U.S. Department of State 2003 Trafficking in Persons Report - Tanzania

Tanzania (Tier 2)

Tanzania is a source and destination country for trafficked persons. Children are trafficked internally from rural to urban areas within the country for domestic work, commercial agriculture, fishing, mining, and child prostitution. Children in the country's large refugee population are especially vulnerable to being trafficked to work on Tanzanian farms, and some refugees in camps in Tanzania are recruited as child soldiers for participation in conflicts in neighboring countries.

To a lesser degree, Tanzania is a destination country for trafficked persons from India and Kenya. Some sources also suggest that Tanzanian women and girls may be trafficked to South Africa, the Middle East, North Africa, Europe, and the United States for commercial sexual exploitation.

The Government of Tanzania does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so despite severe resource constraints. The government should provide more training to law enforcement on trafficking issues, develop child-friendly witness protection mechanisms, and undertake more systematic public awareness campaigns.


A multi-agency government task force coordinates anti-child labor programs. There are public awareness campaigns regarding the dangers of child labor and exploitation. Tanzania is one of three countries participating in a pilot program to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The program brings together government agencies, trade unions, and legal and social welfare organizations to combat child labor, including trafficking. The government has begun to provide free education to primary school children, and has expanded the proportion of its budget dedicated to education, a key strategy to prevent child labor and child prostitution.


Law enforcement agencies traditionally investigate cases of migrant smuggling, and it is unclear how many of these cases are related to trafficking. There are laws related to sexual offenses and trafficking for sexual purposes. A section of the penal code was enacted in 2001 that criminalizes trafficking within or outside of Tanzania; however the penalty is relatively light. During the year nightclubs were raided and 23 girls were repatriated to India for not having valid work permits. The owners were fined. In August 2002, 12 individuals were arrested for operating a brothel in Dar es Salaam where several underage girls were found working. This case is still pending.


The cash-strapped government does not provide victims of trafficking with assistance, but supports NGOs that are involved with anti-child labor and education efforts by providing public buildings for classrooms and community centers. The government, in conjunction with international organizations, is removing children from hazardous work and prostitution and providing education and vocational training. Foreign victims are routinely repatriated.


This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.