Discrimination against minorities in Chad continued, despite the government's adoption of a law in 2006 that includes the promotion of tolerance and respect for other cultures as one of the objectives of the educational system, the ILO and an ACHPR 2009 report said. The Peul minority, a nomadic cattle-breeding group constituting about 250,000 of Chad's 10 million population, experienced continued stereotyping in 2009. A 2009 report in Indigenous Affairs journal stated that Peul girls are most discriminated against and stereotyped in schools due to the allegation that they 'stink' of milk/butter, hence others do not want to sit next to them. Peul women are marginalized by an internal and external cultural context that does not incorporate them into decision-making structures, the report said.

More than half of Chad's population is Muslim, approximately one-third is Christian, and the remainder follows indigenous religious beliefs or has no religion. Most northerners practise Islam, and most southerners practise Christianity or indigenous religions. However, population patterns are becoming more complex, especially in urban areas.

Whereas the Chadian Constitution provides for freedom of religion, the government has proscribed certain Muslim groups on the grounds of extremism. The African News Agency (AFROL) reported in 2009 that Chadian troops killed 72 followers of a Muslim spiritual leader in Kouno, 300 km southeast of N'Djamena, Chad's capital city. The Islamic leader had threatened to launch a 'Holy war' in defence of the Islamic faith and to fight corruption.

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