also released (Keesing's Oct. 1993, 39675; Le Devoir 15 Oct. 1993).

Leaders of the Arab League, the OAU and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) call for UN mediation in co-operation with regional organizations to draw up a peace agreement for Somalia (Keesing's Oct. 1993, 39675).

19 October

In order to encourage negotiations, UN forces release Mohamed Nur Gutale, a close collaborator of General Aidid (La Presse 21 Oct. 1993; Afrique contemporaine 1st quarter 1994, 82).

22 October

UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali goes to Baidoa, southwest of Mogadishu. This visit sparks incidents between rival groups in the city. He also stops for two hours at Mogadishu airport, provoking demonstrations by Aidid's supporters (AFP 22 Oct. 1993).

25-26 October

In Mogadishu on 25 and 26 October, fighting between supporters of General Aidid and those of his rival, acting President Ali Mahdi, leave about ten dead and about 50 wounded (Libération 26 Oct. 1993; Reuters 26 Oct. 1993).

3 November

A grenade is thrown by unknown persons in the Hargeisa market, leaving one person dead and at least 15 injured (BBC Summary 15 Nov. 1993).

16 November

Robert Oakley, the US President's special envoy, arrives in Mogadishu. His task is to [translation] "restart peace talks with General Aidid" (Le Devoir 17 Nov. 1993).

To encourage political negotiations, the UN Security Council decides to suspend its warrant for General Aidid's arrest (Le Devoir 17 Nov. 1993; Afrique contemporaine 1st quarter 1994, 84).

18 November

Through adoption of Resolution 886, the UN Security Council extends the UNSOM mandate until 31 May 1994 (Keesing's Nov. 1993, 39721).

29 November

The UN conference on the co-ordination of humanitarian aid to Somalia opens in Addis Ababa in the absence of the two chief actors in the Somali crisis - General Aidid and his rival Ali Mahdi Mohamed (Le Devoir 26 Nov. 1993; Afrique contemporaine 1st quarter 1994, 82).

1 December

Ali Mahdi Mohamed arrives in Addis Ababa (Le Devoir 3 Dec. 1993).

2 December

General Aidid also arrives in Addis Ababa (Le Devoir 3 Dec. 1993).

3 December

Ali Mahdi Mohamed and General Aidid meet separately with representatives of the Ethiopian Government which hopes to organize discussions between the two Somalis (The Independent 4 Dec. 1993).

8 December

According to an article in the New York Times, between 5 June and 3 October, fighting between the various Somali factions and between those factions and UN forces in Somalia have left between 6,000 and 10,000 Somalis dead or injured (Afrique contemporaine 1st quarter 1994, 83).

12 December

The negotiations led by Ethiopian President Meles Zenawi between the various Somali factions break down. General Aidid and the alliance of 12 factions headed by the acting President refuse to take responsibility (Le Devoir 13 Dec. 1993; Afrique contemporaine 1st quarter 1994, 83). According to the UN, this failure is liable to plunge the country once again [translation] "into the quagmire of famine and civil war" (Libération 14 Dec. 1993).


5 January

General Aidid is re-elected - in absentia - President of the United Somali Congress (USC), part of the Somali National Alliance (SNA), of which he is also re-elected head (AFP 5 Jan. 1994; Indian Ocean Newsletter 21 Jan. 1994).

6 January

Passing through Nairobi, Mohamed Egal, the President of the self-declared Republic of Somaliland, calls on the international community to recognize his republic and grant financial aid for the reconstruction of his country and the demobilization of militias (Le Devoir 7 Jan. 1994).

16 January

Following a three-day conference, under the direction of clan leader Imam MaMahammod Imam Omar, the clans to which General Aidid and acting President Ali Mahdi belong, sign a peace accord. Neither General Aidid nor acting President Ali Mahdi attended the conference (The New York Times 17 Jan. 1994).

18 January

The UN releases eight prisoners, including Osman Hassan Ali ("Osman Ato"), a member of General Aidid's SNA. After their release, three of them strongly criticize the [translation] "inhuman conditions" in which they were detained, but they still call for [translation] "peace and reconciliation" (Le Devoir 21 Jan. 1994; The Washington Post 19 Jan. 1994).

26 January

At least 13 people are killed and several more injured in clan clashes between two sub-clans of the Hawiyes (the Abgaals and the Hawadles) at Buurfale, north of Jowhar (AFP 27 Jan. 1994).

31 January

At least five Somalis are killed and about 15 more are wounded when shots are exchanged between US soldiers and Somalis in the south of Mogadishu (Le Devoir 1 Feb. 1994).

Early February

The UN Security Council reduces the objectives of its operation in Somalia; the political process will be emphasized rather than disarming the various factions. It also [translation] "approves gradual reductions in UNSOM II strength down to a maximum of 22,000 men" (Le Devoir 16 Feb. 1994).

6 February

An attempted bomb attack takes place in Mogadishu on the premises of the humanitarian organization, World Concern (AFP 7 Feb. 1994).

9 February

Two British MPs and an employee of the British NGO Action Aid are abducted by a band of kidnappers from the Habar Yunis clan near Erigavo (between the village of Mait and Hargeisa) in the self-proclaimed Republic of Somaliland (AFP 10 Feb. 1994).

10 February

The three British subjects abducted the previous day are released without being ransomed after negotiations conducted by elders of the Habar Yunis representing Mohamed Egal, President of Somaliland (AFP 10 Feb. 1994).

The UN special representative, US Admiral Jonathan Howe, returns to the USA (Libération 11 Feb. 1994).

12 February

At Belet Huen, in the west of the country, a grenade attack on the premises of the NGO International Medical Corps (IMC) causes no injuries but prompts the NGOs IMC, OXFAM and the German Red Cross to leave the town (AFP 12 Feb. 1994).

13 February

In the past three days, violent fighting in the port city of Kismayo between supporters of Mohamed Said Hersi "Morgan" and the militia of Omar Jess has killed between nine and 60 people and injured many; over 5,000 supporters of Omar Jess are forced to leave the city (AFP 13 Feb. 1994a; Le Devoir 14 Feb. 1994).

Two Italians are kidnapped near the town of Jowhar, bringing to five the number of foreigners working for the international aid agencies, Consorzio Europeo di Formazione Agaria (CEFA) and SOS International, who have been abducted during the preceding week (AFP 13 Feb. 1994b; Le Devoir 14 Feb. 1994).

An Egyptian soldier is killed in an ambush (AFP 13 Feb. 1994b).

16 February

About 50 foreigners, including 13 British employees of the mine sweeping company, Rimfire, are prevented from leaving Hargeisa by a group of armed Somalis. Police are unable to control the situation (AFP 17 Feb. 1994; Reuters 17 Feb. 1994).

27 February

Ali Mahdi announces his intention of taking part in negotiations organized by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, but General Aidid refuses to take part (Le Devoir 28 Feb. 1994).

12 March

A Kenyan and a New Zealander, on the staff of an Australian company providing services to the UN, are kidnapped in Mogadishu by six armed men (AFP 12 Mar. 1994; Reuters 14 Mar. 1994).

15 March

Nine Somalis are killed and five more are injured by Indian soldiers responsible for protecting a convoy transporting provisions to Baidoa (AFP 15 Mar. 1994; Reuters 15 Mar. 1994).

The incidence of cholera in Somalia continues to increase. In Mogadishu alone, 58 new cases are added to the already long list of 407 (Le Monde 18 Mar. 1994).

18 March

Two Italian journalists are killed by bandits in the north of Mogadishu (AFP 20 Mar. 1994).

22 March

A battle pitting the Sheegal and Ogadeni clans against the Gaelgal clan leaves six dead and seven injured at Jilib, north of Kismayo (AFP 23 Mar. 1994).

Two Cambodians, members of the staff of Morris Catering, an Australian company providing services to the UN, are killed by "bandits" near Afgoye about 50 kilometres from Mogadishu (AFP 23 Mar. 1994).

24 March

Peace talks between leaders of rival Somali factions lead to an agreement signed by General Aidid and President Ali Mahdi Mohamed. It provides for [translation] "a ceasefire and voluntary disarmament throughout the country" (Le Monde 25 Mar. 1994; AFP 24 Mar. 1994).

27 March

In a demonstration organized by the Somali National Alliance in south Mogadishu, a thousand people show their approval of the peace agreement signed in Nairobi on 24 March by the various factions (AFP 27 Mar. 1994).

28 March

In Kismayo, Somali gunmen shoot down two Indian peacekeepers while they were escorting two UNICEF employees to a food distribution centre (AFP 28 Mar. 1994).

4 April

Clan fighting between the Habar Gedirs and the Mursades, two sub-clans of the Hawiyes, kills at least three in southern Mogadishu (Reuters 5 Apr. 1994).

18 April

A UNHCR staff member is killed by bandits firing on his plane in southwestern Somalia (AFP 18 Apr. 1994).

19 April

Sudan's ambassador to Somalia is abducted by members of the Hawadle clan militia who demand a US$10,000 ransom (AFP 20 Apr. 1994; Reuters 27 Apr. 1994).

27 April

Sudan's ambassador to Somalia is released following the intervention of Somali religious dignitaries (ibid.).

16 May

In combat between General Aidid's Habar Gedir sub-clan and the Hawadle sub-clan, five UN soldiers from Nepal who were trying to intervene are killed (Reuters 16 May 1994). Another Nepalese peacekeeper is wounded in fighting and later abducted from his hospital bed by unidentified persons (Reuters 17 May 1994; AFP 17 May 1994).

26 May

The self-proclaimed Republic of Somaliland announces that it is prepared to temporarily receive Somali refugees living in Yemen (BBC Summary 27 May 1994).

29 May

The Nepalese peacekeeper abducted from hospital on 16 May is released (AFP 29 May 1994; Reuters 29 May 1994).

1 June

The President of the Republic of Somaliland, Mohamed Ibrahim Egal, accuses the UN special envoy of partiality in his efforts to reconcile the various Somali factions (AFP 1 June 1994).


Afrique contemporaine [Paris]. 1st quarter 1994. No 169. "Chronologie: Somalie."

Afrique contemporaine [Paris]. 4th quarter 1993. Special No. "Chronologie: Somalie."

Afrique contemporaine [Paris]. 3rd quarter 1993. No 167. "Chronologie: Somalie."

Afrique contemporaine [Paris]. 2nd quarter 1993. No 166. "Chronologie: Somalie."

Agence France Presse (AFP). 1 June 1994. "Somaliland Warns UN over its 'Independence' from Somalia." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 29 May 1994. "Libération du Casque bleu népalais enlevé le 16 mai à Mogadiscio." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 17 May 1994. "Un casque bleu népalais enlevé sur son lit d'hôpital à Mogadiscio." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 20 April 1994. "Sudan Envoy Kidnapped in Mogadishu." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 18 April 1994. "Un chef d'opérations du HCR à la frontière tué en Somalie." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 28 March 1994. "Somali Gunmen Kill Two Indian Peace Keepers." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 27 March 1994. "Manifestation pour la 'paix' dans le sud de Mogadiscio." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 24 March 1994. "Somali Leaders Sign Reconciliation Accord." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 23 March 1994. "Six morts dans une bataille entre clans somaliens." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 20 March 1994. "Two Italian Journalists Killed in Mogadishu." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 15 March 1994. Jean-Claude Chauvière. "Neuf 'bandits somaliens' tués et cinq blessés par des soldats." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 12 March 1994. Serge Arnold. "Un Néo-zélandais et un Kényan enlevés à Mogadiscio." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 17 February 1994. Claude Casteran. "Treize Britanniques retenus dans le nord-ouest de la Somalie par des hommes armés." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 13 February 1994a. "Thousands Flee Fighting in Southern Somalia." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 13 February 1994b. Jonathan Ewing. "Egyptian Killed, Two Italians Kidnapped in Somalia." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 12 February 1994. "Grenade Attack Drives Relief Agencies from Somali Town." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 10 February 1994. "Kidnapped British MPs Released in Somalia." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 7 February 1994. Christian Millet. "Attentat à la bombe contre une association internationale d'aide humanitaire à Mogadiscio." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 27 January 1994. "Affrontements entre Somaliens: au moins 13 personnes tuées selon l'ONUSOM." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 5 January 1994. "Aidid Re-elected President of the United Somali Congress." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 22 October 1993. "Boutros-Ghali Visit Sparks Protests in Mogadishu." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 28 September 1993. Francis Curta. "Viols massifs de réfugiées somaliennes au Kenya, selon African Rights." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 21 September 1993. Catherine Côté. "Trois Casques bleus pakistanais tués à Mogadiscio, selon un nouveau bilan." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 10 September 1993. Ruzica Gavralovic. "Violents combats entre clans dans le sud de Mogadiscio." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 5 September 1993. Marie-Thérèse Delboulbes. "Somalie: attaque." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 25 August 1993. "L'enquête sur la mort de 24 soldats pakistanais démontre la responsabilité d'Aïdid, selon l'ONU." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 31 July 1993. "African Rights Accuses UN Forces in Somalia of Violations." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 7 June 1993. Jean-Claude Chapon. "Nouveau bilan de la tuerie de samedi à Mogadiscio: 23 casques bleus tués." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 8 May 1993. "Mohamed Ibrahim Igal Elected President of Somaliland." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 7 May 1993. "Thirteen Reported Dead in a Clash in Somalia." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 8 April 1993. "Over 5,000 Somali Refugees Returning Home: UNHCR." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 12 March 1993. Pierre-Antoine Donnet. "Les Somaliens doivent démontrer leur volonté de paix, selon les pays donateurs." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 29 January 1993. "Le général Aïdid libère les soldats de Siad Barre détenus à Mogadiscio." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 24 January 1993. "Belgian Troops Kill Two Somalis as MSF Evacuates Kismayo." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 22 January 1993. "Ceasefire Row Stalls Meeting of Somalia Clans." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 15 January 1993. Christian Chaise. "La réunion des clans somaliens doit prendre fin avec la signature d'un accord de cessez-le-feu."

Agence France Presse (AFP). 12 January 1993. Frédéric Castel. "Des combats vendredi dans le centre de la Somalie." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 7 January 1993. "Combats jeudi à l'aube au nord de Mogadishu." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 27 December 1992. "Le texte de l'accord entre les deux chefs de guerre somaliens." (NEXIS)

Amnesty International (AI). 1994. Amnesty International Report 1994. London: Amnesty International Publications.

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 27 May 1994. "Somaliland Offers to Take In Somali Refugees in Yemen." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 15 November 1993. "Somaliland: Grenade Attack Reported at Hargeisa Market." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 15 April 1993. "Kenya: Repatriation of Somali Refugees." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 19 March 1993. "Somalia: Addis-Ababa Peace Talks Adjourned Following Morgan's Invasion of Kismayo." (NEXIS)

Le Devoir. 28 February 1994. "Somalie: Moubarack tente une médiation entre factions."

Le Devoir. 16 February 1994. "Le chaos guette la Somalie."

Le Devoir. 14 February 1994. "Sanglants combats en Somalie."

Le Devoir. 1 February 1994. "Fusillade à Mogadiscio: 5 morts."

Le Devoir. 21 January 1994. "Appel à la paix en Somalie."

Le Devoir. 7 January 1994. "Le Somaliland veut être reconnu par le monde."

Le Devoir. 13 December 1993. "Les Somaliens toujours divisés."

Le Devoir. 3 December 1993. "Aïdid se rend à Addis-Abeba."

Le Devoir. 26 November 1993. "Somalie: Aïdid et Mahdi ne vont pas à Addis-Abeba."

Le Devoir. 17 November 1993. "C'est la joie chez Aïdid."

Le Devoir. 15 October 1993. "Somalie: magnanime, Aïdid libère Durant."

Le Devoir. 5 May 1993. "Le demi-départ des Américains."

Le Devoir. 4 May 1993. "Somalie: les Nations unies vont désarmer."

Le Devoir. 18 March 1993. "Les combats interrompent les pourparlers."

Le Devoir. 16 March 1993. "Dernière chance en Somalie."

Le Devoir. 23 February 1993. "Somalie: les factions renouent avec le feu."

Le Devoir. 7 January 1993. "Lueur d'accord entre les chefs de clans somaliens."

Le Devoir. 29 December 1992. "Les deux chefs de guerre se réconcilient en Somalie." (NEXIS)

The Independent [London]. 4 December 1993. Buchizya Mseteka. "Hopes Grow for Somali Peace Talks." (NEXIS)

The Independent [London]. 11 September 1993. Richard Dowden and Rupert Cornwell. "Clans and UN Fights in Somali Capital; Men Women and Children Build Barricades in Mogadishu's Streets as US Troops Fire at Gunmen - Bonn Opposition at Odds on UN Policy." (NEXIS)

The Indian Ocean Newsletter {Paris]. 21 January 1994. "Mohamed Farah Aideed (Somalia)."

Jeune Afrique [Paris]. 28 July 1993. Paul-Marie de la Gorce. "Entre la farce et la tragédie."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. November 1993. Vol. 39, No. 10. "Somalia: Reversal of UN Policy."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. October 1993. Vol. 39, No. 10. "Somalia: Shift in UN Policy - Reorientation of US Policy."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. September 1993. Vol. 39, No. 9. "Somalia: UN Attack On."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. August 1993. Vol. 39, Nos. 7-8. "Somalia: Abortive Raid."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. July 1993. Vol. 39, Nos. 7-8. "Somalia: Conflict over Peacekeeping."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. June 1993. Vol. 39, No. 6. "Somalia: UN Operations Against Aydid."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. January 1993. Vol. 39, No. 1. "Somalia: Difficulties of Peace Enforcement."

Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. December 1992. Vol. 38, No. 12. "Somalia: US-Led Military Intervention."

Libération [Paris]. 11 February 1994. Stephen Smith. "Somalie: le représentant spécial de l'ONU quitte Mogadiscio."

Libération [Paris]. 14 December 1993. Stephen Smith. "Somalie: l'échec d'Addis-Abeba fait peur à Mogadiscio."

Libération [Paris]. 26 October 1993. "Violents combats entre factions somaliennes à Mogadiscio." (NEXIS)

Libération [Paris]. 6 October 1993. Stephen Smith. "Somalie: Mogadiscio, les rumeurs et les otages."

Libération [Paris]. 12 September 1993. Stephen Smith. "Somalie: Guerre humanitaire à Mogadiscio."

Libération [Paris]. 25 August 1993. "Somalie: Washington envoie des renforts à Mogadiscio."

Libération [Paris]. 9 August 1993. Stephen Smith. "Somalie: Mogadiscio, les premiers morts américains."

Libération [Paris]. 14 July 1993. "Somalie: Contre Aïdid, Washington maintient la ligne dur."

Libération [Paris]. 20 June 1993. "Somalie: l'ONU compte ses morts à Mogadiscio."

Libération [Paris]. 16 March 1993. Stephen Smith. "Nouvelle conférence de paix somalienne."

Libération [Paris]. 23 February 1993. "Les factions somaliennes s'affrontent à Kismayo."

Libération [Paris]. 4 February 1993. "Somalie: des combats ayant fait des dizaines de victimes opposent deux clans somaliens."

Libération [Paris]. 5 January 1993. Stephen Smith. "Somalie: les Somaliens se penchent sur leur avenir." (NEXIS)

The Los Angeles Times. 6 September 1993. Keith B. Richburg. "Somali Ambush Kills 7 Nigerian UN Soldiers." (NEXIS)

The Los Angeles Times. 3 July 1993. Art Pine. "3 U.N. Peacekeepers Killed in Somalia Ambush."

The Los Angeles Times. 14 June 1993. Art Pine and Todd Shields. "Pakistanis Fire on Somali Civilians." (NEXIS)

The Los Angeles Times. 13 June 1993. Art Pine. "U.N. Launches 2nd Aerial Attack on Somali Warlord."

The Los Angeles Times. 4 January 1993. Daniel Williams and Stanley Meisler. "Protests Bar U.N. Chief from Office in Somalia." (NEXIS)

Le Monde [Paris]. 25 March 1994. Jean Hélène. "Somalie: signature d'un accord entre les principaux chefs de factions." (NEXIS)

Le Monde [Paris]. 18 March 1994. "Somalie: une épidémie de choléra a déjà fait plus de cent morts." (NEXIS)

The New York Times. 17 January 1994. "Two Main Mogadishu Clans Reach Accord." (NEXIS)

The New York Times. 30 January 1993. Diana Jean Schemo. "Somali to Release Prisoners of War." (NEXIS)

The New York Times. 16 December 1992. "Somali, Attacked by a Mob, is Charged with Prostitution." (NEXIS)

The Ottawa Citizen. 30 July 1993. Richard Dowden. "Mission to Somalia; Watchdog Details UN Atrocities." (NEXIS)

The Ottawa Citizen. 12 July 1993. "Angry Somali Mob Kills Reporter after UN Attack." (NEXIS)

La Presse [Montreal]. 21 October 1993. "Les Nations unies libèrent un proche du général Aïdid."

La Presse [Montreal]. 28 September 1993. "Médecins sans frontières quitte la Somalie en critiquant le rôle de l'ONU."

La Presse [Montreal]. 23 September 1993. "Le Conseil de sécurité donne 18 mois à l'ONUSOM II pour réussir."

La Presse [Montreal]. 11 September 1993. "L'Italie dénonce la destruction de Mogadiscio."

La Presse [Montreal]. 31 July 1993. "L'ONU réagit aux accusations d'African Rights."

La Presse [Montreal]. 14 July 1993. "Mogadiscio: l'ONU sur la sellette."

La Presse [Montreal]. 20 June 1993. "Des milliers de Somaliens manifestent contre Clinton." (NEXIS)

La Presse [Montreal]. 7 June 1993. "L'ONU évacue son personnel de Mogadiscio."

La Presse [Montreal]. 2 April 1993. Marie-Claude Lortie. "Meurtre d'un Somalien: quatre militaires canadiens arrêtés."

Reuters. 29 May 1994. BC Cycle . "Somalis Free Kidnapped Nepalese Soldier." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 17 May 1994. BC Cycle. Julian Bedford. "Wounded Nepalese Soldier Kidnapped in Somalia." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 16 May 1994. BC Cycle. "Somali Gunmen Kill Five Nepalese U.N. Soldiers." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 27 April 1994. BC Cycle. "Kidnapped Sudanese Envoy Freed Unharmed." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 5 April 1994. BC Cycle. "Three Gunmen Killed in Militia Clash in Mogadishu." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 15 March 1994. BC Cycle. "Nine Somali Bandits Killed in Surge of Lawlessness." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 14 March 1994. BC Cycle. Aidan Hartley. "Freedom Sought for Foreigners Seized in Somalia." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 17 February 1994. BC Cycle. Peter Smerdon. "UN Reports Militia Standoff in Northwest Somalia." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 26 October 1993. BC Cycle. Jim Adams. "Clan Fighting Spreads in Mogadishu." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 22 February 1993. "Seven Somalis Killed, 21 Wounded in Battles." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 11 January 1993. Tsegaye Tadesse. "Somalia Factions Agree on Immediate Ceasefire." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 3 January 1993. Paul Holmes. "UNICEF Pulls Foreign Staff From Somalia Town after Killing." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 13 June 1993. "Rioting Breaks Out in Mogadishu." (NEXIS)

United Press International (UPI). 29 December 1992. "Massacres Reported in Somalia City." (NEXIS)

The Washington Post. 19 January 1994. "U.N. Releases Eight Somalis Loyal to Militia Leader; Move Was an Attempt to Aid Peace Efforts." (NEXIS)

The Washington Post. 11 October 1993. Keith B. Richburg. "Somalia's Cease-Fire Takes Hold; Aideed's Guns Silent as US Envoy Arrives in Mogadishu." (NEXIS)

The Washington Post. 14 August 1993. Keith B. Richburg. "Italy in Rebuke to UN, to Pull Troops Out of Mogadishu; General Refuses to 'Use Same Means That Guerrillas Use'." (NEXIS)

The Washington Post. 28 March 1993. Jennifer Parmelee. "Somalis Reach Peace Accord; Plan for Interim Rule Set at U.N. Talks." (NEXIS)

The Washington Post. 2 January 1993. Keith B. Richburg. "Somali Factions Fight Near Capital." (NEXIS)

The Washington Post. 28 December 1992. Jennifer Parmelee. "Somalia's Fearless Free Press." (NEXIS)

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