El Salvador: Chronology of Events: January 1992-August 1993



ANSP     National Public Security Academy

ARENA Nationalist Republican Alliance

BIRI        Immediate Reaction Infantry Battalion

CD          Democratic Convergence

CDHES   Commission for Human Rights (non-governmental)

ERP         People's Liberation Forces

FMLN    Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front

FPL         Popular Liberation Forces

ONUSAL               United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador

PDH        Office for the Ombudsman for the Defence of Human Rights

PN           National Police

PNC        National Civilian Police

TSE         Supreme Electoral Tribunal



16 January

President Alfredo Cristiani and representatives of the rebel Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) sign a comprehensive peace accord in Mexico City to end the 13-year civil war. The agreement establishes a cease-fire to last from 1 February to 31 October 1992. During that time both sides are to take significant steps in the area of military and socio-political reform.

The FMLN agrees to:

1)"regroup" its troops in "protected enclaves" where they will surrender their weapons under UN supervision, and

2)demobilize its estimated 6,000 to 8,000 combatants.

The government agrees to:

1)halve the size (to 31,500) of its armed forces and significantly reduce their firepower,

2)disband five counter-insurgency battalions (BIRIs) linked to serious human rights violations,

3)purge the military of officers accused of human rights abuses, based on the recommendations of an independent commission,

4)create a new civilian police force, to include demobilized FMLN fighters,

5)implement land reform, including the distribution of about 650,000 acres of land to 7,500 disarmed rebels, 25,000 peasant families and 15,000 demobilized soldiers, and

6)institute changes to the judicial and electoral systems which will, among other things, provide for the legalization of the FMLN as a political movement entitled to field candidates in future elections (Current History Mar. 1993, 108, 111).

23 January

The National Assembly passes the Law on National Reconciliation, which amnesties those who committed crimes during the civil war. The amnesty excludes those linked to particularly violent incidents and those incidents to be examined by the Truth Commission, a UN body mandated by the peace accord to investigate the most serious violations of human rights committed during the war (The Christian Science Monitor 7 Feb. 1992; BBC Summary 25 Jan. 1992).

24 January

Colonel Guillermo Benavides and Lieutenant Yusshi Mendoza are sentenced to 30 years imprisonment for the November 1989 killing of six Jesuit priests, their housekeeper and her daughter on the campus of the University of Central America in San Salvador (Inter Press Service (IPS) 24 Jan. 1992; UPI 24 Jan. 1992). The two officers had been convicted on 28 September 1991 by a jury of five in San Salvador. Seven other co-defendants, all soldiers, were found not guilty, reportedly because they were judged to be following orders (Los Angeles Times 29 Sept. 1991).

1 February

The National Commission for the Consolidation of Peace (COPAZ) is inaugurated by President Cristiani in San Salvador. The commission consists of representatives from the major political groupings in the country, including the government, the FMLN and the armed forces, and one from each of the political parties. Established in September 1991, COPAZ had held a number of its previous meetings in "exile" because FMLN representatives had been barred from entering the country (El Mundo 5 Feb. 1992; The Christian Science Monitor 3 Feb. 1992).

10 February

COPAZ appoints the final three members of an eight-member committee to oversee creation of the National Civilian Police (PNC) (Canal Doce Television 13 Feb. 1992; Central America Update 14 Feb. 1992).

27 February

The government appoints the National Counsel for the Defence of Human Rights, as required by a law passed 20 February establishing the office (United Nations 5 June 1992, 3).

2 March

The government abolishes the National Guard and the Treasury Police. About 1,000 officers of the two forces are subsequently transferred to the PNC, a move the United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) categorizes as being in "direct" violation of the peace accord (Radio Cadena Horizonte 3 Mar. 1992; Human Rights Watch Dec. 1992, 109).

5 June

ONUSAL reports that the National Counsel for the Defence of Human Rights has thus far been unable to carry out his mandate because the government has not provided sufficient funds (United Nations 5 June 1992, 3).

30 June

Demobilization of the FMLN, originally to have commenced 1 May, begins when an estimated 1,600 FMLN troops surrender their weapons in "concentration areas" run by ONUSAL. In return they receive "certificates of reincorporation to the civilian, political and institutional life of the country" (Latin American Weekly Report 16 July 1992, 11).

10 August

The Military Service and Armed Forces Reserve Act is promulgated. The law stipulates that military service is compulsory for 12 months. It does not provide for alternative service for conscientious objectors but does allow certain categories of draftees to obtain "equivalency" through a "part-time military training program" (El Salvador 10 Aug. 1992).

15 August

The disbandment of the first of five "immediate reaction infantry battalions" (BIRIs), the Eusebio Bracamonte battalion, is completed in a public ceremony. The BIRIs have been linked to human rights abuses such as the 1981 massacre of peasants in El Mozote and the 1989 killing of six Jesuit priests in San Salvador, both attributed to the Atlacatl battalion (Central America Report 18 Sept. 1992).

31 August

The first group of PNC cadets begins training at the National Public Security Academy (ANSP), the school established to staff the new police force. When fully deployed, 20 per cent of PNC officers will be former members of the abolished National Police (PN), 20 per cent will be former FMLN fighters and 60 per cent will be civilians who were non-combatants during the civil war (Country Reports 1992 1993, 396; Inter Press Service (IPS) 7 Sept. 1992).

16 September

A second BIRI, the 1,600-troop Ramón Belloso battalion, is disbanded (Central America Report 18 Sept. 1992).

23 September

The Ad Hoc Commission presents a confidential report to UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali and President Cristiani. The commission reportedly recommends that seven generals and 90 other officers be purged from the Salvadoran military. Subsequent reports put the number of officers to be removed at over 100. The peace accord stipulates that President Cristiani has 60 days in which to implement the commission's recommendations (Central America Update 2 Oct. 1992; The New York Times 1 Nov. 1992; Current History Mar. 1993, 109).

26 October

The Salvadoran government and the FMLN agree to a UN proposal to postpone final demobilization of rebel forces until 15 December 1992. The UN proposal also sets new deadlines for the disbandment of the three remaining BIRIs, the Atlacatl, Atonal and Arce battalions. Thus far the FMLN has demobilized 3,000 of its 8,500 combatants (Le Devoir 27 Oct. 1992; AFP 26 Oct. 1992; Current History Mar. 1993, 109).

4 November

The FMLN distributes titles to 848 hectares of land to 286 demobilised FMLN combatants. It is the first such land distribution carried out under the January 1992 peace plan (Latin American Weekly Report 19 Nov. 1992, 5).

6 November

ONUSAL spokespersons indicate that ONUSAL chief Iqbal Riza recently wrote Salvadoran presidency minister Oscar Santamaria requesting that the government stop recruiting demobilized security forces personnel into the PNC in violation of the peace accord (Central America Update 13 Nov. 1992; Human Rights Watch Dec. 1992, 110).

13 November

A team of international forensic investigators announce the discovery of 93 skeletons in El Mozote. This and subsequent discoveries in November and December support eyewitness accounts that the Salvadoran army massacred hundreds of peasants, including women and children, in El Mozote and other villages in the area in December 1981 (Le Devoir 14 Nov. 1992; Current History Mar. 1993, 109).

The Supreme Electoral Tribunal rules that the FMLN cannot be registered as a legal political party until it is fully demobilized (La Presse 14 Nov. 1992).

26 November

The armed forces high command announces that it will proceed with charges against the non-governmental Commission for Human Rights (CDHES) for "defamatory campaigns." The commission had run an advertisement accusing Deputy Defence Minister General Orlando Zepeda of responsibility for a number of gross violations of human rights (Latin American Weekly Report 10 Dec. 1992, 9; Human Rights Watch Dec. 1992, 110).

11 December

The National Assembly passes a number of laws related to the judicial system, including one broadening the autonomy of the National Judiciary Council and expanding its membership to eleven. The Council is responsible for screening and appointing judicial officials and will direct the establishment of an academy for training in legal procedures (Central America Update 18 Dec. 1992).

14 December

The FMLN reportedly completes the demobilization and disarmament of its approximately 8,000 combatants (Latin American Weekly Report 24 Dec. 1992, 12; Le Devoir 3 Feb. 1993). ONUSAL formally certifies that the demobilization and disarmament of the FMLN has been completed, whereupon the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) recognizes the FMLN as a legal political party (Inter Press Service (IPS) 19 Jan. 1993; Central America Update 18 Dec. 1992).

15 December

The extended cease-fire period ends but implementation of a number of important aspects of the January 1992 peace accord, including judicial reforms and creation of the PNC, has not begun. Land distribution to peasants in FMLN-controlled areas remains in its nascent stages and military officers linked to human rights abuses remain in their positions (Current History Mar. 1993, 110-11).

21 December

An FMLN convention elects a 50-member National Council to lead the party. It consists of 10 members from each of the five FMLN member groups: the Salvadoran Communist Party (PCS), the Popular Liberation Forces (FPL), the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP), the Central American Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC) and the National Resistance (RN). Delegates also appoint PCS leader Shafick Handal as the party's "general coordinator" but add that he will not run as a presidential candidate in the 1994 elections (Central America Update 8 Jan. 1993; Reuters 22 Dec. 1992).

31 December

President Cristiani announces changes in the leadership of the armed forces, including some dismissals. Diplomats who have seen the 23 September Ad Hoc Commission report indicate that some of the dismissed officers are among those the commission had recommended for dismissal. Others reportedly remain in their positions in breach of the peace accord (Latin American Weekly Report 21 Jan. 1993, 34; Reuters 4 Jan. 1993).


4 January

Reuters reports that despite its professed disarmament in December, the FMLN is maintaining a number of anti-aircraft missiles which it will keep until the government completes its purge of the armed forces (Reuters 4 Jan. 1993).

19 January

Deputy Defence Minister Zepeda announces that the 50 per cent reduction in the armed forces will be completed by the end of the month, over a year ahead of the schedule set out by the January 1992 peace accord. Since the reductions began in August 1992, 19 counter-insurgency units and four of the five BIRIs have been disbanded (Latin American Weekly Report 4 Feb. 1993, 56; Central America Update 8 Jan. 1993).

21 January

Defence Minister Ponce says some FMLN fighters have kept their weapons in violation of the peace accord. An FMLN spokesman calls the statement "irresponsible" but adds that his party is investigating the possibility that renegade FMLN fighters have kept their weapons and are committing robberies (Reuters 21 Jan. 1993).

31 January

The auxiliary bishop of San Salvador claims political killings in El Salvador have continued since the peace accord came into effect, stating that "there are enough unexplained cases and they point to something we could call selective violence." He criticizes the government for not adequately investigating incidents such as a recent "hand-grenade explosion" which killed a woman and four children in San Miguel province (Reuters 31 Jan. 1993).

1 February

An FMLN leader states that the rebels still maintain "small quantities" of weapons that he says do not threaten the peace process because they are being guarded by UN observers at former rebel bases (Le Devoir 3 Feb. 1993).

6 February

The last of the five BIRIs, the Arce battalion, is disbanded. According to an army communique this completes the cut in armed forces troop strength from 63,000 to 31,500, as set out in the peace accord. Another aspect of the peace accord, the removal of high-ranking military officials, is still to be implemented by the government (Central America Update 12 Feb. 1993; AFP 7 Feb. 1993).

11 February

The FMLN announces that it has destroyed its last cache of 1,200 guns but will keep about 55 surface-to-air missiles until the government purges the highest ranking officers named by the Ad Hoc Commission. On 17 February an FMLN spokesman states that the group has destroyed 25 of the 55 remaining missiles (UPI 17 Feb. 1993; Le Monde 16 Feb. 1993).

13 February

The son and nephew of COMADRES director Alicia de Garcia are killed in La Puerta (Usulutan department). Because the bodies show signs of torture and execution-style killing, COMADRES and Tutela Legal .describe the incident as a death squad murder. Tutela Legal is the human rights branch of the Catholic Archdiocese of San Salvador, while COMADRES (Committee of Mothers and Families of Prisoners, the Disappeared, and Victims of Political Assassinations of El Salvador) is a group representing the relatives of victims of human rights abuses committed during the civil war (ICCHRLA July 1993, 17). It is one of 50 such killings in the first five months of 1993, most of which Tutela Legal attributes to former or active-duty soldiers and death squads (ICCHRLA July 1993, 17).

24 February

The FMLN announces the creation of the Association for Peace and Democracy (ASPAD). Its mandate includes voter registration, education and the training of candidates and workers for the upcoming elections. An initial registration drive mounted by the TSE between February and April registered only 18,000 of the estimated 650,000 to 1,000,000 unregistered voters (Ibid., 13-14).

15 March

The Truth Commission releases its report, which states that the majority of abuses were committed by the Salvadoran armed forces or groups associated with it. One FMLN member group, the ERP, is singled out as having committed "grave acts of violence," including killings and disappearances. According to the report many death squads were operated by the military and financed by Salvadoran business leaders and landowners, and they still represent a danger to Salvadoran society. The report emphasizes that the country's justice system has been and remains woefully inadequate and recommends 8 judicial reforms, including immediate replacement of all Supreme Court judges (United Nations 15 Mar. 1993, 6-8; Latin American Weekly Report 25 Mar. 1993, 1; Los Angeles Times 15 Mar. 1993).

Other recommendations contained in the report are:

the immediate dismissal of 40 members of the armed forces and their ban for life from military or security positions.

a 10-year ban from public office for all individuals named in the report as human rights abusers.

a special investigation into death squads in order to definitively end their activities.

strengthening of the National Counsel for the Defence of Human Rights with the establishment of regional offices in each of the country's provinces.

channelling of one per cent of all foreign aid into a special fund to compensate victims of grave human rights violations.

UN monitoring of the government's compliance with the recommendations of the Truth Commission.

(United Nations 15 Mar. 1993, 5, 7-9; The Washington Post 13 Apr. 1993; The Globe and Mail 23 Mar. 1993)

18 March

President Cristiani accuses the Truth Commission of bias in its 15 March report, adding that "it does not respond to the desires of the majority of Salvadorans, who favour a pardon and support putting an end to the suffering of the past" (Central America Update 26 Mar. 1993; Le Devoir 19 Mar. 1993).

The UN Security Council demands that the government and the FMLN implement all measures recommended in the Truth Commission report (Le Devoir 22 Mar. 1993).

20 March

The National Assembly passes the General Amnesty Law for the Consolidation of Peace, which grants "full, absolute and unconditional amnesty" to those who committed political crimes or "connected common crimes" before 1 January 1992 (Los Angeles Times 21 Mar. 1993). The amnesty pardons many of those named in the Truth Commission report. Reportedly, it is the first time since the peace pact was signed that the assembly did not reach consensus on major legislation (Los Angeles Times 21 Mar. 1993; Le Devoir 22 Mar. 1993; Central America Update 26 Mar. 1993).

22 March

The FMLN's five member groups announce that they will "accept responsibility" for human rights violations attributed to them by the Truth Commission report (BBC Summary 24 Mar. 1993).

President Cristiani states that the executive branch is not constitutionally empowered to remove Supreme Court judges, emphasizing that the National Assembly, dominated by Cristiani's Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA) and two allied conservative parties, is responsible for judicial reforms (The Globe and Mail 23 Mar. 1993; Central America Update 26 Mar. 1993).

23 March

Defence Minister Ponce reportedly describes the Truth Commission report as "unjust, incomplete, illegal, unethical, biased and insolent" (Central America Update 26 Mar. 1993; Le Devoir 25 Mar. 1993).

26 March

Government sources disclose that President Cristiani approved the amnesty law on 22 March. Until this time official statements maintained that the law had yet to be ratified by the president (Amnesty International 29 Mar. 1993).

28 March

ARENA nominates the mayor of San Salvador, Armando Calderón Sol, to be its candidate in the 1994 presidential elections (UPI 28 Mar. 1993; Reuters 28 Mar. 1993).

1 April

Two army officers jailed in January 1992 for the slaying of Jesuit priests in 1989 are released under the terms of the March amnesty law (Facts on File 15 Apr. 1993; Le Devoir 6 Apr. 1993; The Globe and Mail 2 Apr. 1993).

2 April

UN Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali accepts a revised timetable from President Cristiani for the removal from office of military officers named by the Ad Hoc Commission. The 15 remaining officers, including Defence Minister Ponce and Deputy Defence Minister Zepeda, are to be put on leave with pay by 30 June and will be formally retired by the end of the year (Central America Update 9 Apr. 1993).

A confessed former member of a death squad, Vielman Joya Martínez, is released under the terms of the March amnesty law (UPI 3 Apr. 1993).

5 April

The director of the Human Rights Division of ONUSAL releases a report covering the period 1 July 1992-31 January 1993. The report notes "a definite trend towards an overall improvement in the human rights situation in the country, although some disturbing practices still persist." It also warns that the trend is "not...irreversible" (United Nations 5 Apr. 1993, 10). The report further states that the cease-fire was "strictly observed" during the period and that a "consensus" had emerged between political forces on the strengthening of "democratic institutions" (Ibid., 7).

During the period covered by the report, the Human Rights Division received about 1500 complaints of serious human rights violations that it felt warranted investigation. Of these, there were allegations of 106 killings, 165 death threats, 1,197 cases of ill-treatment, 27 abductions and 8 disappearances (Ibid., 13, 22-25). The report describes five cases that have characteristics of political killings and states that "torture was not practised on a systematic or massive scale" during the period under review (Ibid., 13-16, 21).

The report points to significant advances in specific areas, including the Office of the National Counsel for the Defence of Human Rights, creation of the PNC, restructuring of the armed forces, issuance of land transfers and judicial reform. However, it adds that "laws on their own do not solve problems" and emphasizes that timetables are still needed to implement certain aspects of the peace accord, especially with respect to land transfers, the PNC and the development of an "effective, independent" judiciary (Ibid., 8).

20 April

Amnesty International reports that the man convicted of murdering trade unionist Ivan Ramírez in July 1992 has been sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment, and that the evidence now suggests the murder was not politically motivated (Amnesty International 20 Apr. 1993).

21 April

The government cancels a visit by the Inter-American Human Rights Commission planned for the coming week. According to one report, meetings with NGOs scheduled for later in the month are to go ahead (AFP 21 Apr. 1993).

The CDHES submits a petition to the Supreme Court challenging the 20 March amnesty law (Amnesty International 27 Apr. 1993).

23 April

In its second public report the Office of the Ombudsman for the Defense of Human Rights (PDH) expresses concern about continuing human rights abuses, including political killings, arbitrary arrest and detentions and other violations of legal rights, and fingers the armed forces, the police, the Anti-Narcotics Executive Unit and justice officials as being responsible (ICCHRLA July 1993, 16).

27 April

A group of 45 of the country's leading lawyers calls for the resignation of all 14 members of El Salvador's Supreme Court, in line with the Truth Commission's recommendation (UPI 27 Apr. 1993).

29 April

The PNC begins policing in Cabañas department. The first PNC recruits graduated in early February, with half taking up duties in Chalatenango department and the remainder receiving additional training (ICCHRLA July 1993, 10).

30 April

A UN official announces that a 600-person observer mission will monitor presidential, national assembly and mayoral elections tentatively scheduled for March 1994 (Reuters 30 Apr. 1993).

3 May

The FMLN predicts that because of delays the PNC will only be functioning in 7 of the country's 14 departments in time for the 1994 national and local elections, a situation that it says will lead to unfair elections (AFP 3 May 1993).

4 May

An armed forces statement announces a purge of 15 commanding officers, in accordance with an April agreement between the UN secretary-general and President Cristiani. Two of the officers, Col. Nelson López y López and Col. Oscar León Linares, are reportedly relieved of their commands as of 1 May, the latter for his role in the murder of Jesuit priests in 1989 and the massacre of 16 unarmed peasants in 1983 (The Globe and Mail 5 May 1993; La Presse 5 May 1993).

10 May

The CD chooses Rubén Zamora as its presidential candidate (Latin American Weekly Report 27 May 1993, 232).

11 May

A French newspaper reports that the FMLN, specifically the ERP, struck a deal with the government to delay the purge of leading army officers in return for an acceleration of land transfers to former rebels and their supporters (Libération 11 May 1993).

12 May

A "bitter" strike by Ministry of Public Works employees ends with the workers receiving a 7 per cent pay increase but loosing pay for five of the nine working days they were on strike (ICCHRLA July 1993, 20).

13 May

Hundreds of civil war veterans and campesinos protest in front of the Central Reserve Bank demanding that the government speed up land transfers (ICCHRLA July 1993, 12).

16 May

El Salvador's highest ranking church official, Gregorio Rosa Ch vez, expresses concern about recent violent incidents. "We are seeing some violent practices that remind us of the worst times of the war," he says, pointing to the discovery the previous week of three victims of what appeared to be "death squad-style killings" (UPI 16 May 1993).               

19 May

The Supreme Court rules that the March amnesty law is constitutional (ICCHRLA July 1993, 7; La Prensa Grafica 21 May 1993).

20 May

Members of a PN anti-riot squad open fire on armed forces and rebel civil war veterans protesting government inaction in implementation of the December 1992 Special Law for the Protection of War-Injured and Disabled. One protester is killed and 20 others wounded (ICCHRLA July 1993, 15). Other reports cite a slightly higher number of fatalities (Los Angeles Times 30 May 1993, 3; BBC Summary 22 May 1993). On 24 May President Cristiani announces the arrest and detention of five police officers pending an investigation of the incident (Reuters 24 May 1993b; ICCHRLA July 1993, 15).

21 May

The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service announces an extension of the Deferred Enforced Departure Program, allowing an estimated 200,000 Salvadorans to remain in the United States for an additional 18 months (Los Angeles Times 30 May 1993, 3).

23 May

A cache of weapons, including surface-to-air missiles, explosives and assault rifles, is discovered in underground warehouses just outside the Nicaraguan capital of Managua. It is subsequently determined that most of the weapons in the stockpile belong to the FPL, an FMLN member group (Canal Doce Television 18 June 1993b; The Washington Post 17 June 1993; Los Angeles Times 4 July 1993).

The Christian Democratic Party nominates Fidel Ch vez Mena, a former foreign minister, as its presidential candidate (Latin American Political Affairs 4 June 1993).

Gregorio Menjía Espinoza, a CD leader in Tonacatepeque, is abducted, tortured and subjected to a mock execution by unidentified assailants. The incident is one of a series of attacks against CD members in late May and early June 1993 (ICCHRLA July 1993, 18; Radio Cadena YSU 25 May 1993).

24 May

President Cristiani indicates that the government does not plan to investigate death squad killings that took place during the civil war, despite a recommendation by the Truth Commission to do so (Reuters 24 May 1993a). However, he reaffirms his commitment to purge, by 30 June 1993, officers named by the Ad Hoc Commission (Latin American Weekly Report 3 June 1993, 252).

Two FMLN rebels imprisoned for the killing of two U.S. military advisors are released under the terms of the March amnesty law (Radio Venceremos Network 25 May 1993; News From Americas Watch 10 Aug. 1993, 18, 24).

25 May

The United Nations Development Programme reports that El Salvador has made considerable economic progress. It has one of the lowest inflation rates in Latin America and its GDP has grown consistently since 1990, the report says (Latin American Weekly Report 10 June 1993, 264).

28 May

Amnesty International states that "there has not been a pattern of widespread politically motivated killings by 'death squads' since...January 1992" (Amnesty International 28 May 1993).

4 June

CD member Jose Oscar Miranda is kidnapped and killed in San Salvador after receiving death threats (ICCHRLA July 1993, 17)

12 June

In a letter to FMLN leader Shafik Handal, UN Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali calls the 23 May discovery of weapons in Managua "the most serious violation to date" of the peace accords and accuses the organization of a "deliberate attempt to mislead" him. He also demands an inventory of all remaining FMLN weapons by the end of the month (Canal Doce Television 18 June 1993b; The Washington Post 17 June 1993). FPL leader Salvador Sanchez subsequently writes Boutros-Ghali to explain that "the real reason we did not inventory or destroy all of our weapons [as required by the peace accord] was simply because of the profound distrust we have of the armed forces" (Los Angeles Times 4 July 1993).

16 June

Officials from the EC and the United States preside over the distribution of especially rich farmland to 724 former FMLN fighters and 900 former tenants in the department of Usulut n (UPI 17 June 1993; La Prensa Grafica 17 June 1993b).

17 June

In an official statement, the FMLN reportedly indicates that the FPL has surrendered the store of weapons recently found in Nicaragua to ONUSAL (La Prensa Grafica 17 June 1993a).

18 June

The ERP reportedly announces that it still has a supply of weapons, a portion of which it handed over to ONUSAL the previous day. ERP leader Joaquín Villalobos says his group will relinquish other caches during the coming week, but adds that some weapons stored after fighting in 1989 have yet to be located (Canal Doce Television 18 June 1993a).

21 June

The FMLN proposes that a 45-day period be established during which it will assist ONUSAL in locating and destroying all remaining FMLN weapons arsenals (ICCHRLA July 1993, 13).

28 June

The government announces that army captain Oscar Armando Peña Duran has been appointed PNC subdirector, a move which reportedly contravenes the peace accords and compromises the PNC's independence from the military (ICCHRLA July 1993, 10)

1 July

The last of over 100 armed forces officers recommended for dismissal by the Ad Hoc Commission, including Minister of Defence Ponce, are sent into retirement. President Cristiani swears in Colonel Humberto Corado Figueroa and Roberto Tejada as the new defence and deputy defence ministers, respectively (Chicago Tribune 1 July 1993; AFP 1 July 1993; The Christian Science Monitor 6 July 1993). While Corado was not named in the Truth Commission report and is described as being "a moderate who has no record of human rights violations," CDHES and other human rights observers allege that he was involved in human rights abuses, including the 1982 killing of 45 civilians in the village of Achotal (Chicago Tribune 2 July 1993; Ibid. 1 July 1993; UPI 30 June 1993; ICCHRLA July 1993, 9).

2 July

President Cristiani reportedly decrees that the Salvadoran army will carry out "preventative patrols" to combat criminal activity. Government officials justify the decision by pointing to the PNC's inability to deal with the rising crime rate, including thefts by gangs of ex-rebels (The Christian Science Monitor 6 July 1993).

4 July

The Los Angeles Times reports further political fallout from the 23 May weapons stockpile discovery in Nicaragua. It cites sources within the FPL who believe that it is now politically impossible for Facundo Guardado, one of the group's leaders, to run for vice-president as part of a left-of-centre coalition in the 1994 elections (Los Angeles Times 4 July 1993).

7 July

The Chicago Tribune reports that the National Conciliation Party has chosen retired general Juan Rafael Bustillo as its presidential candidate for the 1994 elections. Bustillo was among those whom the Truth Commission recommended be barred from public office for 10 years for their role in the 1989 Jesuit murders (Chicago Tribune 7 July 1993; United Nations 15 Mar. 1993, 4-5).

8 July

Rather than field its own candidate the FMLN leadership votes to support CD presidential candidate Ruben Zamora in the upcoming elections. The decision must be ratified at the FMLN national convention to be held in August (Reuters 8 July 1993; Latin American Weekly Report 22 July 1993).

16 July

In a move criticized by the FMLN and other opposition groups, the government deploys 3,000 army troops on "dissuasive patrols" to combat crime. The soldiers are reportedly sent to the 15 areas of the country with the highest rates of crime. CD leader Zamora had earlier accused the government of violating the constitution, which provides that the armed forces can carry out internal security functions only in extraordinary circumstances and only with National Assembly approval. Others opposed to the move indicate that it violates the peace accords (UPI 6 July 1993; Ibid. 16 July 1993; The Christian Science Monitor 6 July 1993).

20 July

In its most recent report on human rights in El Salvador, ONUSAL indicates that the situation has improved but that violations continue. Covering a three-month period from February to April 1993, the report documents six deaths which it describes as political (The Christian Science Monitor 22 July 1993).

25 July

The FMLN claims "right wing groups" are responsible for the murder of four of its members in southern La Paz department (Reuters 28 July 1993).

The Archbishop of San Salvador, Arturo Rivera Damas alleges that the 25 June shooting death of Monsignor Joaquin Ramos in San Salvador was a political killing. Ramos was a senior church official with the Salvadoran armed forces (UPI 25 July 1993; Reuters 25 July 1993; ICCHRLA July 1993, 17).

30 July

PDH and ONUSAL heads sign an agreement ensuring gradual transfer of human rights monitoring functions to the PDH (BBC Summary 4 Aug. 1993).

9 August

ONUSAL States that 90 per cent of the weapons contained in secret FMLN depots discovered since late May have been destroyed and the remainder will be demolished by 18 August (Reuters 9 Aug. 1993).

10 August

In a study of the Truth Commission report and its aftermath, America's Watch states that the report has "left...many unfinished tasks." It calls on the current government and whatever government is in place after the March 1994 elections to thoroughly investigate the "death squads," and makes four recommendations that the Cristiani government carry out immediately, including judicial reforms called for by the Truth Commission (News from America's Watch 10 Aug. 1993, 36-37).

16 August

The addition of 286 graduates from the ANSP brings the total number of PNC officers to 1,500. They are reportedly deployed in the four departments of Chalatenango, Morazon, Cabañas and Usulutan, areas that saw considerable fighting during the civil war (Inter Press Service 17 Aug. 1993).

18 August

ONUSAL announces that all of the approximately 120 FMLN arms depots discovered after the 23 May explosion in Managua have been destroyed and that it considers the military structure of the organization to be dismantled (Los Angeles Times 19 Aug. 1993; AFP 18 Aug. 1993).


Agence France Presse (AFP). 18 August 1993. "Les anciens guerilleros salvadoriens totalement désarmés, selon l'ONUSAL." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 1 July 1993. "Salvadoran President Completes Peacetime Purge of Military." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 3 May 1993. "La guerilla salvadorienne accuse le gouvernement de ne pas respecter les accords de paix." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 21 April 1993. "El Salvador Cancels Human Rights Commission Visit." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 14 April 1993. Carole Landry. "Les assassinats politiques continuent au Salvador, selon une mission de l'ONU." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 7 February 1993. "Salvador's Last Anti-Rebel Unit Disbanded." (NEXIS)

Agence France Presse (AFP). 26 October 1992. "Salvadoran Rebels Welcome U.N. Proposal to Delay Demobilization." (NEXIS)

Amnesty International. 28 May 1993. Urgent Action. (AI Index: AMR 29/11/93). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International. 27 April 1993. Urgent Action. (AI Index: AMR 29/10/93). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International. 20 April 1993. Urgent Action. (AI Index: AMR 29/09/93). London: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International. 29 March 1993. Urgent Action. (AI Index: AMR 29/08/93). London: Amnesty International.

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 4 August 1993. "ONUSAL and Human Rights Ombudsman Sign Agreement on Transfer of Responsibility." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 22 May 1993. "Group Threatens Revenge After War-Disabled Killed in Demonstration." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 24 March 1993. "FMLN Criticizes Amnesty Law." (NEXIS)

BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 25 January 1992. "El Salvador Assembly Approval of Amnesty Law Paves Way for FMLN Command Return." (NEXIS)

Canal Doce Television [San Salvador, in Spanish]. 18 June 1993a. "ERP Leader Acknowledges Additional Hidden Weapons." (FBIS-LAT-93-117 21 June 1993, p. 13)

Canal Doce Television [San Salvador, in Spanish]. 18 June 1993b. "UN Secretary General Cites FMLN 'Insincerity'." (FBIS-LAT-93-117 21 June 1993, p. 12)

Canal Doce Television [San Salvador, in Spanish]. 13 February 1992. "Copaz Installs Group to Organize Civilian Police." (FBIS-LAT-92-031 14 Feb. 1992, p. 8)

Central America Report. 18 September 1992. "El Salvador: Elite Battalions Demobilized." (DIRB Indexed Media Review [Ottawa], 29 Sept.-5 Oct. 1992, Vol. 4, No. 14)

Central America Update [New Mexico]. 9 April 1993. "U.N. Secretary General Accepts New Government Timetable for Compliance with Military Purge Recommendations." (NEXIS)

Central America Update [New Mexico]. 26 March 1993. "Legislature Approves Amnesty." (NEXIS)

Central America Update [New Mexico]. 12 February 1993. "Government Concludes Army Reduction, Despite Delay in Officer Purge." (NEXIS)

Central America Update [New Mexico]. 8 January 1993. "Army Disbands Atonal Battalion, But Delays Purge of Officer Corps." (NEXIS)

Central America Update [New Mexico]. 18 December 1992. "Salvadoran Cease Fire Comes To Successful Close." (NEXIS)

Central America Update [New Mexico]. 13 November 1992. "Implementation of Salvadoran Peace Accords and Related Events." (NEXIS)

Central America Update [New Mexico]. 2 October 1992. "Implementation of Salvadorean Peace Accords and Related Events." (NEXIS)

Central America Update [New Mexico]. 14 February 1992. "Summary of Developments: Implementation of Salvadoran Peace Accords and Related Events." (NEXIS)

Chicago Tribune. 7 July 1993. "Retired Salvadoran General Seeks Presidency." (NEXIS)

Chicago Tribune. 2 July 1993. "New Defense Chief Takes Charge After El Salvador Purge." (NEXIS)

Chicago Tribune. 1 July 1993. "Salvadoran Officers Purged for Atrocities." (NEXIS)

The Christian Science Monitor [Boston]. 22 July 1993. Faye Bowers. "In El Salvador, Rights Abuse Continues Says UN Report." (NEXIS)

The Christian Science Monitor [Boston]. 6 July 1993. David Clark Scott. "Purge of Salvador's Army Brass Dismantles a Military Clique." (NEXIS)

The Christian Science Monitor [Boston]. 7 February 1992. Todd Howland. "Salvador Peace Starts with Misstep." (NEXIS)

The Christian Science Monitor [Boston]. 3 February 1992. David Clark Scott. "Salvadoran Cease-Fire Takes Hold." (NEXIS)

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1992. 1993. U.S. Department of State. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Current History [Philadelphia]. March 1993. Pamela Constable. "At War's End in El Salvador."

Le Devoir [Montréal]. 6 April 1993. "Pas d'amnistie pour la gauche."

Le Devoir [Montréal]. 25 March 1993. "L'armée salvadorienne s'insurge contre l'ONU."

Le Devoir [Montréal]. 22 March 1993. "Amnistie générale au Salvador malgré les pressions internationales."

Le Devoir [Montréal]. 19 March 1993. "Cristiani préfère la réconciliation à l'épuration."

Le Devoir [Montréal]. 3 February 1993. "Boutros-Ghali: 'Le FMLN n'a pas totalement désarmé'."

Le Devoir [Montréal]. 14 November 1992. "Des enquêteurs découvrent 93 squelettes au Salvador."

Le Devoir [Montréal]. 27 October 1992. "Nouveau délai pour les accords de paix."

Facts on File World News Digest. 15 April 1993. "Amnesty Granted for Civil War Atrocities." (NEXIS)

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 5 May 1993. "Cristiani Begins Demotion of Senior Officers in El Salvador."

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 2 April 1993. "Salvadorean Judge Frees Killers of Jesuit Priest."

The Globe and Mail [Toronto]. 23 March 1993. Howard French. "Justice System Can't Hide From the Truth."

Human Rights Watch. December 1992. Human Rights Watch World Report 1993. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Inter-Church Committee on Human Rights in Latin America (ICCHRLA). July 1993. "Human Rights Situation in El Salvador: ICCHRLA Country Report, January-July 1993." Toronto: ICCHRLA.

Inter Press Service. 17 August 1993. Juan Ramon Duran. "El Salvador: Former Guerrillas and Soldiers Don Police Uniforms." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service. 19 January 1993. Marcel Garces. "Former Rebel Leader Admits Divisions Within FMLN." (NEXIS)

Inter Press Service. 7 September 1992. "Funds Channeled to New Police Force." (DIRB Indexed Media Review [Ottawa], 29 Sept.-5 Oct. 1992, Vol. 4, No. 14)

Inter Press Service. 24 January 1992. "Convicted Killers of Jesuits Sentenced to 30 Years." (NEXIS)

Latin American Political Affairs [New Mexico]. 4 June 1993. "Christian Democrats Nominate Fidel Chavez Mena for President." (NEXIS)

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 22 July 1993. "Salvadorean Line-Up."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 10 June 1993. "Postscript: Economy and Trade: El Salvador/UNDP Report."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 3 June 1993. "El Salvador/Cristiani Will Comply."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 27 May 1993. "Three Candidates in the Ring, One to Go."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 25 March 1993. "Salvadorean Truth Commission Names Names, Confirms Systematic Abuses."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 4 February 1993. "Army Speeds Up Reduction Process."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 21 January 1993. "Military and Politics: El Salvador/Military Purge."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 24 December 1992. "El Salvador/Peace."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 10 December 1992. "Brass To Contest 'Slander' In Court."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 19 November 1992. "Pressures and Claims of Coup Attempts."

Latin American Weekly Report [London]. 16 July 1992. "Peace Process Is Now Back On Track."

Libération [Paris]. 11 May 1993. Jean-François Boyer. "San Salvador achète l'impunité de ses militaires."

Los Angeles Times. 19 August 1993. Home Edition. Tracy Wilkinson. "U.N. Says Salvadoran Rebels Have Given Up Their Weapons." (NEXIS)

Los Angeles Times. 4 July 1993. Home Edition. Tracy Wilkinson. "Rebels' Weapons Stash Jeopardizes Peace Process." (NEXIS)

Los Angeles Times. 30 May 1993. Home Edition. Elston Carr. "Salvadorans Welcome Extension." (NEXIS)

Los Angeles Times. 21 March 1993. Home Edition. Tracy Wilkinson. "Salvador Government OKs Blanket Amnesty." (NEXIS)

Los Angeles Times. 15 March 1993. Home Edition. Stanley Meisler and Tracy Wilkinson. "U.N. Report Condemns Prominent Salvadorans." (NEXIS)

Los Angeles Times. 29 September 1991. Home Edition. Kenneth Freed. "Colonel Guilty in Killing of 6 Salvador Priests." (NEXIS)

Le Monde [Paris]. 16 February 1993. Bertrand de la Grange. "Salvador: a l'exception d'une cinquantaine de missiles les guerilleros one detruit leurs dernières armes." (NEXIS)

El Mundo [San Salvador, in Spanish]. 5 February 1992. "Copaz Members Hold First Meeting 5 Feb." (FBIS-LAT-92-027 10 Feb. 1992, pp. 19-20)

The New York Times. 1 November 1992. Tim Golden. "Peace Deadlines Unmet in Salvador." (NEXIS)

News From Americas Watch [New York]. 10 August 1993. Vol. 5, No. 7. "El Salvador: Accountability and Human Rights: The Report of the United Nations Commission on the Truth for El Salvador."

La Prensa Grafica [San Salvador, in Spanish]. 17 June 1993a. "Communique on Caches Found in Nicaragua." (FBIS-LAT-93-117 21 June 1993, p. 12)

La Prensa Grafica [San Salvador, in Spanish]. 17 June 1993b. "Former FMLN Fighters Receive Lands." (FBIS-LAT-93-117 21 June 1993, pp. 14-15)

La Prensa Grafica [San Salvador, in Spanish]. 21 May 1993. "Supreme Court Confirms Constitutionality of Amnesty Law." (FBIS-LAT-93-098 24 May 1993, p. 11)

La Presse [Montréal]. 5 May 1993. "Salvador: Purge dans l'armée."

La Presse [Montréal]. 14 November 1992. "Salvador: Dénonciation."

Radio Cadena Horizonte [San Salvador, in Spanish]. 3 March 1992. "FMLN Rejects Government Decision on Police." (FBIS-LAT-92-044 5 Mar. 1992, p. 6)

Radio Cadena YSU [San Salvador, in Spanish]. 25 May 1993. "CD Charges Death Squad Kidnapped, Tortured Member." (FBIS-LAT-93-103 1 June 1993, pp. 8-9)

Radio Venceremos Network [San Salvador, in Spanish]. 25 May 1993. "Front Fighters Jailed for Killing U.S. Advisors Freed." (FBIS-LAT-93-101 27 May 1993, p. 11)

Reuters. 9 August 1993. BC Cycle. Alberto Barrera. "U.N. Says Salvador Rebels Kept 48 Secret Arms Dumps." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 28 July 1993. BC Cycle. "Ex-Salvadoran Rebel Movement Say Four Members Murdered." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 25 July 1993. BC Cycle. "Salvadoran Bishop May Have Been Executed--Prelate." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 8 July 1993. BC Cycle. Alberto Barrera. "Salvador Ex-Rebels Back Leftist for President." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 24 May 1993a. "Salvador Government Will Not Investigate Death Squads." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 24 May 1993b. "Salvador Police Arrested in Shooting of War Wounded." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 30 April 1993. "United Nations to Send 600 Observers to Salvador." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 28 March 1993. Kieran Murray. "Salvadoran Ruling Party Names Presidential Candidate."

Reuters. 31 January 1993. "Salvador Church Leader Sounds Warning on Violence." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 21 January 1993. "Salvador Army Chief Says Some Rebels Still Armed." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 4 January 1993. Kieran Murray. "Salvador Rebels Demand Immediate Military Purge." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 22 December 1992. "Salvador Rebels Elect Communist to Lead Party." (NEXIS)

El Salvador. Military Service and Armed Forces Reserves Act. 10 August 1992. Translated by the Department of the Secretary of State of Canada.

United Nations. 5 April 1993. (A/47/912-S/25521). Report of the Director of the Human Rights Division of the United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL).

United Nations. 15 March 1993. Summary. Report of the Commission on the Truth.

United Nations. 5 June 1992. (A/46/935-S/24066). Report of the Director of the Human Rights Division of the United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) for the Period 1 January-30 April 1992.

The United Press International (UPI). 25 July 1993. BC Cycle. "Archbishop Calls Salvadoran Chaplain's Killing Political." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 16 July 1993. BC Cycle. Daniel Alder. "Salvadoran Army Begins Controversial Crime Patrols." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 6 July 1993. BC Cycle. Daniel Alder. "Salvadoran Army Policing Plan Draws Opposition Fire." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 30 June 1993. "Cristiani to Announce Purge of Military High Command." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 17 June 1993. BC Cycle. "Former Salvadoran Rebels Receive Land." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 16 May 1993. "Salvadoran Church Decries Post-War Violence." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 27 April 1993. "Salvadoran Lawyers Urge Nation's Top Judges to Step Down." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 3 April 1993. Daniel Adler. "Salvadoran Judge Orders Release of Death Squad Killer." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 28 March 1993. Daniel Alder. "El Salvador's Ruling Party Kicks Off Election Campaign." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 17 February 1993. Daniel Alder. "Former Salvadoran Rebels Tie Weapon Destruction to Military Purge." (NEXIS)

The United Press International (UPI). 24 January 1992. Daniel Alder. "Jesuit Killers Sentenced to 30 Years."

The Washington Post. 17 June 1993. Final Edition. John M. Goshko. "Salvadorans Accused of Hiding Arms." (NEXIS)

The Washington Post. 13 April 1993. Final Edition. Douglas Farah. "Salvadoran Left Hampered Politically by Atrocities Issue." (NEXIS)

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