Overview: Since 2009, al-Shabaab has threatened repeatedly and publically to attack Burundi in retaliation for its participation in the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). Since the al-Shabaab terrorist attacks in Kampala, the Burundian security forces have shifted some of their focus from internal political issues and begun to build counterterrorism capacity. The lack of resources and training has meant that the focus has been primarily on the physical security of their more vulnerable sites. In addition to strengthening their physical security posture, the Burundians created an Anti-Terror Cell, chaired by the Minister of Public Security, which first convened in March but then remained dormant until the Kampala terrorist attacks. The cell consisted of investigators and intelligence and operations officers from the police, military, and intelligence services. At year's end, the Anti-Terror Cell did not have a plan or the capacity to develop the intelligence sources crucial to combating terrorism.

Legislation and Law Enforcement: Burundi has provisions in its penal code (Title IX, Chapter IV) defining all forms of terrorism. Sentences for acts of terrorism range from 10 to 20 years or life imprisonment if the act results in the death of a person. In 2010, this provision was not applied in a Burundian court of law, as no case had been tried by year's end. In August, Burundian authorities cooperated with Ugandan authorities in connection with a Ugandan national in Burundi who was believed to be associated with Ugandan terrorist suspects.

Regional and International Cooperation: Burundi and Uganda were the only two troop contributing nations participating in AMISOM, which, with support from the Transitional Federal Government's National Security Forces (NSF), was a critical partner in the fight against al-Shabaab in Somalia.


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