|Number of IDPs
|Percentage of total population
|Start of displacement situation
|Peak number of IDPs (year)
|New displacement in 2012
|Causes of displacement
|x International armed conflict
✓ Internal armed conflict
x Deliberate policy or practice of arbitrary displacement
✓ Communal violence
✓ Criminal violence
✓ Political violence
|Human development index
More than six years after the government and Maoist rebels ended their decade-long armed conflict, the peace process remains largely incomplete. Widespread impunity for perpetrators of human rights violations committed during the conflict, endless political bickering, corruption and the government's relative absence from rural areas has largely undermined state legitimacy.
Nearly all IDPs have returned, but an undetermined number, believed to be in the thousands, have been unable or unwilling to go back to their places of origin, mainly as a result of unresolved land and property issues and security concerns. Land expropriated by the Maoists has often been sold or given to landless or tenant farmers. The sustainability of returns has often been undermined by the absence of state services and a lack of livelihood assistance. Assistance provided by the government to IDPs since 2007 has mainly focused on helping them return by covering their transportation costs.
Most IDPs no longer have assistance needs related to their displacement as they have managed to integrate locally, mainly in urban centres and cities. Some, however, particularly women and children, have struggled to find proper accommodation and access basic services. They are also more likely to be exposed to a range of threats including exploitation and sexual violence.
Since 2007, episodes of violence from separatist and criminal groups in central Terai, the region south of the Himalayan foothills, have led to the forced displacement of thousands of people. Both hill-dwelling Pahadis and their wealthier Madhesi counterparts on the plains have been affected, with most reported to have moved to Hetauda, Chitwan district and Kathmandu.