Regime Classification: Consolidated Authoritarian Regime

Nations in Transit Score (1 = Most Democratic, 7 = Least Democratic)

Score Evolution:

NIT Country Rank: 25/29

Quick Facts

Population:17.54 million
GNI/capita, PPP:$23,480
Freedom in the World Status:Not Free
Press Freedom Status:Not Free
Net Freedom Status:Partly Free

National Democratic Governance6.75
Electoral Process6.75
Civil Society6.50
Independent Media6.75
Local Democratic Governance6.50
Judicial Framework and Independence6.50
Democracy Score6.64

National Democratic Governance6.756.756.756.756.756.756.756.756.756.75
Electoral Process6.756.756.756.756.756.756.756.756.756.75
Civil Society5.505.505.755.756.006.256.506.506.506.50
Independent Media6.756.506.756.756.756.756.756.756.756.75
Local Democratic Governance6.
Judicial Framework and Independence6.
Democracy Score6.396.326.436.436.546.576.616.616.616.64

NOTE: The ratings reflect the consensus of Freedom House, its academic advisers, and the author(s) of this report. If consensus cannot be reached, Freedom House is responsible for the final ratings. The ratings are based on a scale of 1 to 7, with 1 representing the highest level of democratic progress and 7 the lowest. The Democracy Score is an average of ratings for the categories tracked in a given year. The opinions expressed in this report are those of the author(s).

Score Change:

Corruption rating declined from 6.50 to 6.75 due to ample evidence of pervasive corruption, including through high-profile cases of embezzlement around Kazakhstan's hosting of EXPO 2017, and the release of documents showing the president's grandson owning valuable assets in offshore accounts despite the president's call for Kazakhstanis to repatriate their wealth.

As a result, Kazakhstan's Democracy Score declined from 6.61 to 6.64.

By Joanna Lillis

Executive Summary:

In 2016, Kazakhstan remained a consolidated authoritarian regime. The heavy-handed official response to an outbreak of peaceful public protests in the spring demonstrated that official intolerance towards any form of dissent remains the norm. The catalyst for the demonstrations were reforms which would have expanded the sale of land to private investors, a measure the government deemed vital to boost agricultural investment, but which opponents resisted on the grounds that land is a national asset and should be publicly owned. The faltering economy – which slowed for the third year running in 2016 to 1 percent growth, owing to a combination of low oil prices and economic downturns in neighboring Russia and China – also played a part in fueling discontent.

In late April and early May, peaceful protests over the land reforms proceeded in various towns and cities without police intervention. In late May, however, the authorities reacted to a second wave of announced demonstrations by preemptively jailing would-be protesters, detaining hundreds of demonstrators nationwide, and ultimately depicting the popular protests as a bid to topple President Nursultan Nazarbayev. Tokhtar Tuleshov, an entrepreneur from southern Kazakhstan, was jailed in November for allegedly masterminding the coup plot. Two prominent civil society campaigners from the city of Atyrau, Maks Bokayev and Talgat Ayan, were detained in May and jailed in November for allegedly fomenting the protests with Tuleshov, even as they maintained that they were exercising their constitutional right to peaceful assembly.

Some protesters called for the resignation of Nazarbayev at the demonstrations, an indication of how frustrations with his authoritarian rule are growing among some citizens. The faltering economy is fueling social disaffection, although Nazarbayev continues to enjoy genuine popularity among many citizens, who – under the heavy influence of state propaganda – credit him with delivering years of rising living standards, political stability, and relative ethnic harmony. However, the land protests demonstrated that support for the administration may be more fragile than it appears.

Adding to the atmosphere of tension, in 2016 Kazakhstan experienced two fatal attacks targeting law enforcement structures that suggested homegrown extremism and violent dissent are rising problems. One targeted a military base in the western city of Aktobe in June and left four civilians and three soldiers, as well as 18 suspected attackers, dead. The other in July was by a lone gunman on law enforcement in Almaty, in which eight police officers and two civilians were killed. Astana defined these as acts of terrorism, although the label fails to recognize that the attackers targeted law enforcement structures rather than civilians, suggesting that repressive policies intended to counteract radicalism are generating grudges against the security forces and may be inadvertently fuelling extremism.

In December, the country marked its 25th anniversary of independence, and its septuagenarian president marked a quarter of a century at the helm of independent Kazakhstan. Despite his previous statements that the country needs to create resilient institutions to withstand an eventual transition of power, the authorities made no moves in 2016 to undertake democratic reforms of the super-presidential political system that would assist in ensuring a stable transition of power. This system creates political risks for the post-Nazarbayev future, since it may fracture when he eventually leaves office.

The authorities continued, however, to implement, albeit gradually, an ambitious program of public administration reforms known as the "100-step" program. The authorities also continued implementing a promising program to devolve powers to local government and engender greater public involvement in decision-making. In 2016, under the local self-governance program, public councils were set up nationwide to allow public oversight at all levels of local government, which the government intends to be platforms to involve the public in the making of decisions that affect their everyday lives.

In March, Kazakhstan held a parliamentary election that was marred by serious irregularities and resulted in essentially replicating the outgoing parliament. The legislature is dominated by Nazarbayev's Nur Otan party, which won 82 percent of the vote; two smaller progovernment parties – Ak Zhol and the Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan (CPPK) – took the remaining seats. In the period since independence, elections in Kazakhstan have increasingly become stage-managed events designed to shore up the power of Nazarbayev and Nur Otan rather than offer voters a choice about who rules them. This election again emphasized the undemocratic nature of a political system dominated by the president and forces loyal to him to the exclusion of any opposition. At the same time, the authorities, with the advice of western PR companies, continued in 2016 to uphold Kazakhstan on the international stage as a "young" and open-minded country on a gradual trajectory toward democracy.

Pressure on the independent media remained intense in 2016. In October, two prominent journalists, Seitkazy Matayev and his son Aset Matayev, were jailed on corruption charges, following a controversial trial that sparked concerns over political motivations. In May, Guzyal Baydalinova of the independent website was jailed for "disseminating false information." In July, her co-defendant Tair Kaldybayev, an entrepreneur jailed for allegedly paying to place false reporting on the site, was found hanged in prison in a death declared a suicide. Baydalinova's sentence was commuted to a suspended one in July and she was freed. Her website closed down in April, owing to the difficulties of operating under pressure.

Corruption remained entrenched in 2016, although there were small-scale efforts to tackle it, notably through the creation in January of Government for Citizens, an online portal and physical offices intended to streamline public services and reduce opportunities for petty bribery. In April, Nurali Aliyev, the president's grandson, was named in an international expose as the owner of offshore assets, after Nazarbayev had been urging citizens to take advantage of an amnesty on the repatriation of offshore funds and property. This reinforced public perceptions that despite official rhetoric, the powerful enjoy exemptions from anti-corruption campaigns.

Outlook for 2017: Nazarbayev is likely to remain entrenched in power throughout 2017, and is unlikely to undertake substantial and meaningful reforms to establish the resilient political system featuring checks and balances on presidential rule that he says Kazakhstan requires to withstand a transition of power. Social tensions will continue to rise, creating a growing risk that Nazarbayev will bequeath to his eventual successor intractable problems that will be challenging to resolve under the current system. The land protests of 2016 demonstrated that Nazarbayev's levels of popularity – while high – are vulnerable to erosion, and disillusionment with his long authoritarian rule may continue to corrode support for the regime in 2017. Astana's heavy-handed response to the 2016 land protests is likely to act as a deterrent to major public protests, however. The risk of violent attacks, whether inspired by Islamic radicalism or other motives, is rising, and while attackers have previously targeted the security forces, attacks on civilians cannot be ruled out in 2017.

National Democratic Governance:


  • President Nursultan Nazarbayev has ruled Kazakhstan for a quarter of a century and, despite previously speaking of the need to create a resilient political system capable of withstanding his eventual and inevitable departure, took no steps in 2016 to reform Kazakhstan's highly centralized political structure. In March, the 76-year-old president – who is known by the official title of Leader of the Nation and enjoys a personal exemption from constitutional presidential term limits – entrenched his power through a parliamentary election, which his ruling party, Nur Otan, won by a landslide. Celebrations of Kazakhstan's 25th anniversary of independence in December were harnessed to reinforce a burgeoning cult of personality that surrounds the president, by presenting him as the father of the nation who has presided over a quarter of a century of political and economic successes.[1]

  • Kazakhstan's entire system of governance rests on the executive branch. Nazarbayev and Nur Otan control all institutions of power at the national and local levels, including the parliament, the military, the judiciary, the security apparatus, and even offices that are nominally independent, such as the Central Electoral Commission and the human rights ombudsman's office. The president appoints and may dismiss the prime minister, who is responsible for executing policies rather than formulating them. The rubber-stamp bicameral legislature, which contains only loyal presidential supporters, can be dissolved by the president at any time under the constitution. With no independent institutions to perform effective checks and balances on power, and no evidence that building such institutions is on the presidential agenda, Kazakhstan remains at risk of a major political crisis when its current president leaves office.

  • In 2016, the authorities alleged that Tokhtar Tuleshov, an entrepreneur from southern Kazakhstan, had hatched plans to carry out a coup d'etat by allegedly fomenting nationwide protests against land reforms in April and May in order to seize power.[2] This is not the first time the administration has blamed social unrest on an alleged coup plot: in 2011, Astana claimed that fatal riots that spiraled out of a mismanaged oil strike in the western town of Zhanaozen – in which police shot dead 15 civilians – were fomented by the president's enemies in a bid to topple him.

  • Some of the land protesters adopted the slogan "old man out!", suggesting that while the president remains genuinely popular in many quarters of society, his popularity may be eroding due to the faltering economy and disillusionment with 25 years of his authoritarian rule. In 2016, economic growth slowed for the third consecutive year to stand at 1 percent, owing to low global oil prices and the repercussions of downturns in neighboring Russia and China, both major trading partners.

  • In 2016 there was an uptick in violent attacks targeting law enforcement structures, indicating rising disillusionment with the regime among elements of the population susceptible to radicalism. In June, four civilians and three soldiers were killed in an attack by gunmen on a National Guard base in the western oil city of Aktobe; 18 suspected attackers died in the security operation.[3] In July, eight police officers and two civilians died when a lone gunman attacked law enforcement structures in Almaty. The attacker said he was avenging what he perceived as persecution of Muslims by the security forces, as well as targeting them because he considered his previous convictions for robbery and weapons possession – over which he had served time in prison – to be unfair.[4] These were the first such major violent incidents in Kazakhstan since a spate of attacks targeting security forces in 2011 and 2012.

  • The authorities defined the 2016 attacks as acts of terrorism, although this conclusion fails to recognize that the attackers targeted law enforcement structures rather than the civilian population, indicating that they are at least partly inspired by grudges against the security apparatus. The motivations for the violent attacks in 2016 cannot be unequivocally stated to be related to Islamic extremism, and the incidents do not bear the classic hallmarks of terrorist attacks. Nevertheless, the nature of the attacks and the stated motives of the attackers suggest that homegrown extremism is, to some degree, a rising risk for Kazakhstan among disaffected groups, and that repressive policies intended to stem such radicalization may be counterproductive.

  • In September, Nazarbayev carried out a major government reshuffle, replacing the long-serving prime minister, Karim Masimov, with Bakhytzhan Sagintayev, the first deputy prime minister.[5] Masimov became director of the National Security Committee, indicating that he retains Nazarbayev's confidence at a time when the intelligence agency's counterterrorism role assumed greater importance following the Aktobe and Almaty attacks.

  • During the reshuffle, Dariga Nazarbayeva, the president's eldest daughter, lost her position as deputy prime minister – to which she was appointed in 2015 – and became a senator in the upper house of parliament. This was a demotion, but the appointment potentially positions Nazarbayeva to assume the constitutionally important role of Senate speaker, who takes the reins of power if the president is incapacitated.[6] Nevertheless, the influence of the president's family on national and local governance was weakened in 2016. His grandson Nurali Aliyev, Nazarbayeva's son, resigned as deputy mayor of Astana in March, shortly before he was named in an international exposé as the owner of offshore assets.[7]

  • In 2016, the government continued to implement a reform program unveiled in 2015 called "100 Concrete Steps to Implement Five Institutional Reforms",[8] with five goals: creating a transparent, accountable government; professionalizing the civil service; ensuring the rule of law; boosting industrialization and economic growth; and promoting unity in multiethnic Kazakhstan. In January, Nazarbayev announced the creation of a new state body called Government for Citizens[9] to boost transparency and streamline public services by acting as a one-stop shop for their provision by the end of 2017.[10] If implemented in full, these ambitious reforms might have a positive impact on improving public administration and reducing corruption. However, implementation is gradual, and the impact of the reform program had yet to be felt in any substantive manner in 2016.

Electoral Process:


  • Kazakhstan has not held a parliamentary or presidential election on schedule since 2005. In March, Kazakhstan held snap parliamentary elections that entrenched the political status quo, delivering a rubberstamp parliament identical in terms of party composition to the outgoing lower house. In 2016, the official reason for holding the parliamentary vote a year early was to provide the legislature with a fresh mandate, since it had finished adopting laws to implement the 100-step reform program. However, observers suggested that the real motivation was likely that the administration preferred to install a new legislature for another five years before a possible rise in popular discontent, given the prospect of protracted economic problems facing the country.[11] The election offered an opportunity to reaffirm the hierarchy of the ruling party and local authorities' loyalty to the central government, who were required to demonstrate their capacity for mobilizing voters in support of Nur Otan.

  • The ruling Nur Otan party headed by Nazarbayev won a landslide with 82.2 percent of the vote in the March 20 elections. Two other parties won seats in the Mazhilis (lower house): the pro-business Ak Zhol (Bright Path), with 7.18 percent of the vote, and the Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan (CPPK), with 7.14 percent.[12] Ak Zhol and the CPPK are opposition parties in name only: they do not make substantive criticism of the president or government, or attempt to hold the administration to account through the legislature.[13] Three of the six parties standing failed to win seats because they did not cross the 7 percent electoral threshold.

  • The only party standing in the election with a record as an opposition party was the National Social Democratic Party (NSDP), which offered muted criticism of the administration during the campaign but failed to win any seats.[14] No other opposition parties exist in Kazakhstan: in recent years the authorities have closed or co-opted some parties, while others have split due to internal differences, or abandoned their political activities due to intimidation. The Communist Party of Kazakhstan was closed by court order in 2015,[15] while Alga! was banned in 2012 and its leader Vladimir Kozlov was jailed on charges of fomenting unrest in the town of Zhanaozen in 2011.[16] In 2013, the leader of the Azat party, Bolat Abilov, quit politics, leaving his party moribund.

  • International election observers from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE/ODIHR) deemed the parliamentary elections "efficiently organized, with some progress noted," but stated that "Kazakhstan still has a considerable way to go in meeting its OSCE commitments for democratic elections." It noted that the campaign was low key, stating that "genuine political choice is still lacking," and calling for reform of a legal framework which "restricts fundamental civil and political rights."[17] The Central Electoral Commission rejected the criticism and pointed out that the OSCE/ODIHR had praised Kazakhstan's performance on 25 counts, mostly connected to administration of the election.[18]

Civil Society:


  • Kazakhstan witnessed the largest and most widespread public protests since independence in spring, as demonstrators took to the streets to voice their peaceful opposition to land reforms. The demonstrators were seeking to overturn reforms that would have expanded the sale of land to private investors, a measure the government deemed vital to boost agricultural investment, but which opponents resisted on the grounds that land is a national asset and should be publicly owned. They also feared that the reforms would open a backdoor route for foreigners to purchase land, which foreigners had been barred from owning. Protesters expressed particular concerns about potential sales of agricultural land to Chinese investors (whom they believed would be the most eager buyers), fueled by sensitivities about Chinese control over other natural resources in Kazakhstan, such as oil. Despite acknowledging grassroots concerns, Astana depicted the protests as a bid to overthrow the state – an indication of its entrenched reluctance to accept the existence of dissent or opposition of any form.

  • The protests began in April and culminated in a nationwide day of protest on May 21, on which the authorities cracked down with mass arrests. Ahead of the protest, 40 activists were preemptively detained and jailed for up to 15 days to prevent them from demonstrating. On May 21, hundreds of protesters were detained across Kazakhstan in what human rights campaigners said was a violation of their constitutional right to peaceful protest.[19] The authorities justified the detentions on the grounds that the demonstrators were violating Kazakhstan's stringent laws on public assembly, which require them to apply for permission to rally from the local authorities 10 days in advance. All applications to hold legal demonstrations against the land reforms had been turned down. Most of those detained were released without charge, although rights activists said that there had been violations of their legal rights during their time in custody. Fifty-one people were charged with breaching public assembly laws, with 12 fined, four jailed for up to 15 days, and the others cautioned.[20]

  • In May, Nazarbayev sought to head off public opposition to the sale of land reforms by imposing a moratorium on the changes until the end of 2016,[21] which he extended in August to the end of 2021.[22] He also created a public commission, which included members of civil society,[23] in a sign of willingness to engage in public dialogue that some activists welcomed as positive but belated.

  • The authorities claimed that the land protests had been fomented by Tokhtar Tuleshov, an entrepreneur from southern Kazakhstan, who had allegedly taken advantage of the protest mood to stir up unrest in order to seize power. Tuleshov was in jail during the protests, following his arrest on unrelated charges in January. In October, he was put on trial behind closed doors, and in November he was jailed for 21 years.[24] Although the case against Tuleshov appeared flimsy, he testified at the trial of Maks Bokayev and Talgat Ayan, two prominent civil society activists in the city of Atyrau tried separately as accomplices, to fomenting the protests from his prison cell.[25] Bokayev and Ayan, who were arrested in May, pleaded innocent, arguing that they were exercising their constitutional right to peaceful protest, but were convicted in November. Both were jailed for five years on charges of breaching public assembly laws, inciting social strife, and disseminating false information.[26] Human rights activists raised concerns over alleged procedural violations during the trial and suggestions that Bokayev did not have access to appropriate medical treatment.[27]

  • In 2016, several activists were convicted over social media postings under the controversial charge of incitement to ethnic, religious, tribal, or social strife. Civil society campaigners have [28] Yermek Narymbayev and Serikzhan Mambetalin were jailed for three and two years respectively, but freed shortly afterwards when their prison terms were suspended.[29] In July, Zhanat Yesentayev, an activist from northwestern Kazakhstan, was sentenced to two and a half years of restricted freedom over Facebook postings that allegedly incited ethnic enmity ahead of the land protests.[30] In December, Igor Chuprina, a resident of northern Kazakhstan, was jailed for five and a half years on charges of inciting ethnic strife and propaganda of separatism over postings made on social media that allegedly argued for parts of Kazakhstan to secede and join Russia.[31]

  • An oil sector strike, which broke out in September in the town of Zhanaozen – where industrial action by oil workers in 2011 culminated in fatal unrest – was rapidly settled after the provincial government mediated.[32] This indicated that the violence of 2011 has made the authorities more open to dialogue as a means of preventing escalations of industrial unrest, although they also have at their disposal the controversial provisions of a labor code,[33] approved in 2015 in the face of opposition from trade unionists.[34]

  • A new law on funding for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which significantly tightened government control over the operations of civil society groups,[35] came into force in 2016. It established a single state operator via which all funding for NGOs must be channeled,[36] effectively granting the state a monopoly on deciding which NGOs receive funding and for what types of activity. Pursuant to the legislation, in October burdensome new rules were introduced requiring NGOs to report foreign funding. Under the new rules, NGOs must submit reports of foreign funding with 10 days of signing a contract with a foreign grantee, and must report on their use within 15 days of the end of the quarter in which the contract was signed.[37] The introduction of this requirement followed concerns about foreign funding of NGOs raised in Kazakhstan's media in July.[38] In November, the International Partnership for Human Rights (IPHR) highlighted "intrusive inspections by tax authorities" at NGOs, which raised concerns about "intimidation and undue interference" with their activities.[39]

  • In October, Irina Mednikova, a prominent Almaty-based civil society campaigner, was the victim of a mugging that she believed connected to her activism. Money and a hard drive of material intended for the organization of a youth forum in the city of Atyrau were stolen.[40]

  • In August, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), a non-profit organization defending digital civil liberties, alleged that journalists, lawyers and political activists critical of Kazakhstan's government had been targeted by an online phishing and malware campaign it alleged was carried out on behalf of Kazakhstan's government. Many of the targets are party to the government's litigation to expose hackers who stole its emails.[41]

  • In 2016, the authorities continued to make wide use of a controversial 2009 law on religion, fining and jailing religious group leaders and worshippers found in breach of its stringent requirements,[42] raiding places of worship, censoring religious literature, and preventing missionary activity.[43] In July, police raided Baptist summer camps in West Kazakhstan Region to check that children were present with parental consent, and fined a woman who took her grandchild to a Baptist church event in Kostanay Region.[44] In November, police detained five organizers of a yoga seminar in Almaty under the law, accusing them of distributing illegal religious literature.[45]

  • In September, a new Ministry for Religious Affairs and Civil Society was set up with the official remit of assuring the right to freedom of conscience and managing relations between the government and civil society.[46] The new ministry was a response to the Aktobe and Almaty attacks, and combining the two portfolios of civil society and religious affairs is an indication that the government acknowledges the need to use civil society to help combat extremism. The ministry focused early efforts on counterextremism measures, and in October the minister, Nurlan Yermekbayev, identified boosting the secular nature of the state as a priority.[47] In October, the government clarified that the wearing of the hijab or any other visible sign of religious identification was not permitted in schools under existing regulations.[48]

  • In June, the United Nations Human Rights Committee expressed concern over Kazakhstan's "broad formulation" of the concepts of extremism and incitement to religious enmity, and urged it to bring counterterrorism and counterextremism legislation into compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.[49] In December, Nazarbayev signed into law new legislation intended to counteract terrorism and extremism.[50] The amendments tightened up control over internal migration, weapons circulation, and communications. Human rights campaigners expressed concern that the new measures were intimidating to the general public, and would affect law-abiding citizens rather than potential extremists.[51]

  • In August, there was an intercommunal clash between the Kazakh and Tajik communities in South Kazakhstan Region. Three people were injured, and homes and cars were burned, after rumors – later proved unfounded – surfaced of the sexual abuse of a Kazakh child. Like a previous clash between the two communities in 2015,[52] it revealed hidden ethnic tensions that the government refuses to acknowledge. The administration promotes ethnic unity as a core value, by and large successfully, but discussion of ethnic tensions is taboo, and the authorities seek to prevent open debate on the issue.

Independent Media:


  • In January, a new law on access to information, adopted in 2015 in a move welcomed by civil society campaigners, came into force.[53] The aim of the law is to force officials to place information of public interest in the public domain. The legislation prohibits state bodies from concealing information on a number of designated public interest topics, and obliges officials to hold regular public meetings to report on their activities, which they are now doing. In May, the government said that official websites were falling short of fully meeting the requirements of the law, on average distributing information in 38 categories as opposed to the 52 required by law (74 percent).[54] The government made no moves to proceed with plans announced in 2015 to compel Internet users to install a national security certificate on their devices that would allow the state to access, monitor and edit https-encrypted traffic.[55]

  • However, despite these modest steps, the media environment in Kazakhstan remains tightly controlled. In October, the government revealed plans to regulate the status of bloggers, under planned amendments to legislation governing the spheres of information and communication to be put before parliament in 2017.[56] Bloggers expressed concern that the move would restrict their freedom of speech by subjecting them to the same rules as journalists; the government maintained that it would grant them greater rights.

  • In 2016, the authorities continued using court orders to block websites and social media accused of hosting "extremist" content. In July, the authorities said that 94 sites were being blocked.[57] Amendments to the communications law introduced in 2014 allowed the authorities to block websites or shut off social networks without a court order, on the grounds that they contain terrorist or extremist content, or calls to participate in "mass unrest."[58] In August, the website [59] it remained blocked at year's end. In December, some social media outlets became periodically inaccessible shortly after users began circulating a media interview given by Mukhtar Ablyazov, a businessman wanted by Kazakhstan, following his release from detention in France. The government explained this as a "technical glitch".[60]

  • In 2016, journalists encountered obstacles in exercising their professional duties, particularly covering public protests. In May, 55 reporters were detained while attempting to report on the land protests; most were later released without charge.[61] In October, two prominent Kazakhstani journalists were jailed on corruption charges following a trial that sparked concerns over political motivations. Seitkazy Matayev, head of the National Press Club and president of the Union of Journalists, and his son Aset Matayev, head of the [62] The Matayevs – who were accused of embezzling government media subsidies – alleged in court that the charges were trumped up to seize their valuable assets and muzzle independent voices. Seitkazy Matayev named Nurlan Nigmatullin, speaker of the lower house of parliament, and media magnate Aleksandr Klebanov as the instigators of the case, an accusation they denied.

  • In November, Bigeldi Gabdullina, the editor-in-chief of the Central Asia Monitor website and the director of Radio Tochka, was arrested on corruption charges. Gabdullina was accused of extorting officials by promising to cease critical reportage of their activities in his media outlets if they favorably allocated government media subsidies.[63] He was still in detention awaiting trial at year's end.

  • In May, journalist Guzyal Baydalinova was jailed for 18 months on the charge of "disseminating false information" (known as the "rumor spreading law").[64] She worked for the independent website, established by former journalists from the Respublika newspaper, which was closed in a crackdown on independent media in 2012. Baydalinova and entrepreneur Tair Kaldybayev were convicted in a case, filed by Kazkommertsbank, concerning a report on corruption in Almaty's construction industry; Baydalinova had already been convicted on libel charges in 2015 relating to this article.[65] The court found that Kaldybayev had paid to plant false reports on and on, a Russia-based website carrying material critical of Kazakhstan's government. In July, Baydalinova's sentence was suspended and she was released,[66] shortly after Kaldybayev – who was also jailed – committed suicide in prison.[67] In September, Irina Petrushova, the editor of, announced that she was closing the site and ending the Respublika media project that she launched in 2000, owing to technical and financial problems, and issues connected to the political situation in Kazakhstan.[68]

  • In March, journalist Yuliya Kozlova was acquitted on charges of possession of narcotics that investigators said they found during a raid related to Baydalinova's case, which she said were planted.[69]

  • In July, the newspaper Tribuna/Ashyk Alan – one of Kazakhstan's last independent publications – was ordered to pay $15,000 in damages in a libel case brought by a former Almaty city hall official, Sultanbek Syzdykov. The publication had deemed Syzdykov corrupt after he was accused of embezzling $70,000 from public funds; a criminal investigation was closed after he [70] In October, the Uralskaya Nedelya newspaper was ordered to pay $10,000 in libel damages to a police officer for reporting on an apology made to the newspaper's editor, Tamara Yeslyamova. The paper reported that the officer offered Yeslyamova an apology after she was detained and fined for covering land reform protests in May; although the newspaper presented an audio recording as evidence, the officer denied that he apologized.[71] Media loyal to the government engaged in a smear campaign against the land protesters in spring, dubbing them agents provocateurs and traitors financed by foreign interests intent on fomenting revolution in Kazakhstan.[72]

Local Democratic Governance:


  • In 2016, the government continued to implement the second stage of its 2013-2020 local governance strategy; as part of the strategy, Astana is handing greater governing and financial powers to local government.[73] The second stage of the strategy began in 2015, when the government adopted new rules on local government financing;[74] and a legislative reform package[75] intended to grant local authorities greater financial powers and increase the involvement of local populations in the decision-making process.[76] In September, Nazarbayev made it clear that local self-governance remains a major priority for his administration.[77]

  • In January, a law obliging local authorities to establish public councils to allow public oversight at all levels of local government came into force.[78] In May, the authorities reported that the process of forming public councils was complete.[79] In September, the government reported that 225 public councils had been set up – 12 at the national level, 16 at the regional level, and 197 at the town and district level – containing 3,791 members, 30 percent of whom were women.[80] Under the law, at least three quarters of members must be representatives of civil society or the general public, so as to avoid monopolization of discussions by officials. In September, teething problems – including cases of public officials breaching regulations by chairing councils – emerged, which the authorities pledged to stamp out.[81] With Nur Otan leading the public council initiative, and having drafted the law on its creation, some civil society campaigners have expressed concern that voices loyal to the authorities will dominate council meetings to the exclusion of others. The government says that the councils are intended to be genuine platforms for public involvement in decision-making that affects their everyday lives.

  • The local self-governance package includes measures specifying the way public local assemblies are to discuss how financing should be organized. They also include measures to boost public involvement in monitoring the use of budget funds; measures to grant akims (mayors) greater budgetary decision-making and fundraising powers; and measures placing revenues from certain fines and taxes – including small business tax and taxes on local government property – in the hands of local government. Local community assemblies now have input into deciding on how budget funds should be used, and are obliged to conduct monitoring of their use every six months to boost transparency and accountability. From 2018, smaller towns and villages will start to draft their own budgets, and from 2020 this scheme will be rolled out nationally.[82]

  • In a reflection of the high priority the government attaches to the local self-governance program, Nazarbayev took a personal interest in the effectiveness of the new local tax-raising measures. In September, he quizzed a village mayor on how much funding had been raised under the new rules, how it had been spent, and how the expenditure decision had been decided by local consensus.[83]

  • Local governments continued to roll out hotlines to improve citizens' access to communication with officials, using social media as well as websites and telephone lines.[84] Such hotlines are popular with the public for making local authorities more responsive to their needs and problems.

  • Despite these efforts to boost local self-governance, the system remains highly centralized. The mayors of all major cities and governors of Kazakhstan's 14 regions are presidential appointees, with no accountability to the communities they serve. In smaller towns and villages, mayors were elected via indirect suffrage in 2013, but – although the authorities touted these first ever mayoral elections in Kazakhstan as a major step towards democratization – the elections have to date not demonstrably increased the independence or democratic accountability of local government. Mayoral elections took place in towns and villages inhabited by only 45 percent of Kazakhstan's total population, and all candidates were elected by maslihats (local councils), which are overwhelmingly dominated by Nur Otan.[85]

Judicial Framework and Independence:


  • Kazakhstan's constitution recognizes the separation of powers and safeguards the independence of the judiciary, but in practice the courts are subservient to the executive and protect the interests of the ruling elite. The president appoints judges to the Supreme Court and local courts, as well as members of the Supreme Judicial Council. The courts regularly convict public figures brought to trial on politically motivated charges, often without credible evidence or proper procedures.

  • In June, the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) welcomed several measures taken in recent years related to the judicial framework and penitentiary system. These measures include an expansion of the number of restraint measures stopping short of deprivation of liberty; the establishment in 2015 of an obligation under the Criminal and Criminal Procedure Codes to register and investigate all allegations of torture; and the establishment of a juvenile court system and a decrease in the rate of children "in conflict with the law."[86]

  • In November, a court sentenced Ruslan Kulekbayev, who was convicted of carrying out the Almaty shootings in July, to death; this was the first death sentence handed down in Kazakhstan since 2006.[87] A moratorium on the implementation of the death penalty has been in force since 2004, and all those facing capital punishment – 31 people – had their sentences commuted to life in jail in 2007.[88] In June, Nazarbayev said that those who carried out the Aktobe attack deserved to face the death penalty, and throughout the second half of 2016 there were public calls from various officials to establish the death penalty for acts of terrorism.[89] UNHRC urged the government not to act on these calls in June. UNHRC also expressed concern that, despite the moratorium, the Criminal and Criminal Procedural Codes maintained capital punishment for 17 types of crimes, and urged the government to consider further restricting it.[90]

  • In 2016, the government continued to take measures as part of its campaign to humanize the judicial and penitentiary systems under its 100-step reform program. Changes included plans to reform the probation system to improve the integration of ex-prisoners into society,[91] and an ethical code for judges, adopted in November, which was designed to establish improved standards of professional behavior and ethical standards.[92]

  • In August, Vladimir Kozlov, an opposition leader, was paroled after serving four-and-a-half years of his seven-and-a-half year sentence.[93] Kozlov was controversially convicted in 2012 on charges of fomenting social unrest that spiraled out of an oil strike in Zhanaozen in 2011. Twenty-one oil workers and townspeople who served prison sentences over the violence had previously been freed.

  • In March, the human rights watchdog Amnesty International accused the authorities of "failing in their duty" to investigate reports of torture by law enforcement agents and prison warders.[94] It welcomed legal reforms, including extending the mandate of special prosecutors to investigating torture allegations, but said they had failed to address "systematic gaps and failures." The authorities do occasionally act on reports of abuse in places of detention, usually by prosecuting a few junior officers. In October, a prison guard was jailed for nine years for raping and torturing a female prisoner.[95] In November, the interior minister replaced the entire management of the Penal Enforcement System Committee, although it was not specified whether this was in response to that high profile rape case.[96] In July, officials said 23 prison officers had been jailed on torture charges over the last eight years.[97] Two police officers were jailed in Kostanay Region in November for torturing a confession out of a suspect.[98] In September, reports of abuse outside places of detention surfaced when villagers in Pavlodar Region accused police of using disproportionate force while attempting to prevent illegal fishing.[99]



  • Systemic corruption thrives in Kazakhstan on the country's oil and mineral wealth. Elites, who often enjoy immunity from prosecution or investigation, use their positions to appropriate, control, and distribute key resources for personal gain. Along with law enforcement bodies, the Agency for Civil Service Affairs and Counteracting Corruption is the main body tasked with dealing with corruption, but it is part of a civil service in which graft is entrenched and vested interests thwart efforts to eradicate it. In 2016, the government proceeded with measures unveiled in 2015 under the 100-step reform program to root out graft and nepotism from the civil service and the judiciary.[100] In January, the government issued a resolution ordering the creation of "Government for Citizens", a one-stop shop to streamline public services and boost transparency. It is also intended to reduce opportunities for bribery within the civil service.[101]

  • Despite a warning by Nazarbayev in 2015 that there were "no untouchables" in Kazakhstan when it comes to corruption,[102] perceptions persisted that anticorruption efforts are typically political and economic tools that allow some officials to accrue power while intimidating or constraining their rivals. There are frequent prosecutions on bribery and corruption charges, but high-level officials are rarely targets; when they are, their trials often take place amid suspicions of political motivations.

  • In November, senior managers at a subsidiary of the Bayterek development fund, which channels investment for the government's industrialisation and economic diversification strategy, were arrested on suspicion of bribe-taking in a case that highlighted that corruption remains rife in state-run institutions.[103]

  • In April, Nurali Aliyev, the president's eldest grandson, was named in an international expose as the owner of offshore assets,[104] as Nazarbayev continued to urge citizens to take advantage of an amnesty on the repatriation of offshore assets running until the end of 2016.

  • The authorities have relentlessly pursued former senior officials and businessmen who have fled abroad, typically only issuing arrest warrants after the targets have fallen afoul of the regime for political reasons. This sends a clear message of deterrence to other potential dissenters who may consider seeking sanctuary abroad. In 2016, Kazakhstan continued to seek the extradition from France of oligarch Mukhtar Ablyazov to face fraud charges.[105] In December, a French court blocked[106] an order signed by the French government in 2015 to extradite Ablyazov to Russia, and ordered his immediate release on the grounds that the extradition request was politically motivated.[107] Campaigners had urged France not to extradite him to any ally of Kazakhstan that might send him on to his home country, and said he risked ill-treatment and the denial of his right to a fair trial in Kazakhstan because of his record of political opposition to Nazarbayev.[108] Ablyazov, who has denied the charges against him and said they were politically motivated, was barred from fighting a fraud case brought against him by a Kazakh bank in the London High Court after he fled the UK to escape a prison sentence for contempt of court in 2012. He was arrested in France in 2013, and remained in detention until his release in December.

  • Almaty city hall continued to pursue Viktor Khrapunov, a former mayor, through the US courts over allegations he embezzled hundreds of millions of dollars in public assets.[109] Kazakhstan issued an Interpol arrest warrant for Khrapunov and his wife in 2012, after he began publicly criticizing Nazarbayev, and the US corruption case was opened in 2014, a decade after Khrapunov left the post of mayor and six years after he emigrated from Kazakhstan to Switzerland.[110]

  • High-profile corruption cases in 2016 suggested that graft remained rife at a high level. In June, Talgat Yermegiyayev, who was in charge of organizing the prestigious EXPO-17 exhibition to be held in Astana in 2017, was sentenced to 14 years in jail for embezzling millions of dollars in state funding for the event.[111]

  • Two European corruption investigations involving Kazakhstan were ongoing at year's end. In February, a French probe into suspected kickbacks paid over a 2013 lucrative helicopter deal[112] was expanded amid suggestions reported by a French media outlet that Airbus allegedly paid Karim Masimov, the then prime minister, 12 million euros to secure the contract.[113] In July, the United Kingdom's Serious Fraud Office (SFO) secured extra government funding[114] to continue an inquiry into the mining acquisitions of Kazakhstan's ERG (formerly ENRC) natural resources company.[115] Since 2015, the probe has only targeted ERG's operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and not those in Kazakhstan.[116]

Author: Joanna Lillis is a freelance journalist specializing in Central Asian affairs who has been based in Kazakhstan since 2005.


1 "Полный текст Декларации 25-летия Независимости Казахстана" [Full text of Declaration of 25th Anniversary of Independence of Kazakhstan], Kazakhstanskaya Pravda, 23 November 2016,

2 Raushan Nurshayeva and Olzhas Auyezov, "Kazakhstan accuses businessman of inciting protests in coup plot", Reuters, 6 June 2016,

3 "Islamist violence and a spate of protests have rattled Kazakhstan's ruler", The Economist, 10 June 2016,

4 Aigerim Toleukhanova, "Kazakhstan: Almaty Shooting Spree Trial Comes to a Close", EurasiaNet, 28 October 2016,

5 Olzhas Auyezov, "Kazakh leader reshuffles cabinet, changes security bosses", Reuters, 8 September 2016,

6 Raushan Nurshayeva and Olzhas Auyezov, "Key post of parliamentary speaker eludes Kazakh leader's daughter", Reuters, 16 September 2016,

7 "Kazakhstan: Panama Papers Expose Nazarbayev Grandson", EurasiaNet, 4 April 2016,

8 "President Nazarbayev unveils 100 concrete steps to implement five institutional reforms", Kazinform, 2 June 2015,

9 "НАО Государственная корпорация «Правительство для граждан»" [Non-Commercial Joint-Stock Company 'Government for Citizens'],

10 "'Правительство для граждан'​ сократит административные барьеры" [Government for Citizens will reduce administrative barriers], Kapital, 6 January 2016,

11 Joanna Lillis, "Kazakhstan: Snap Election Called to Soothe Moods", EurasiaNet, 13 January 2016,

12 "Центральная избирательная комиссия установила итоги внеочередных выборов депутатов Мажилиса Парламента Республики Казахстан" [Central Electoral Commission established results of snap elections for deputies to the Mazhilis of the parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan], Central Electoral Commission, 22 March 2016,

13 Bruce Pannier, "Analysis: Make No Mistake, Kazakhstan's Elections Still Meaningless", RFE/RL, 21 March 2016,

14 Bruce Pannier, "The Lone Opposition Party In Kazakhstan's Parliamentary Elections", RFE/RL, 28 February 2016,

15 "Решение о ликвидации Коммунистической партии Казахстана оставили без изменения" [Decision to liquidate Communist Party of Kazakhstan accepted without changes], Radio Tochka, 18 September 2015,

16 Joanna Lillis, "Kazakhstan: Political Trial Fails to Provoke Pussy Riot-Style Outcry", EurasiaNet, 10 October 2012,

17 "REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN Early Parliamentary Elections", 20 March 2016, OSCE/ODIHR Election Observation Mission Final Report, OSCE/ODIHR, 27 June 2016,

18 "Комментарий Центральной избирательной комиссии Республики Казахстан к Заявлению о предварительных выводах и заключениях Международной миссии БДИПЧ/ОБСЕ, ПА ОБСЕ, ПАСЕ по наблюдению за внеочередными парламентскими выборами в Республике Казахстан, назначеннымина 20 марта 2016 года" [Comments of the Central Electoral Commission of the Rebpulic of Kazakhstan on the statement on preliminary conclusions and findings of the mission of the OSCE/ODIHR of the Parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE and PACE on observation of snap parliamentary elections in the Republic of Kazakhstan, set for 20 March 2016], Central Electoral Commission, 5 April 2016,

19 Joanna Lillis,"Kazakhstan: Land Issue Fueling Social Discontent", EurasiaNet, 24 May 2016,

20 General Prosecutor's Office, "Пресс-релиз" [Press release], 27 May 2016,

21 Malika Orazgaliyeva, "Nazarbayev Declares Moratorium on Latest Land Code Changes, Creates Ministry of Information and Communications", The Astana Times, 5 May 2016,

22 Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, "Nursultan Nazarbayev extends moratorium on amendments to Land Code of Kazakhstan for 5 years", 18 August 2016,

23 "GOVERNMENT: Land Reform Commission launched in Kazakhstan", Kazinform, 20 May 2016,

24 Raushan Nurshayeva and Olzhas Auyezov, "Kazakh beer tycoon jailed for 21 years on coup-plotting charges", Reuters, 7 November 2016,

25 Aigerim Toleukhanova, "Kazakhstan: Land Trial Hinges on Dubious Testimonies", EurasiaNet, 19 October 2016,

26 Olzhas Auyezov, "Kazakhstan jails nine Islamists, two activists over attack, unrest", Reuters, 28 November 2016,

27 "Kazakhstan: Important procedural violations during the first four hearings in the trial against Max Bokayev and Talgat Ayan", FIDH, 20 October 2016,

28 Joanna Lillis, "Kazakhstan: Authorities Jail Two More Activists", EurasiaNet, 22 January 2016,

29 Brendan Cole, "Kazakhstan: Activists freed amid warnings of further crackdown on dissent", International Business Times, 31 March 2016,

30 Sanat Urnaliyev, "Жанат Есентаев освобождён в зале суда" [Zhanat Yesentayev freed in courtroom], Radio Azattyq, 15 July 2016,

31 "Kazakhstan: Conviction Shows Separatism Nerves Still Raw",, 5 December 2016,

32 Joanna Lillis, "Kazakhstan: Oil Strike Over in Zhanaozen", EurasiaNet, 6 October 2016,

33 Joanna Lillis and Peter Leonard, "Kazakhstan Passes New Labor Law Without Consulting Workers," EurasiaNet, 25 November 2015,

34 "Как изменится Трудовой кодекс РК?" [How will the Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan change?], Kapital, 7 September 2015,….

35 Joanna Lillis, "Kazakhstan: NGO Law Approved Amid Civil Society Resistance", EurasiaNet, 2 December 2015,

36 Joanna Lillis, "Kazakhstan: Campaigners Urge Nazarbayev to Veto NGO Law",, 7 October 2015,

37 "Казахстанцы должны знать, в чьих интересах действуют НПО" [Kazakhstanis should know in whose interests NGOs are acting],, 2 September 2016,

38 "Сколько иностранные фонды тратят на подготовку активистов в Казахстане" [How much foreign foundations spend on training activists in Kazakhstan],, 11 July 2016,

39 Briefing paper for EU-Kazakhstan Human Rights Dialogue, November 2016: Key concerns and recommendations on the protection of fundamental rights in Kazakhstan, International Partnership for Human Rights, 21 November 2016,

40 Serikzhan Mauletbay "В Алматы напали на журналиста и общественного деятеля Ирину Медникову" [Journalist and activist Irina Mednikova attacked in Almaty], Informburo, 13 October 2016,

41 Max Hunter, "Operation Manul", Electronic Frontier Foundation, 4 August 2016,

42 Felix Corley, "KAZAKHSTAN: Ten more Sunni Muslims sentenced", Forum 18, 10 October 2016,

43 Felix Corley, "KAZAKHSTAN: Criminal case, fines, warnings, imprisonments for uncensored literature", Forum 18, 17 October 2016,

44 Felix Corley, "KAZAKHSTAN: "Attracting children" an offence?", Forum 18, 23 August, 2016,

45 "Пятеро йогов в Алматы предстанут перед судом" [Five yogis to face trial],, 11 November 2016,

46 "Нурлан Ермекбаев возглавил новое министерство" [Nurlan Yermekbayev heads new ministry], Tengri News, 13 September 2016,

47 Arman Kudaybergenov, "Светскость государства необходимо укреплять — министр по делам религий" [Secularity of the state must be boosted – minister for religious affairs],, 21 October 2016,

48 Asel Satayeva, "В Казахстане высказались о запрете ношения хиджаба в школах" [Kazakhstan speaks out about ban on wearing the hijab in schools], Tengri News, 19 October 2016,

49 United Nations Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Kazakhstan, 11 July 2016,

50 "Назарбаев подписал закон по усилению мер противодействия терроризму" [Nazarbayev signed law to boost measures to counteract terrorism], Kazinform, 22 December 2016,

51 Felix Corley, "KAZAKHSTAN: Government contradicts UN Human Rights Committee", Forum 18, 22 July 2016,

52 Joanna Lillis, "Kazakhstan: Local Ethnic Conflict Exposes National Fault Lines", EurasiaNet, 11 February 2015,

53 "Закон "О доступе к информации" подписан в Казахстане" [Law 'On Access to Information' signed in Kazakhstan] Tengri News, 18 November 2015,

54 "Сайты госорганов РК соответствуют закону «О доступе к информации» на 74%" [Sites of state bodies of the RK are in line with the law 'On access to information' to the tune of 74%"],, 3 May 2016,

55 "Kazakhstan's New Encryption Law Could Be a Preview of U.S. Policy", The Atlantic, 8 December 2015,

56 Saltanat Addrakhmanova, "Блогеров хотят взять под контроль" [They want to take bloggers under control], Kursiv, 13 October 2016,

57 "В Казахстане за пропаганду экстремизма и терроризма заблокировано 94 сайта" [94 sites blocked in Kazakhstan for propaganda of extremism and terrorism], Kazinform, 26 July 2016,

58 Freedom House, "Freedom on the Net 2015", Freedom House, 28 October 2015,

59 "Заблокирован сайт с петицией об отставке Масимова" [Site with petition on Masimov's resignation blocked] Asylkhan Mamashuly, Radio Azattyk, 17 August 2016,

60 "Kazakh Information Minister comments on social media glitch on December 16", Kazinform, 20 December 2016,

61 "21 мая было задержано 55 журналистов" [55 journalists arrested on 21 May], Adil Soz, 26 May 2016,

62 "Father and Son Jailed for Embezzlement in Kazakhstan Media Trial", Voice of America, 3 October 2016,

63 "Задержан Бигельды Габдуллин" [Bigeldy Gabdullin arrested], Tengri News, 15 November 2016,

64 "Kazakhstan court sentences journalist to jail over reports on bank", Committee to Protect Journalists, 23 May 2016,

65 Joanna Lillis, "Kazakhstan: Libel Trial Rekindles Fears of Media Muzzling", EurasiaNet, 1 July 2015,

66 Serikzhan Mauletbay, "Журналиста Гузяль Байдалинову, осуждённую "по делу Казкома", выпустили на свободу" [Journalist Guzyal Baydalinova, convicted in the 'Kazkom case', freed],, 12 July 2016,

67 "Бизнесмен, осужденный по «делу Казкома», найден повешенным в тюрьме" [Businessman convicted in the 'Kazkom case' found hanged in prison],, 6 July 2016,

68 "Ирина Петрушова объявила о закрытии проекта «Республика»" [Irina Petrushova announces closure of 'Respublika' project],, 15 September 2016,

69 Joanna Lillis, "Kazakhstan: Reporter Drug Case Acquittal Marks Rare Reprieve", EurasiaNet, 1 March 2016,

70 Joanna Lillis, "Kazakhstan: Libel Fine Deals Another Blow to Independent Media", EurasiaNet, 12 July 2016,

71 Briefing paper for EU-Kazakhstan Human Rights Dialogue, November 2016: Key concerns and recommendations on the protection of fundamental rights in Kazakhstan, International Partnership for Human Rights, 21 November 2016,

72 Joanna Lillis,"Kazakhstan: Mud-Slinging at Protesters Highlights Apparent Media Double Standards", EurasiaNet, 1 June 2016,

73 Zhanna Nakipova, "Модернизация системы местного самоуправления пройдет в 2 этапа - Б.Сагинтаев" [B. Sagintayev: Modernization of local self-governance systems will take place in 2 stages],, 20 June 2013,

74 Finance Ministry decree, "Приказ Министра финансов Республики Казахстан от 19 марта 2015 года № 195 Об утверждении Правил предоставления трансфертов органам местного самоуправления" [Finance Ministry decree of 19 March 2015 No. 195 On confirming the rules for providing transfers to local self-government bodies],,

75 "Презентация проекта Закона" [Presentation of draft law], Mazhilis of the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 7 September 2015,

76 "Назарбаев подписал поправки в законодательство по вопросам развития местного самоуправления" [Nazarbayev signed amendments to legislation on questions of the development of local self-governance], Ekspress K, 12 November 2015,

77 Vera Livintsova, "Президент РК одобрил курс села на местное самоуправление" [President of Kazakhstan approves plan for village's local self-governance], Kazinform, 29 September 2016,

78 "Президент РК одобрил курс села на местное самоуправление" [Nazarbayev signed law on public councils],, 9 November 2015,

79 "В Казахстане завершилось формирование общественных советов" [Formation of public councils completed in Kazakhstan], Khabar, 12 May 2016,

80 Serik Seydumanov, "Общественные советы как важнейшие диалоговые площадки государства и общества" [Public councils as most important dialogue platforms between state and society], Liter, 19 September 2016,

81 Serik Seydumanov, "Общественные советы как важнейшие диалоговые площадки государства и общества" [Public councils as most important dialogue platforms between state and society], Liter, 19 September 2016,

82 Sergey Romanov "В Казахстане органы местного самоуправления собрали налогов на 7 млрд тенге" [Local self-government bodies collect 7 billion tenge in taxes],, 6 October 2016,….

83 Vera Livintsova, "Президент РК одобрил курс села на местное самоуправление" [RK president approves village course of local self-government], Kazinform, 29 September 2016,

84 Lyudmila Malko "В ВКО раскрыли всю информацию по бюджету в режиме онлайн" [East Kazakhstan Region discloses all information on the budget in online regime], Kazinform, 15 July 2016,

85 President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, "Обращение Президента Республики Казахстан Н.Назарбаева по итогам выборов акимов городов районного значения, сельских округов, поселков и сел, не входящих в состав сельского округа" [Address of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev on the results of elections of akims of cities of regional value, rural districts, and towns and villages which are not part of the rural district], 8 August 2013,

86 United Nations Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Kazakhstan, 11 July 2016,

87 "Ruslan Kulekbayev sentenced to death penalty", Kazinform, 2 November 2016,

88 Roza Esenkulova, "31 казахстанец избежал смертной казни в связи с мораторием" [31 Kazakhstanis avoided death penalty in connection with moratorium], Tengri News, 3 November 2016,

89 "Ақтөбені айтқан Назарбаев "өлім жазасын" да сөз етті" [Speaking of Aktobe, Nazarbayev also talked of death penalty], Azattyk Radiosy, 8 June 2016,

90 United Nations Human Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Kazakhstan, 11 July 2016,

91 "Новый закон о пробации выйдет в Казахстане" [New law on probation will be introduced in Kazakhstan], Kazinform, 4 October 2016,….

92 "Новый Кодекс судейской этики приняли в Казахстане" [New judges' ethics code adopted in Kazakhstan], Kazinform, 21 November 2016,

93 Maria Gordeyeva, Raushan Nurshayeva and Dmitry Solovyov, "Kazakh court orders release on parole of opposition activist Kozlov", Reuters, 4 August 2016,

94 "No justice for torture victims in Kazakhstan", Amnesty International, 3 March 2016,

95 "В Казахстане бывший охранник тюрьмы получил 9 лет за изнасилование заключенной" [Former prison guard received 9 years for raping a prisoner], Nastoyashchee Vremya, 1 October 2016,

96 "Министр отстранил от должностей всё руководство КУИС" [Minister dismissed all management of Penal Enforcement System Committee], KTK, 4 November 2016,

97 "За восемь лет в Казахстане к уголовной ответственности привлечены 23 сотрудника УИС за пытки" [In eight years 23 officers from the penal enforcement system] were brought to book for torture], Kazinform, 15 July 2016,

98 Nadezhda Kovalskaya, "Полицейские, избившие кормящую мать, лишились свободы и погон" [Police officers who beat nursing mother deprived of freedom and rank], Nasha Gazeta, 16 November 2016,

99 "Жители села в Павлодарской области пожаловались на действия полиции" [Inhabitants of a village in Pavlodar Region complained over police actions], Khabar 24, 15 September 2016,

100 "President Nazarbayev unveils 100 concrete steps to implement five institutional reforms", Kazinform, 2 June 2015,

101 "О создании некоммерческого акционерного общества «Государственная корпорация «Правительство для граждан»" [On the creation of the non-commercial stock company the 'Government for Citizens' State Corporation], Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 29 January 2016,

102 Paulo Sorbello, "Nazarbayev: 'There are no untouchables in Kazakhstan'", The Diplomat, 6 July 2015,

103 "Задержаны руководители АО "Байтерек DEVELOPMENT"" [Bayterek DEVELOPMENT managers detained], Tengri News, 17 November 2016,

104 "Kazakhstan: Panama Papers Expose Nazarbayev Grandson", EurasiaNet, 4 April 2016,

105 "Аблязова могут экстрадировать в Казахстан" [Ablyazov may be extradited to Kazakhstan],, 7 November 2016,

106 "French court cancels Kazakh tycoon Ablyazov's extradition to Russia", Reuters, 9 December 2016,

107 Jim Armitage, "Mukhtar Ablyazov: Kazakh billionaire to be extradited to Russia from France", The Independent, 12 October 2015,

108 Jean-Marie Fardeau, "France/Kazakhstan: Letter to French Prime Minister Manuel Valls on Case of Mukhtar Ablyazov", Human Rights Watch, 21 May 2015,

109 Tom Burgis, "Dirty money: Trump and the Kazakh connection", Financial Times, 19 October 2016,

110 Joanna Lillis, "Kazakhstan: Is US Lawsuit Against Ex-Mayor Selective Justice?", EurasiaNet,15 May 2014,

111 "Astana EXPO-2017 ex-Chairman Yermegiyayev sentenced to 14-year imprisonment", Kazinform, 9 June 2016,

112 Gerard Davet and Fabrice Lhomme, "Vente d'hélicoptères au Kazakhstan: une enquête vise l'entourage de Sarkozy" [Helicopter sale to Kazakhstan: a query in Sarkozy's entourage], Le, 7 October 2014,

113 Yann Philippin, "Les 12 millions d'euros d'Airbus pour le premier ministre kazakh" [The 12 million euros of Airbus for the Kazakh prime minister], Mediapart, 31 May 2016,

114 Caroline Binham and Tom Burgis, "UK awards extra funds for SFO probe into ENRC's mining deals", Financial Times, 4 July 2016,

115 Serious Fraud Office, "ENRC Ltd", news release, 25 April 2013,

116 "Eurasian Resources Group seeks to draw a line under scandals", Financial Times, 1 November 2015,

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