U.S. Department of State 2001 Trafficking in Persons Report - Indonesia
Indonesia (Tier 3)
Indonesia is a source country for domestic and internationally trafficked persons, primarily young women and girls. Indonesians are trafficked to Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Malaysia, Brunei, the Persian Gulf countries, Australia, Korea, and Japan; and there are reports that they are trafficked to Europe and the United States. The victims of domestic and international trafficking are targeted for sexual exploitation and forced labor. Some observers estimate that 20 percent of Indonesia's 5 million migrant laborers have been trafficked. Indonesia is also a transit country for alien smuggling to Australia from various countries, including China, Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan, although it is not clear how many of these persons actually are trafficked.
The Government of Indonesia does not meet the minimum standards and has not yet made significant efforts to combat trafficking; however, officials realize trafficking exists, that it is worsening, and that the Government must confront the problem. Indonesia is undergoing a transition to democracy and is handicapped by weak legislation and law enforcement, inadequate government institutions, and widespread corruption. Considerable circumstantial evidence indicates that some civilian, military, and police officials are involved in trafficking. The Ministry of Women's Empowerment (MOWE) is to coordinate a national anti-trafficking council comprised of both governmental and non-governmental entities. There is no specific law that prohibits trafficking in persons. Although related laws can be used against traffickers, the maximum penalties are significantly less than those for rape. NGO's actively provide assistance to returned victims, but they do not receive funding from the Government. In the past, government cooperation with NGO's was poor, but it has increased significantly. For example, NGO's and provincial government authorities have taken joint action to remove children from offshore fishing platforms in Sumatra. The MOWE operates help desks at international airports for returning victims and has sought NGO assistance for these. In addition, government officials from various agencies have begun to meet with NGO's to discuss practical measures for countering trafficking.