Overview: According to the South Asia Terrorism Portal, 805 people were killed as a result of terrorist attacks in India in 2012. While this figure represents a 25 percent decrease from the previous year, India remained subject to violent terrorist attacks and continued to be one of the most persistently targeted countries by transnational terrorist groups such as Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT). Included in the total number of fatalities were the 364 deaths ascribed to left-wing violent extremism, almost 80 percent of which were Communist Party of India Maoist or Maoist/ Naxalite violence, which the Indian government considers its most serious internal security threat. To date, those groups have not specifically targeted U.S. or other international interests.

In 2012, Indian sources continued to attribute violence and deaths in Jammu and Kashmir to transnational terrorist groups it alleges are backed by Pakistan. India and Pakistan attempted to decrease tensions in their bilateral relationship by increasing official dialogue between their two governments, lessening trade restrictions, and relaxing some visa requirements in 2012. Continued allegations of violations of the Line of Control between India and Pakistan (the border along Jammu and Kashmir), however, and Indian concerns about Pakistani-based terrorist groups remained impediments to normalizing relations.

In December, the Indian government reached an agreement with the Pakistani government for a second visit of a Pakistan Judicial Commission to visit India to cross-examine witnesses for the Mumbai attack prosecutions in Pakistan, but the visit must be approved by the courts in both countries; this had not occurred by year's end. Terrorist opponents of better India-Pakistan relations, including LeT and its leader Hafiz Saeed, continued to call for violent attacks against India.

The United States and India increased counterterrorism capacity building efforts and cooperation, with the Indians participating in several courses provided by the Department of State's Antiterrorism Assistance program, along with other regional capacity building programs. The annual U.S.-India Counterterrorism Joint Working Group meeting allowed both countries to share counterterrorism perspectives and policies, as well as propose initiatives for future cooperation. In addition, the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, through the Office of the Legal Attaché, conducted additional exchanges with Indian law enforcement personnel, and DHS, through the Homeland Security Dialogue with the Ministry of Home Affairs, expanded its interaction with Indian officials on cyber security, counterfeit Indian currency that could be used to finance terrorism, port security, and megacity policing initiatives.

2012 Terrorist Incidents: Apart from Maoist violence, there were two significant terrorist incidents:

  • On February 13, the wife of an Israeli diplomat was severely injured when a bomb was placed on the back of her car as she drove in New Delhi in an area near both the Prime Minister's residence and the diplomatic enclave. Similar attempts to bomb Israeli targets in other countries around the same time led many to believe that Iran might be responsible for the attack.

  • On August 1, 30 roadside bombs were discovered in Pune, Maharashtra. One of the bombs exploded causing injuries, and Antiterrorism Assistance program-trained law enforcement officials helped disarm the remaining bombs. By December, Indian police had arrested eight suspected members of the Indian Mujahedeen on suspicion of having planted the bombs.

Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: In late June, Indian authorities in New Delhi arrested LeT member Sayeed Zabiuddin Ansari, alias Abu Jindal, one of the instigators of the November 2008 Mumbai attack. Jindal's voice was recorded by the Indian authorities monitoring the phone calls, which has directly implicated him in the massacre. In November, just before the fourth anniversary of the Mumbai attack, Mohammad Ajmal Amir Kasab, the lone surviving Pakistani gunman in those attacks, was executed.

As part of its strategy to increase border security, the Ministry of Home Affairs Department of Border Management is building fences and roads and installing floodlights along both the Indo-Pakistan border and the Indo-Bangladesh border. In 2012, land was identified for the establishment of 116 of 131 new coastal police stations and the land acquisition process began for 74 of those stations as part of the government's Coastal Security Plan.

The Government of India's efforts to establish a National Counterterrorism Center were stalled when Chief Ministers from several states objected to its establishment on the grounds that it infringed upon the states' constitutional rights and responsibilities to maintain law and order. Earlier 2009 initiatives to establish a National Intelligence Grid, a platform for information-sharing between law enforcement, intelligence services, and other government agencies, and a national crime record database had not been implemented by year's end, but some progress was reported. The Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems will create a nation-wide environment for the real-time sharing of crime and criminal information.

Countering Terrorist Finance: India is a member of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and two FATF-style regional bodies; the Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing and the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering. The international community has targeted LeT individuals and entities under terrorism sanctions, and through FATF, the United States has worked with India to help improve its anti-money laundering/combating the financing of terrorism regime. The number of cases under investigation has continued to increase, but the number of persons convicted has remained low in comparison with the terrorism finance risk faced by India. For further information on money laundering and financial crimes, we refer you to the 2013 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INSCR) Volume 2, Money Laundering and Financial Crimes: http://www.state.gov/j/inl/rls/nrcrpt/index.htm.

Regional and International Cooperation: India is a founding member of the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF) and was an active participant in the GCTF and other UN forums on counterterrorism throughout the year. The Indian and Bangladeshi governments agreed in December to enhance cooperation under their bilateral Coordinated Border Management Plan to control illegal cross-border activities and reviewed the functioning of their system for sharing information on security-related matters.

Countering Radicalization and Violent Extremism: India's counter radicalization and violent extremism efforts are mostly directed by state and local authorities; under the Indian Constitution police and public order issues are state functions. The Indian government has programs that attempt to rehabilitate and integrate various groups, mostly insurgents, back into the mainstream of society, such as the "Scheme for Surrender cum-Rehabilitation of militants in North East." While not a counter radicalization scheme per se, it is directed at disaffected members of Indian society who support separatist and at times violent movements. Indian government officials have raised concerns about how social media and the internet can be used to stir communal unrest and radicalization. However, there was no national program or policy on countering radicalization or violent extremism.


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