At the end of 2002, Peru hosted about 900 refugees, mostly Cubans, former Yugoslavs, and Iranians. Peru is a party to the UN Refugee Convention and has legislation that provides for granting refugee status.
During the 1980s and early 1990s, a violent insurgency by the Communist Party of Peru, or Shining Path, and a harsh government counterinsurgency campaign ravaged Peru. The conflict left some 25,000 people dead and displaced about 430,000 people. By 1994, the Shining Path insurgents had lost much of their strength, and violence was minimal in most areas. During the late 1990s, thousands of displaced people returned home, but most of the displaced settled permanently in their new locations.
In February 2002, an intrusion by Colombian guerrillas into Peruvian territory in a remote, sparsely populated region led to the temporary displacement of the more than 100 indigenous residents of the Peruvian village of Secoya, in Loreto Department.