Dozens of schools and universities in Nigeria were bombed or set on fire by violent extremists, killing hundreds of students, teachers, and other education personnel. The University of Maiduguri was targeted repeatedly. Schools were used as barracks, for weapons caches, and detention and killing centers. Hundreds of students were abducted from classrooms, particularly girls, many of whom were then forced into marriage.

Context

The armed group Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad, commonly known as Boko Haram, whose moniker in the Hausa language is commonly translated into English as "Western education is forbidden," carried out brutal attacks from 2009 through the 2013-2017 reporting period in an effort to establish extremist Islamic rule.[1485] In March 2015, Boko Haram declared its allegiance to 'IS' and renamed itself the "Islamic State West Africa."1486

New military leadership and efforts by troops from neighboring countries to quell Boko Haram's operations in 2015 and 2016 forced the group out of most of the territory it had controlled in northeastern Nigeria. However, abductions, forced recruitment, and other crimes committed by Boko Haram continued.[1487]

Violence against civilians, including targeted attacks on education, was part of Boko Haram's strategy.[1488] Human Rights Watch reported that approximately 10,000 civilians died in Nigeria between 2009 and early 2016 as a result of Boko Haram's activities.[1489] In May 2013, the Nigerian Senate declared a state of emergency in Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe states, leading to increased military activity and an escalation of violence.[1490] In August 2017, the IOM reported that 1,757,288 people were displaced in Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba, and Yobe states – a slight decrease from previous assessments.[1491] The majority of the IDP population (80 percent) was located in Borno state, and the primary cause of displacement was insurgency.[1492]

Boko Haram prevented thousands of children in Borno and Yobe states from continuing their education, including by destroying schools, driving community members away, and targeting girl students in large-scale abductions and other attacks.[1493] OCHA reported in 2017 that approximately three million children in northeastern Nigeria were in urgent need of education.[1494] In March 2014, Borno state shut around 85 high schools in response to attacks by Boko Haram. Some schools in Yobe and Adamawa states were also closed.[1495] According to the UN, 57 percent of all schools in Borno state remained closed in late September 2017.[1496]

Reports of attacks on education increased throughout the 2009-2013 period covered by Education under Attack 2014, becoming particularly frequent in 2013 as Boko Haram extended its operations in the northeast. The attacks continued to be frequent and widespread between 2013 and 2015, then decreased from late 2015 until 2017, possibly because by that time there were fewer people and institutions in the northeast left to attack.

Nigeria endorsed the Safe Schools Declaration in May 2015.

Attacks on schools

During the reporting period, Boko Haram used arson and other means to destroy schools. In 2017, the UN estimated that the conflict between Boko Haram and security forces had destroyed 1,500 schools from January 2014 to December 2016, with at least 1,280 teacher and student casualties.[1497] These numbers represented more widespread and systematic occurrences of attacks on schools from 2013 to 2015 than during the 2009-2013 period covered in Education under Attack 2014, which coincided with increased activity by Boko Haram. Attacks on schools decreased after 2015, possibly due to the closure or destruction of schools in northeastern Nigeria, which left Boko Haram fewer institutions to attack.[1498]

An Amnesty International report stated that up to 50 schools were attacked, burned, or destroyed in Borno state alone in 2013, resulting in the deaths of 70 teachers and dozens of students.[1499] Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict noted that until mid-2013 Boko Haram carried out most attacks at night, when schools were empty.[1500] After mid-2013, attacks began happening more frequently during school hours, according to Amnesty International.[1501] The information gathered by GCPEA also seemed to indicate that attacks occurring in the second half of the year were deadlier. For example:

  • On March 11, 2013, unidentified attackers set fire to Gwange I Primary School in Maiduguri city, Borno state, burning it down. Unidentified attackers reportedly set fire to Gwange III Primary School in the same city two days later.[1502]

  • A local media source reported that on March 23, 2013, persons believed to be members of Boko Haram burned down three private schools in Biu town, Borno state, at night.[1503]

  • The UN, international media sources, and the US Department of State reported that on July 6, 2013, members of Boko Haram attacked and burned down a secondary school in Mamudo, Yobe state, during the day, killing at least 29 male students and one teacher.[1504] Human Rights Watch reported that Boko Haram had previously threatened to kill students found at the school.[1505]

  • Human Rights Watch reported that on September 6, 2013, Boko Haram bombed the science laboratory at the Government Secondary School Gajerai and the principal's house, before abducting the principal and capturing six students. Boko Haram members forced students to point out the homes of teachers and local education administrators in the village, then killed the teachers they found and destroyed their teaching certificates. They then abducted one of the students and killed the other five.[1506]

During 2014, Boko Haram and unidentified armed assailants continued to target schools in Nigeria's northeast, often using arson, suicide attacks, and other methods that caused dozens of deaths and injuries. Attacks that year occurred both during the day and at night. For example:

  • According to media sources, unidentified assailants set fire to a residential building for education personnel at a girls' secondary school in Yana, Bauchi state, on the night of April 20, 2014.[1507]

  • News outlets reported that unidentified assailants razed two primary schools in Shedarki and Yelwan Darazo villages, Bauchi state, on the night of May 14, 2014.[1508]

  • News sources reported that on September 7, 2014, Boko Haram members destroyed a school when they attacked Buratai town, Borno state.[1509]

  • In November 2014, Boko Haram fighters stormed a school in Chikide, Borno state, and set classrooms on fire, burning eleven children and three teachers to death. They also abducted several women and children in the same attack.[1510]

  • On November 10, 2014, a suicide bomber dressed as a student detonated a bomb during a school assembly at the Government Science and Technical College in Potiskum, Yobe state.[1511] According to Human Rights Watch, the explosion killed 26 students and inflicted minor to grave injuries on an additional 81 students.[1512]

Non-state armed groups continued to target schools in 2015, especially in the country's northeastern region. However, there was some indication that these attacks occurred at lower rates because, by the middle of the year, most of the schools in the area were already either destroyed or closed and the surrounding areas deserted.[1513] The attacks included the following:

  • Local media reported that on January 12, 2015, Boko Haram members stormed Askira town, Borno state, using explosive and incendiary devices to damage several buildings, including a school.[1514]

  • On March 28, 2015, at least three schools being used as polling stations in Enugu, Anambra, and Bauchi states were the targets of explosive devices and arson. Boko Haram committed the attack in Bauchi, but the perpetrators of the other two remained unidentified, according to local news sources.[1515]

Neither the UN nor other sources reported attacks on schools in 2016 or 2017.[1516] One reason for this decline in attacks on schools may have been that most of the schools in the northeast were already destroyed or closed: in August 2016, UN data showed that an estimated 1,697 schools were closed in northeastern Nigeria, of which 524 were in Adamawa state, 110 were in Yobe, and 1,063 were in Borno.[1517]

Attacks on school students, teachers, and other education personnel

Between 2013 and 2017, armed assailants claiming or believed to be part of Boko Haram regularly targeted individual students, teachers, and other education personnel in isolated or coordinated incidents, which often took place at schools. They shot, killed, abducted, and threatened teachers and students.[1518] Attacks on students and teachers occurred with greater frequency from 2013 to 2017 than from 2009 to 2013. The later attacks also affected more students and teachers than the previous ones, as Boko Haram carried out multiple mass abductions of hundreds of students at a time, as well as large-scale bombings that killed and injured dozens of students and education personnel.

Boko Haram targeted hundreds of students and teachers during the early years of the current reporting period. Education authorities in the northeast of the country recorded the killing of 314 school children between January 2012 and December 2014.[1519] According to the Nigerian Union of Teachers, as of October 2015, Boko Haram had killed more than 600 teachers since 2009.[1520] Throughout the period, Boko Haram justified their violent acts as retaliation for government harassment and detention of teachers and students at Quranic schools and mosques, which the government believed to be where young people were incited to violence.[1521]

Government security forces also perpetrated abuses against civilians, albeit at a significantly lower rate than Boko Haram, including against school teachers and alleged and actual Boko Haram members.[1522] For example, from 2012 to 2015, Human Rights Watch documented the extrajudicial killing by government forces of three teachers and two non-teaching staff suspected to be Boko Haram members or informants.[1523]

As attacks on students became more frequent than previously documented, the UN reported that Boko Haram killed 126 school children and 70 teachers in Borno and Yobe states in 2013 alone.[1524] Amnesty International reported that attackers, often unknown, shot 30 teachers, some of them during class, between January and November 2013.[1525] Watchlist found that in 2013 and 2014, Boko Haram sent letters to students and teachers stating that they would be attacked if they continued to attend and work in school.[1526]

Much of the violence was concentrated in Borno and Yobe states, where GCPEA collected reports of at least 14 incidents of killings, injury, or abduction of approximately 79 students and education personnel in 2013.[1527] Boko Haram or unknown assailants were responsible for each of these attacks. GCPEA also identified one report of government forces harassing a teacher. Examples included the following:

  • On March 18, 2013, unknown gunmen reportedly shot and killed at least three teachers and seriously injured three students in simultaneous attacks in four government-run schools in Maiduguri, Borno state, according to Amnesty International and media sources.[1528]

  • Media sources reported that on June 17, 2013, unidentified gunmen reportedly killed nine students who were taking exams in a school in Maiduguri, Borno state.[1529]

  • Also on June 17, 2013, according to local news sources, Boko Haram captured and lynched a National Examination Council education official in Maiduguri, Borno state.[1530]

  • The director of a Quranic school in Damaturu, Yobe state reported to Human Rights Watch that government security forces continually harassed him during the year, possibly because they suspected him of being linked to Boko Haram.[1531]

Early 2014 was a deadly period for teachers and students, particularly due to Boko Haram's targeting of students in larger scale incidents than they had perpetrated previously, with several hundred students and teachers harmed. For example:

  • The UN and Human Rights Watch reported that two weeks later, on February 25, Boko Haram killed at least 29 school boys at night in Federal Government College in Buni Yadi village, Yobe state.[1533]

  • One of the most highly publicized attacks on education occurred on April 14, 2014, when Boko Haram stormed a government-run secondary school for girls in the Chibok local government area in Borno state. They burned down the school and kidnapped 276 female students.[1534] Boko Haram boasted of the kidnapping as a warning against girls participating in Western education. Fifty-seven of the girls escaped from the group soon after the kidnapping, and one was found in May 2016.[1535] Another 21 were released after negotiations with Boko Haram in October 2016.[1536] One more schoolgirl was found in January 2017 with a six-month-old baby, to whom she had given birth while in captivity.[1537] Another 82 were released in exchange for Boko Haram prisoners in May 2017.[1538]

  • On November 24, 2014, Boko Haram kidnapped at least 300 students from Zanna Mobarti Primary School in Damasak, Borno state, in the group's largest documented school abduction, according to Human Rights Watch.[1539] Between March 13 and March 15, 2015, Boko Haram reportedly fled with the 300 children. Two years later, in March 2017, the children still had not been found.[1540]

Similar attacks continued at a lower rate into 2015, with just one reported incident. According to international media, on May 8, 2015, a gunman suspected by police to have ties to Boko Haram who was wearing a suicide vest opened fire on students as they underwent security checks outside a school in Potiskum, Yobe state. The gunman then fired sporadically around the campus.[1541] Human Rights Watch reported that one student was killed and five were injured.[1542]

The next attack on students and education personnel was recorded two years later. On December 1, 2017, an unidentified assailant killed two boy students and injured two others, along with one female teacher, at a school in Kwaya Kusar. Reuters reported that, according to UNICEF, the man entered the schoolyard with a machete and tried to talk to some of the children. The female teacher confronted him, and he attacked her. Two local youths intervened before more people were harmed. It was unconfirmed whether the attacker was affiliated with Boko Haram.[1543]

Military use of schools and universities

Nigerian government security forces used at least a dozen schools for military purposes between January 2013 and December 2016, according to the UN. These included 10 in Borno state and two in Yobe state.[1544] Boko Haram was also found to have used several schools.[1545] This type of violation occurred more frequently during the 20132017 reporting period than during the 2009-2013 period of Education under Attack 2014, possibly due to national armed forces' increased efforts to drive out Boko Haram. Use of schools by government forces sometimes made the buildings targets for Boko Haram, with the group bombing and burning down several schools in Borno state between 2013 and 2015 because of the military's presence, according to Human Rights Watch.[1546] The UN reported that, between January 2013 and December 2016, Boko Haram burned and destroyed four schools in Gwoza after the national armed forces vacated the premises.[1547]

In 2013, Boko Haram reportedly used an unknown number of schools in Borno and Yobe states as detention or killing centers. Human Rights Watch reported this type of use of schools in Goniri and Gujba, both in Yobe state, in 2013.[1548] Government forces were also reported to have occupied schools in 2013. In one such incident, a witness in Gwoza, Borno state, told Human Rights Watch that soldiers had occupied a primary school for six months beginning in November 2013, sleeping there and bringing women from the village to stay there with them. Boko Haram then attacked the school in May 2014.[1549]

Boko Haram and government forces used schools and universities as detention centers and military bases in 2014, with six such cases reportedly attributed to Boko Haram and two to the armed forces, as described in the following:

  • A witness in Gwoza told Human Rights Watch that her children stopped going to school in May 2014 after members of Boko Haram occupied and transformed the school into a base, before burning it down three weeks later.[1550]

  • Human Rights Watch documented two cases of military use of schools by Boko Haram in Bama, Borno state, in 2014. In one case, members of the group used schoolbooks to make fires; in the other, they shot kidnapping victims in the dormitories.[1551]

  • A witness reported to Human Rights Watch that government security forces had taken over another school in Bama, Borno state in February 2014.[1552]

  • The UN documented an incident of national security forces using the Government Day Secondary School in Ngoshe, Borno state, as a barracks and detention center for two months between April and June 2014.[1553]

  • In the above-mentioned incident on November 24, 2014, when Boko Haram kidnapped at least 300 students from Zanna Mobarti Primary School in Damasak, Human Rights Watch reported that Boko Haram locked the students inside the school grounds for several months while using the school as a military base. Many other women and children they abducted from across town were brought there as captives, the women and girls separated from the boys.[1554]

  • According to media reports, in December 2014 Boko Haram kidnapped at least 50 elderly people in Gowza, Borno state and brought them to two secondary schools to be killed.[1555]

Both Boko Haram and the Nigerian armed forces continued to use schools during 2015. According to the UN, Boko Haram used five schools for military purposes in Bauchi state that year.[1556] Human Rights Watch reported that Boko Haram used at least two schools and attacked three schools where government security forces were stationed in 2015.[1557] It was not clear whether these incidents overlapped. The following are two examples of military use of schools in 2015:

  • Boko Haram attacked Euga Primary School in Bauchi state and then used it for military purposes, which affected the education of 800 school children in February 2015, according to the UN.[1558]

  • Security forces used the Government Day Secondary School in Ngoshe, Borno state, as a military barracks and detention facility from April to June 2014, also according to the UN.[1559]

In 2016, both the Nigerian military and Boko Haram used at least six schools as bases:

  • In February 2016, Human Rights Watch documented the presence of government security forces and military hardware in at least two schools in Goniri, Yobe state. The soldiers had reportedly been in the schools in March 2015.[1560]

  • As of April 2016, government security forces had used three schools since April 2014 in Maiduguri and Chibok, Borno state.[1561]

  • In July 2016, local media reported that a school in Adamawa state had previously been used as a Boko Haram base.[1562]

More than a dozen schools were used for military purposes in 2017 alone. In January 2017, the UN reported seven schools being used by national security forces.[1563] In May 2017, UNICEF reported that 17 schools were being used by government forces at the time, 10 in Borno state and 7 in Yobe state.[1564] It was not clear how much overlap there was between these two lists of schools.

Child recruitment at, or en route to or from, school

At least four instances of child recruitment from schools were reported, which fit into a context in which child recruitment was common. The UN received reports of the recruitment and use of children by Boko Haram from 2013 through 2016, as well as by a pro-government local group in 2015 and 2016.[1565] The number of UN-verified cases of recruitment jumped from 278 in 2015 to 2,122 in 2016, with Boko Haram the main perpetrator of this violation, the group having recruited 1,947 of the 2,122 verified cases in 2016 alone.[1566] UNICEF reported an uptick in use of children, particularly girls, by Boko Haram in the Lake Chad region in early 2017, with 27 children used to carry out bomb attacks in the first three months of the year – almost the number used in such incidents in all of 2016.[1567]

The four cases in which schools served as recruitment sites included the following:

  • Human Rights Watch reported that Boko Haram recruited approximately 13 students from Army Children's School Monguno, northern Borno state, when they looted the premises on March 22, 2013.[1568]

  • The UN reported that two religious schools in Maiduguri were used as sites for recruitment through 2014.[1569]

  • A girl found carrying explosives in Cameroon in March 2016 claimed to be one of the 276 girls kidnapped from the school in Chibok, according to international media sources.[1570]

Sexual violence by armed parties at, or en route to or from, school or university

According to information documented by the UN, women and girls reported experiences of sexual slavery, forced marriage, and forced pregnancy.[1571] Human Rights Watch and the UN indicated that government officials and army officers had also raped and sexually exploited women and girls displaced by the conflict.[1572]

In the context of education between 2013 and 2016, armed assailants claiming or believed to be part of Boko Haram abducted female students and teachers, sometimes raping and forcibly marrying them.[1573] For example, in the globally publicized incident on April 14, 2014, in which members of Boko Haram stormed a government-run secondary school for girls in the Chibok area of Borno state and kidnapped 276 female students, fighters forced many of the missing girls to convert to Islam, marry their captors, and become pregnant.[1574]

Attacks on higher education

Armed assailants, unidentified suicide bombers, Boko Haram, and government security forces killed, injured, and detained dozens of university personnel and students during the reporting period. The motivation for the attacks perpetrated by unidentified individuals was unknown, but these incidents were included because they fit into an established pattern of armed groups targeting education personnel. Attacks on higher education personnel, such as professors, occurred at similar rates as during the 2009-2013 reporting period, between five and six attacks per year, except in 2015, when GCPEA identified one incident. In addition, higher education facilities were bombed and set on fire in multiple incidents, including six that took place at the University of Maiduguri in 2017 alone.

In 2013, Boko Haram abducted and killed dozens of students and personnel in at least one attack at the tertiary level in the northeast, and unknown assailants perpetrated two attacks. For example:

  • Media documented that unknown assailants abducted the education director of degree programs in Rivers state on January 22, 2013. It was unclear whether the director was targeted because of his profession or for another reason.[1575]

  • News sources reported that on February 23, 2013, unknown perpetrators kidnapped a senior lecturer from a federal low-cost estate in Maiduguri, Borno state, shortly after a battle in the area. The outcome of the kidnapping was unknown.[1576]

  • In a mass casualty attack on September 29, 2013, armed assailants believed to be members of Boko Haram stormed the College of Agriculture in Gujba, Yobe state, killing 65 students and wounding 18 more, according to the UN and other sources.[1577] According to the state police commissioner, the gunmen shot students as they slept.[1578] A military spokesman in Yobe state reported that they also set fire to several classrooms.[1579]

Also in 2013, police were responsible for at least three attacks on higher education students and teachers, all in the context of protests. These included:

  • Scholars at Risk reported that on February 13, 2013, police interrupted an Academic Staff Union of Universities meeting and detained between 10 and 12 lecturers, whom they later released.[1580]

  • Scholars at Risk found that on June 12, 2013, at the University of Uyo, a student protest against university transport prices turned violent after police used teargas and live bullets against the students, killing one. Police denied this and stated that protesters brought the student's body from off campus.[1581]

  • Scholars at Risk and local media reported that police tear-gassed student protesters in Abuja in October 2013.[1582]

GCPEA identified reports of six attacks in 2014, most of which involved suicide bombers or the threat of such violence that targeted higher education institutions across northern Nigeria.[1583] For example:

  • Scholars at Risk and international media reported that on February 28, 2014, the College of Education in Hong, Adamawa state, closed down after Boko Haram sent a series of threats to students.[1584]

  • Human Rights Watch, Scholars at Risk and media sources reported that on June 23, 2014, a suicide bombing occurred on the campus of the Kano State School of Hygiene, killing at least seven prospective students and wounding at least twenty more.[1585] The unknown perpetrator concealed the bomb in a bag and detonated it near the university's main gate, an area that students frequented between classes.[1586]

  • Human Rights Watch and Scholars at Risk reported that on July 30, 2014, on the campus of Kano State Polytechnic, a female suicide bomber dressed as a student detonated a bomb in a crowd of students gathered around a notice board.[1587] Approximately six students were killed and seven injured. Authorities suspected that the bomber was affiliated with Boko Haram.[1588] A female suicide bomber associated with Boko Haram reportedly carried out at least one other attack on higher education in 2014. 1589

  • Scholars at Risk, Human Rights Watch, and other sources documented an attack on September 17, 2014, in which suspected Boko Haram suicide bombers detonated their devices in a full lecture hall in a government-run teacher training college while other assailants threw explosives and shot at those who attempted to escape.[1590] According to Human Rights Watch, 27 students and 2 teachers were killed during this attack.[1591] This was the second attack on a teacher training college reported in 2014.[1592]

There was one reported attack on higher education in 2015. In October 2015, Scholars at Risk and local media reported that a professor of agricultural economics at Ambrose Alli University was kidnapped from his home near Benin City, Edo state in June 2015, and killed. The motive of the attack remained unclear, but the anonymous assailants continued to demand money from the professor's family after his death.[1593]

Similar types of violence by unknown assailants targeting higher education personnel and students, as well as their institutions, continued into 2016. Only one of these attacks, at Port Harcourt in Rivers state, was perpetrated by security forces; the other four were carried out by unknown assailants in Rivers and Cross River states. In contrast with the previous year, there were no reports of mass casualty attacks, as each incident affected between one and three people. For example:

  • Scholars at Risk reported that on January 19, 2016, unidentified perpetrators kidnapped the director of the Centre for Continuing Education at Rivers State University of Science and Technology in Port Harcourt. His whereabouts remained unknown at the time of writing.[1594]

  • On April 10, 2016, local media reported that police shot and killed a student who was part of a group of students protesting a "no fee, no examination" policy introduced by the University of Port Harcourt.[1595]

  • Local media reported that on April 21, 2016, unknown gunmen killed the principal lecturer of the Ken Saro Wiwa Polytechnic in Rivers State.[1596]

  • On May 3, 2016, seven gunmen reportedly entered the campus of the University of Calabar, Cross River state, at night, firing shots to disperse security guards and bystanders. They kidnapped a lecturer and two students from their residential quarters, according to local news sources.[1597]

  • Local media reported on August 8, 2016, that unidentified perpetrators kidnapped a professor at the University of Port Harcourt on his way home from the university.[1598]

In 2017 there was a series of six incidents in which attackers, either associated with Boko Haram or unidentified, targeted the University of Maiduguri. Each of these attacks harmed between zero and four people, as described in the following:

  • International and local media reported that on January 16, 2017, two Boko Haram child suicide attackers detonated their devices at the University of Maiduguri, killing at least four people, including one professor, and injuring 15 more.[1599]

  • Local media and Scholars at Risk reported that on May 13, 2017, three suicide bombers attempted to enter the University of Maiduguri but were stopped by two security guards. The assailants detonated their devices, killing one security guard and injuring the other.[1600]

  • Scholars at Risk documented another incident at the University of Maiduguri on May 18, 2017, when three suicide bombers tried to detonate their devices outside the female dormitory. One was able to do so, while the other two reportedly ran to another place on campus, where they also detonated their explosives, injuring three security guards.[1601]

  • Local and international media and Scholars at Risk reported another attempted attack on May 20, 2017, when a suicide bomber detonated his vest just outside the University of Maiduguri. There were no casualties in the incident.[1602]

  • Attacks on the University of Maiduguri continued. BBC News and Scholars at Risk reported that on June 25, 2017, a suicide attacker detonated his device on campus, killing a female security guard. The university was digging trenches around its facilities at the time in an effort to prevent these attacks from occurring.[1603]

  • Despite efforts to prevent attackers from entering campus, Scholars at Risk found that on July 6, unidentified individuals entered the University of Maiduguri and set off explosive devices. There were no reported casualties in the attack.[1604]

On November 13, 2017, a female student and a female education staff member were injured when students clashed with police outside of the Federal College of Agriculture in Ibadan, Oyo state, according to local media. The students were protesting the management of the college. Police reportedly used teargas, stones, and live bullets to disperse the students. Several teachers' vehicles and police vans were also reported to be damaged, and five students were arrested.[1605]


1485 Farouk Chothia, "Who Are Nigeria's Boko Haram's Islamists?" BBC, May 4, 2015. Human Rights Watch, World Report 2018, Nigeria chapter.

1486 "Nigeria's Boko Haram pledges allegiance to Islamic State," BBC, March 7, 2015. Nima Elbagir, Paul Cruickshank and Mohammed Tawfeeq, "Boko Haram purportedly pledges allegiance to ISIS," CNN, March 9, 2015.

1487 Human Rights Watch, World Report 2017, Nigeria chapter.

1488 Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict, "Who Will Care for Us?" p. 12.

1489 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 1.

1490 UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, para. 5.

1491 IOM, Displacement Tracking Matrix: Round XVIII Report-Nigeria (Abuja: IOM, August 2017), p. 2.

1492 IOM, Displacement Tracking, p. 4.

1493 US State Department et al., "Country Reports 2014: Nigeria," pp. 35. CEDAW, "Concluding observations on the combined seventh and eighth periodic reports of Nigeria*," CEDAW/C/NGA/CO/7-8, July 21, 2017, para. 33(a).

1494 OCHA, 2017 Humanitarian Needs Overview: Nigeria, January 13, 2017, p. 28

1495 Associated Press, "Nigerian state closes schools amid fears of Boko Haram attacks," Guardian, March 18, 2014.

1496 "Over half of schools remain closed in epicentre of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria-UNICEF," UN News Service, September 29, 2017.

1497 UN General Assembly and Secretary-General, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, para. 59.

1498 GCPEA email correspondence with a UN respondent, July 10, 2017.

1499 Amnesty International, "Keep Away from Schools," pp. 4, 6.

1500 Watchlist, "Who Will Care for Us?" p. 18.

1501 Amnesty International, "Keep Away from Schools," p. 6.

1502 Ibrahim Sawabi, "Nigeria: Another Primary School Burnt in Maiduguri," All Africa, March 14, 2013.

1503 Joseph Abiodun, "Boko Haram burns down three schools in Borno," Nation Nigeria, March 25, 2013.

1504 UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, para. 60. UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/68/878-S/2014/339, para. 182. Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 35. Lanre Ola, "Gunmen kill 28 in attack on northeast Nigeria school," Reuters, July 7, 2013. "Students burnt alive in Nigeria school attack," Al Jazeera, July 6, 2013. US State Department et al., "Country Reports 2013: Nigeria," p. 19. "Militants Attack School in Nigeria, Killing Students and a Teacher," New York Times, July 6, 2013.

1505 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 35.

1506 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 47.

1507 AFP, "Nigeria Gunmen Raze Teachers Residence At Girls School," Daily Star (Lebanon), April 20, 2014. "SOCAFRICA: Boko Haram (BH) Incident Tracker: 20-26 April 2014," SOCAFRICA, April 20, 2014;""Nigeria: Girls' school hostel torched," StarAfrica.com, April 21, 2014," as cited in START, GTD 201404200004.

1508 AFP, "Gunmen raze two schools in north Nigeria: police," NDTV, May 16, 2014.

1509 "20 Boko Haram's militants killed in army general's house," Gazelle News, September 8, 2014. Hamza Idris, "21 Insurgents Killed, Three Soldiers Injured in Biu," Daily Trust, September 9, 2014. "SOCAFRICA: Boko Haram (BH) Incident Tracker: 07-13 September 2014," SOCAFRICA, September 7, 2014," as cited in START, GTD 201409070024.

1510 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," pp. 50-51.

1511 "Nigeria School Blast in Potiskum Kills Dozens," BBC, November 10, 2014. "Suicide bomber kills 47 at Nigeria school," Al Jazeera, November 10, 2014. Jane Onyanga-Omara, "Suicide bomber kills dozens at school in Nigeria," USAToday, November 10, 2014.

1512 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 38.

1513 Information shared by a UN respondent via email, July 10, 2017.

1514 Nigeria Punch, "Boko Haram invades another Borno town, Askira," Africa News Hub, January 13, 2015. Augustine Osayande, "More killed as Boko Haram attacks Borno town," CAJ News, January 13, 2015. "B'Haram captures another Borno town, Cameroon kills 143 terrorists," News Chronicle, January 13, 2015.

1515 "Bomb Explodes at Enugu Voting Centre," All Africa, March 28, 2015. Nigeria Punch, "Panic in Enugu over bomb explosions," Africa News Hub, March 28, 2015. Emmanuel Uzodinma, "Bomb Explosion Rocks Enugu Polling Unit," Daily Post, March 28, 2015. "Nigeria Decides: Another explosion rocks Anambra polling unit," Daily Post, March 28, 2015. "LIVE UPDATE: Nigeria Presidential Election and National Assembly Elections," Will Nigeria, March 28, 2015. "Gunmen attack Bauchi voters, police stations," Nigeria Punch, March 29, 2015; "Boko Haram attacks will not affect Bauchi results," Premium Times, March 29, 2015; "Gunmen attack Bauchi kill one person, burn police station, set electoral materials ablaze," Nigeria Daily Independent, March 29, 2015" as cited in START, GTD 201503280050.

1516 UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/72/361S/2017/821, para. 211.

1517 Information shared by a UN respondent via email, August 8, 2016.

1518 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire."

1519 UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/69/926S/2015/409, para. 233.

1520 Morgan Windsor, "Boko Haram Has Killed 600 Nigerian Teachers, Displaced 19,000: Teachers Union," International Business Times, October 6, 2015, as cited in Human Rights Watch, They Set the Classrooms on Fire, p. 44.

1521 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 52

1522 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," pp. 52-55.

1523 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 54.

1524 UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, para. 60.

1525 Amnesty International, "Keep Away from Schools," p. 9.

1526 "Students Vacate Campus over Threat of Boko Haram Letters," Vanguard Nigeria, February 23, 2014, as cited in Watchlist, "Who Will Care for Us?" p. 20.

1527 A full list of references can be found on GCPEA's website, http://www.protectingeducation.org/education-under-attack-2018-references.

1528 Amnesty International, "Keep Away from Schools," p. 9. Ndahi Marama, "Three teachers killed, pupils injured as terrorists attack 3 schools in Borno," Vanguard Nigeria, March 18, 2013. Michael Olugbode and Seriki Adinoyi, "Nigeria: Gunmen Attack Schools, Kill Three Teachers in Maiduguri," All Africa, March 19, 2013.

1529 "Nigeria Islamists Kill 9 Students in School Attack: Medic," Reuters, June 18, 2013. "Nigeria Militants Kill School Children in Maiduguri," BBC News, June 19, 2013. Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 34.

1530 Ndahi Marama, "5 NECO Candidates, 13 Others Killed in Fresh Boko Haram Attacks," Vanguard Nigeria, June 19, 2013.

1531 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 53.

1532 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 53.

1533 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 36. Adam Nossiter, "Islamist Militants Blamed for College Attack in Nigeria," New York Times, February 25, 2014. AP, "16-year-old latest victim of Nigeria school attack," San Diego Union-Tribune, February 26, 2014. The UN Secretary-General stated that 59 students were shot or burned to death in their dormitories during this attack (UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/69/926-S/2015/409, para. 233). Twenty-nine victims are reported here based on data that the Nigerian Ministry of Education provided data to Human Rights Watch, which local education authorities in Buni Yadi and Buni Gari confirmed. The education authorities explained that the death toll published in other reports included additional residents from the town (GCPEA email correspondence with Human Rights Watch researcher, June 2, 2016).

1534 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," pp. 19-21. Alexis Okeowo, "The Troubled Search for Nigeria's Stolen Girls," New Yorker, May 7, 2014.

1535 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," pp. 19-21. "One of the Girls Abducted by Boko Haram in Nigeria's Chibok Freed-Police," Reuters, September 25, 2014. Stein and Searcey, "Nigerian Girl Abducted."

1536 Busari et al., "Boko Haram Releases."

1537 Durando, "Nigeria Finds Schoolgirl."

1538 "Nigeria Fails to Protect." "Nigeria exchanges 82."Nigeria: Relief about release."

1539 "Nigeria: A Year on."

1540 "Nigeria: A Year on." Ewan Watt, "300 abducted Nigerian school children still missing after one year," Theirworld, March 29, 2016.

1541 Aminu Abubakar, "12 Seriously Injured in Attack on Northeast Nigeria School," CNN, May 8, 2015.

1542 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 37.

1543 Nellie Peyton, "School machete attack in militant-plagued northeast Nigeria renews classroom fears," Reuters, December 1, 2017.

1544 UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, para. 65.

1545 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 41-43.

1546 Human Rights Watch, They Set the Classrooms on Fire, p. 55. "Nigeria: At Least 1,000 Civilians Dead Since January," Human Rights Watch news release, March 26, 2015.

1547 UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, para. 65.

1548 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 43.

1549 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 56.

1550 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 41-42.

1551 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," pp. 41, 43.

1552 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 56.

1553 UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, para. 65.

1554 "Nigeria: A Year on."

1555 "Michael Olugbode, "Boko Haram Kills More than 50 Elderly People," This Day, December 22, 2014, http://www.thisdaylive.com/articles/boko-haram-kills-more-than-50-elderly- people/197394/, (accessed November 2, 2015)" as cited in Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 43.

1556 UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/70/836S/2016/360, para. 193

1557 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," pp. 41-42, 55.

1558 UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, para. 63.

1559 UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, para. 65.

1560 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 57.

1561 UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/70/836S/2016/360, para. 193.

1562 Kabiru Ranwar "Nigeria: Adamawa Rehabilitates School B/Haram Used as Last Base," Daily Trust, July 25, 2016.

1563 UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, April 10, 2017, para. 65.

1564 Information provided by a UN respondentvia email, May 2017.

1565 UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/68/878S/2014/339, para. 180. UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/69/926-S/2015/409, para. 232. UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/70/836-S/2016/360, para. 189. UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/72/361-S/2017/821, para. 207.

1566 UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/72/361S/2017/821, para. 207.

1567 UNICEF, Silent Shame: Bringing out the voices of children caught in the Lake Chad crisis, (New York: UNICEF, April 2017), p. 3.

1568 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 29.

1569 UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, para. 31.

1570 "Suicide bomber detained in Cameroon says she's one of Chibok girls," Reuters, March 25, 2016. "Suspected suicide bomber claims to be one of the Chibokgirls abducted by Boko Haram," Guardian, March 26, 2016.

1571 UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2016/361, para. 86. UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/249, para. 89.

1572 "Nigeria: Officials Abusing Displaced Women, Girls," Human Rights Watch news release, October 31, 2016. UN Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/249, para. 90.

1573 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 31, 50.

1574 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 19.

1575 Katherine Baffour, "Police probe Enugu doctor's kidnap," NAIJ.com, January 24, 2013.

1576 This Day, "Unimaid Lecturer Kidnapped," AllAfrica.com, February 25, 2013. Ndahi Marama, "Gunmen Kidnap Senior Lecturer in Maiduguri," Vanguard, February 24, 2013.

1577 UN General Assembly and Security Council, "Report of the Secretary-General," A/68/878S/2014/339, para. 182. Adam Nossiter, "Militants Blamed after Dozens Killed at Nigerian College," New York Times, September 29, 2013. Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, College of Agriculture, September 29, 2013. Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 35.

1578 Joel Duku, "Gunmen Kill At Least 40 in Attack on Nigerian College," Reuters, September 29, 2013. US State Department et al., "Country Reports 2013: Nigeria," p. 20.

1579 Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, College of Agriculture, September 29, 2013.

1580 Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, Rivers State University, February 13, 2013.

1581 Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, University of Uyo, June 12, 2013. Kazeem Ibrahym, "44 UniYo Students Face Murder Charge," Nation, June 24, 2013.

1582 Laide Akainboade, "ASUU Strike: Police Tear Gas Protesting UniAbuja Lecturers," Vanguard Nigeria, October 30, 2013. Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, University of Abuja, October 30, 2013.

1583 A full list of references can be found on GCPEA's website, http://www.protectingeducation.org/education-under-attack-2018-references.

1584 Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, College of Education in Amadawa, February 28, 2014.

1585 David Dolan, "At Least 8 Killed, 20 Wounded in Blast at Nigerian College," Reuters, June 23, 2014. Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, Kano State School of Hygiene, June 23, 2014. Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 40. "Nigeria blast at Kano health college 'kills 8,'" BBC News, June 23, 2014. "Nigeria medical college hit by deadly blast," Al Jazeera, June 23, 2014.

1586 Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, Kano State School of Hygiene, June 23, 2014.

1587 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 40. Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, Kano State Polytechnic University, July 30, 2014.

1588 Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, Kano State Polytechnic University, July 30, 2014. UN Secretary-General, "Report of the Secretary-General," S/2017/304, para. 61. Human Rights Watch reported two students killed and seven injured.

1589 AFP, "Female Suicide Bomber Attacks Nigerian Teaching College," NDTV, November 13, 2014. Xinhua, "Female suicide bomber dies in Nigeria college attack," Borkena.com, November 12, 2014.

1590 Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, Federal College of Education-Kano, September 17, 2014. "Boko Haram: Nigeria Teacher Training College Attacked," BBC News, September 17, 2014. According to Theirworld, 34 others were injured in the attack (Ewan Watt, "At Least 15 Dead after Attack on Nigerian Teacher Training College," Theirworld, September 18, 2014).

1591 Human Rights Watch, "They Set the Classrooms on Fire," p. 23.

1592 "Nigerian Senator: '135 Civilians Killed' in Attacks," BBC, April 12, 2014. Michael Olugbode, "Boko Haram kills Eight Teachers in Borno School," AllAfrica.com, April 11, 2014. "Gunmen Kill 28 In Fresh Borno Attacks," Guardian Nigeria, April 11, 2014," as cited in START, GTD 201404100033.

1593 "Nigeria: Kidnappers Collect Ransom, Murder Professor," News Nigeria, October 2, 2015. Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, Ambrose Alli University, June 16, 2015.

1594 Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, Rivers State University, January 18, 2016.

1595 "Police shoots one dead as students protest rages on," Pulse, April 11, 2016.

1596 Wokobe Ngolina "RIVERS: Polytechnic Lecturer Shot Dead by Unknown Gunmen," Reports Afrique, April 21, 2016. "Rivers State: Lecturer at Ken Saro Wiwa Poly Murdered," News Nigeria, April 22, 2016.

1597 Jo Daniel, "University of Calabar Lecturer Kidnapped Along with 2 Other Students," Information Nigeria, May 4, 2016.

1598 Victor Azubuike, "UNIPORT Professor Abducted by Unknown Men," Daily Post, August 9, 2016. Dapo Falade, "UNIPORT Lecturer Kidnapped," Nigerian Tribune, August 9, 2016.

1599 Scholars at Risk Network, Academic Freedom Monitor, University of Maiduguri, January 16, 2017. "Suicide Attack Hits Nigeria's University of Maiduguri," Al Jazeera, January 16, 2017. "Bomb Blasts at Nigeria's Maiduguri University Kill 5," VoA News, January 16, 2017.

1600 "3 Suicide bombers target UNIMAID, 4 killed," News Agency of Nigeria, May 13, 2017. Scholars at Risk, Academic Freedom Monitor, University of Maiduguri, May 13, 2017. Abdulkareem Haruna, "Again, suicide bombers attack University of Maiduguri," Premium Times, May 13, 2017.

1601 Scholars at Risk, Academic Freedom Monitor, University of Maiduguri, May 18, 2017.

1602 Njadvara Musa, "Third suicide bomb attack hits UNIMAID in two weeks," Guardian, May 21, 2017. Scholars at Risk, Academic Freedom Monitor, University of Maiduguri, May 20, 2017. Abdulkareem Haruna, "Another suicide bomb attack at University of Maiduguri," Premium Times, May 20, 2017.

1603 "Nigerian university builds trench to stop Boko Haram attacks," BBC, June 27, 2017. Scholars at Risk, Academic Freedom Monitor, University of Maiduguri, June 25, 2017.

1604 Scholars at Risk, Academic Freedom Monitor, University of Maiduguri, July 6, 2017.

1605 Josiah Oluwole, "Police, students injured in violent clash in Ibadan," Premium Times, November 13, 2017. Oseheye Okwuofu, "Oyo: Police, students in bloody clash," Nation, November 13, 2017. Sola Adeyemo, "Ibadan clash: Woman, student shot by police battle to live," New Telegraph, November 15, 2017.

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