Tanzania (Tier 2)
Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation. Most victims are trafficked internally; boys are trafficked for exploitative work on farms, in mines, and in the large informal sector, while girls from rural areas, particularly the Iringa Region, are trafficked to the towns for involuntary domestic labor. Many of these domestic workers flee abusive employers and turn to prostitution for survival. Tanzanian girls are also reportedly trafficked to South Africa, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, and possibly other European countries for forced domestic labor. Indian women, legally entering the country to work as musicians, singers, and dancers in restaurants and nightclubs, are at times exploited in prostitution after arrival.
The Government of Tanzania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. To further its anti-trafficking efforts, the government should take steps to provide expanded protective services to victims and launch a nationwide awareness raising campaign on the definition of human trafficking and the forms it takes in Tanzania.
The government's anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts progressed over the reporting period. Tanzanian law prohibits internal and cross-border trafficking for sexual exploitation and the constitution prohibits forced labor. During 2004, three trafficking-related cases were pending in court, while investigations into two additional cases continued. In April 2004, a Tanzanian man was arrested for bringing Indian dancers to Tanzania on artist visas and exploiting them in prostitution; the women were deported and the court case was withdrawn for lack of evidence. Immigration officials working with police uncovered an alleged international trafficking ring in October 2004, arresting 31 suspected traffickers and charging them with violating immigration law. Charges were dropped against a woman accused of trafficking children from Iringa to the capital because authorities were unable to locate the child witnesses after numerous attempts. In October 2004, eight mid-level Tanzanian police officers received training in conducting trafficking investigations. In February 2005, nine immigration officials, with assistance from IOM, began drafting standard operating procedures for identifying traffickers at border posts.
During the year, the government took steps to protect trafficking victims, within the limits of its resources. Local police and officials from the Social Welfare Department identified and informally referred child trafficking victims to NGOs that work with street children and child prostitutes, provided small donations of food and other goods to these NGOs, and identified land available for building new shelters. Local government officials participated in district committees that identified children vulnerable to or involved in the worst forms of child labor, including prostitution and forced domestic labor. In 2004, 3,844 children were prevented from entering exploitative domestic labor situations, and 3,483 children were withdrawn from exploitative domestic labor. These children were referred for protection services offered by the ILO, including rehabilitation, education, and alternative training. During the year, 60 out of 90 labor officers nationwide received intensive three-month training on the new labor laws and application of child labor provisions, as well as recognizing the worst forms of child labor, including children in prostitution and forced labor.
The government made limited progress in preventing trafficking over the reporting period. In July 2004, it convened the first-ever meeting of senior government officials to discuss trafficking in Tanzania, investigations into trafficking cases, and existing legal statutes. In addition, the Ministry of Home Affairs compiled and released its first report on investigations, prosecutions, and arrests related to human trafficking. Though the government did not launch a specific anti-trafficking information campaign, it continued its nationwide awareness campaign on the worst forms of child labor, including forced domestic labor and prostitution. In addition, after a trafficking-related arrest was made in October 2004, the Regional Immigration Officer made public statements condemning the use of Tanzania as a transit country for human trafficking.