U.S. Department of State 2004 Trafficking in Persons Report - Indonesia

Indonesia (Tier 2)

Indonesia is a source, transit and destination country for persons trafficked for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced labor. Indonesian victims are trafficked to Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, and Australia. Extensive trafficking occurs within Indonesia's borders for forced labor and sexual exploitation. Indonesia to a lesser extent is a destination for victims trafficked for sexual exploitation from the People's Republic of China (PRC), Thailand, Taiwan, Uzbekistan, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Venezuela, Spain, and Ukraine.

The Government of Indonesia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government recognizes that trafficking is a problem and has made strides to combat it. In 2003, the government made concerted efforts to increase media coverage and public awareness, collect law enforcement data, and provide shelters for victims abroad. Despite limited resources, the government also increased law enforcement efforts against traffickers. While local governments gave greater priority to trafficking, translating national commitment to local action remains a problem. The Indonesian government must take immediate corrective action to address internal trafficking, arrest and prosecute officials involved in trafficking, and step up anti-trafficking efforts at the local level.


The government has not passed a comprehensive anti-trafficking law, but a draft bill is currently pending. Indonesian law criminalizes trafficking but it lacks a comprehensive definition of the crime. Officials used existing statutes to carry out an increasing number of arrests. In 2003, the government reported 125 trafficking-related investigations, 67 prosecutions, and 27 convictions, resulting in sentences from five months to six years. The Indonesian government also formed a dedicated anti-trafficking police unit and cooperated with Malaysian and Australian governments in the investigation and prosecution of trafficking cases. Although law enforcement efforts increased, convictions for trafficking-related offenses often carried light sentences. Corruption and a weak judiciary remain serious impediments to the effective prosecution of traffickers. The Indonesian government has recognized that action must be taken against officials involved in trafficking. However, it is often difficult to conclusively identify trafficking-related official corruption. The government has dismissed civilian and police officials involved in producing false identification documents but has provided little information concerning specific actions it has taken against corrupt officials who may be complicit in trafficking.


Despite limited resources, national and local victim assistance efforts improved. However, victim protection remained inadequate given the scope of the problem. In 2003, government assistance to Indonesians trafficked abroad increased but assistance for internal trafficking victims was minimal. Despite limited resources, the Indonesian government operates shelters at its embassies and consulates in Singapore, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. The Indonesian government operates crisis centers and provides funding to domestic NGOs and civil society organizations that provide services for victims. The government also provides training to officials and law enforcement officers in the handling of witnesses and victims. Although the national action plan calls for proper treatment of trafficking victims, implementation varies widely at the local level.


The government made concerted efforts to increase media coverage and public awareness of trafficking. In 2003, Indonesia's president approved a campaign against child sex tourism. Although the government has a limited ability to fund prevention programs, it welcomed international assistance. The government continued to work with NGOs on anti-trafficking and education initiatives. Government-sponsored public awareness campaigns often featured senior officials and included television, radio, and print media. In June 2003, Indonesia hosted a meeting of the United Nations World Tourism Organization on efforts to end child sex tourism. Thereafter, the Indonesian government announced a campaign to end the commercial sexual exploitation of children in tourism, beginning with the major tourist destination points of Bali and Batam. The relevant ministries are working with local government officials in both places to strengthen law enforcement, and assist and protect victims.


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