Regime Classification: Consolidated Democracy

Nations in Transit Score (1 = Most Democratic, 7 = Least Democratic)

Score Evolution:

NIT Country Rank: 6/29

Quick Facts

Population:38 million
GNI/capita, PPP:$25,930
Freedom in the World Status:Free
Press Freedom Status:Free
Net Freedom Status:n/a

National Democratic Governance3.25
Electoral Process1.50
Civil Society1.75
Independent Media3.00
Local Democratic Governance1.75
Judicial Framework and Independence3.25
Democracy Score2.57

National Democratic Governance3.503.253.252.752.502.502.502.502.753.25
Electoral Process2.002.001.751.501.
Civil Society1.251.501.501.501.501.501.501.501.501.75
Independent Media2.
Local Democratic Governance2.252.001.751.751.751.751.501.501.501.75
Judicial Framework and Independence2.502.252.502.502.502.502.502.502.753.25
Democracy Score2.392.252.322.

NOTE: The ratings reflect the consensus of Freedom House, its academic advisers, and the author(s) of this report. If consensus cannot be reached, Freedom House is responsible for the final ratings. The ratings are based on a scale of 1 to 7, with 1 representing the highest level of democratic progress and 7 the lowest. The Democracy Score is an average of ratings for the categories tracked in a given year. The opinions expressed in this report are those of the author(s).

Score Changes:

  • National Democratic Governance rating declined from 2.75 to 3.25 due to Poland's descent into total political polarization and lack of consensual decision-making, as well as passing laws without adequate consultation with civil society or the parliament and informal control over political processes.

  • Civil Society rating declined from 1.50 to 1.75 due to smear campaigns against nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the public media and the worrying trend of far-right groups gaining tacit or, in some cases, explicit support from the government.

  • Independent Media rating declined from 2.75 to 3.00 due to the transformation of public media into a government propaganda machine, with further concerns about manipulation of the advertising market influencing private media.

  • Local Democratic Governance rating declined from 1.50 to 1.75 due to increasing centralization of school oversight and the paralysis of the Joint Central and Local Government Commission.

  • Judicial Framework and Independence rating declined from 2.75 to 3.25 due to the far-reaching reform of the Constitutional Tribunal that curbed its ability to function as an effective oversight body, thereby threatening rule of law in Poland.

As a result, Poland's Democracy Score declined from 2.32 to 2.57.

By Piotr Arak, Andrzej Bobiński

Executive Summary:

The year 2016 saw the conservative, populist Law and Justice (PiS) party increasingly dominate Poland's democratic institutions, most importantly its main constitutional arbiter, the Constitutional Tribunal. PiS, which had won a clear majority in both parliamentary and presidential elections in 2015 (a first for any Polish party since 1989), was free to rule without forming a coalition. While President Andrzej Duda – formally independent but a loyal former member of PiS – shared power with Prime Minister Beata Szydło on paper, the real power was in the hands of PiS leader Jarosław Kaczyński, who asserted and strengthened his unchallenged control over Poland throughout 2016.

The year was dominated by a tug-of-war over the Constitutional Tribunal (CT).[1] The government passed seven amendments on the functioning of the tribunal, including changes to its composition and procedures. While the CT ruled the amendments unconstitutional, the government refused to publish the rulings, thereby preventing them from coming into effect. The CT president, Andrzej Rzepliński, ended his term at the close of the year, and a PiS-affiliated judge, Julia Przyłębska, was appointed in his place despite procedural irregularities surrounding her appointment. During the year, the increasing dominance of PiS over the CT triggered protests and the start of disciplinary proceedings against the government by the European Union (EU).

Demonstrations and marches abounded. In the second half of 2016, as the CT controversy lost traction, a bill in the Sejm advanced by the "Stop Abortion" civic committee aimed to further tighten Poland's already strict abortion regulations. The bill sparked a wave of protests among a new political demographic: younger people and women. Earlier, several other protests were organized by the grassroots civic movement called the Committee for the Defense of Democracy (KOD). KOD became an official registered association in March but failed to extend its base during the year and was threatened with marginalization at year's end.

The opposition failed to capitalize on the growing street protests in part due to infighting between center-right Civic Platform (PO) and liberal newcomer Nowoczesna (Modern).[2] Opposition parties also frequently found themselves the target of strong rhetoric from the public media, increasingly dominated by PiS. Following a series of reforms aimed at strengthening its influence over the public media through the appointment of loyal acolytes, the government has effectively transformed the public broadcaster into a mouthpiece of the ruling party,[3] with both major news outlets praising the government and denigrating the opposition. The new, PiS-affiliated leader of the public television (TVP), Jacek Kurski, fired most on-air staff and was then subject to strong criticisms from his political allies, who believed the changes were too subtle.

The ruling party's popularity was sustained by a wide platform of social spending. The "Family500+" program – a monthly allowance of PLN 500 ($125) per children after the second – proved very popular among its beneficiaries. Additionally, a growth strategy drafted by Deputy Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki, along with hikes in minimum wages, changes to the labor law, and a tax wedge reform helped the government stay popular and shielded the ruling party from opposition attacks. Morawiecki, a former banker and head of the Spanish Santander Group's BZ WBK, was named as a possible successor to Szydło, whose political position seemed uncertain at year's end.[4]

Six years after the airplane crash in Smolensk, PiS was still looking to keep the tragedy in the spotlight during 2016. In February, the Minister of Justice appointed a team of nine prosecutors and the Minister of Defense to set up an extraordinary subcommittee to reassess the causes of the crash. The Prosecutor's Office also decided on the exhumation of 83 victims.[5] These measures were used to reignite emotions around the tragedy, accusing the opposition PO, in power at the time, of being responsible for the events.

The year ended with a highly charged political clash between the ruling PiS and the opposition and tensions outside the parliament. On 16 December, the opposition parties accused PiS of violating the constitution after the Sejm speaker, Marek Kuchciński, moved a key vote on next year's budget to a location outside the main chamber of the parliament. Media were blocked from recording the vote, fueling speculations that the budget was not legally passed. Following the vote, the opposition organized a sit-in at the main chamber of the Sejm while protesters rallied outside.

Outlook for 2017:

PiS will try to strengthen the central government's powers over local authorities ahead of the upcoming local elections in 2018. The opposition will likely position itself as the defender of local government – but to do that successfully, it will first have to sort out its own problems and not disappear in the process. Strong political polarization is expected to further intensify in 2017.

The planned education reform will likely be the main source of political conflict during the year. The budget deficit is expected to grow, with the widely awaited effects of the "Morawiecki plan" failing to materialize. This will cause more squabbling in the government and even more pressure on Morawiecki, who will have to manage a balancing act between expenditures and income. This could possibly result in a cabinet reshuffle, which may find Jarosław Kaczyński in the prime minister's seat.

Some commentators fear that the ruling party could use public hostility toward migrants to create a climate of fear and adopt more hardline policies. This scenario could easily be hastened by various potential crises, such as an escalation of hostilities in neighboring Ukraine or other forms of Russian aggression. The EU's crises and the repercussions of Brexit, which, among other things, could result in restrictions on freedom of movement and limit Polish emigration, could make the EU a target of criticism for the ruling party.

National Democratic Governance:


  • National democratic governance deteriorated in 2016 as Poland continued to be steered by an informal head of state. Jarosław Kaczyński, chairman of the ruling Law and Justice (PiS) party, has no constitutional accountability yet exercises power virtually unchecked through his influence over the executive and legislative branches of government.[6] Although not holding a formal government position, Kaczyński met with a number of foreign leaders in 2016, including the UK's then-prime minister, David Cameron,[7] and Hungary's prime minister, Viktor Orbán.[8] Kaczyński's role as the "power behind the throne" is reflected in opinion polls: 65 percent of Poles consider Kaczyński as Poland's effective ruler; the Polish prime minister, Beata Szydło, and president, Andrzej Duda, were considered to occupy this role by only 18 and 14 percent, respectively, of those surveyed.[9]

  • Almost half of new legislation introduced in 2016 was adopted without public consultation. Government bills are ordinarily subject to obligatory public consultation; PiS bypassed this requirement by preparing legislation in caucus and then introducing the proposed laws via independent members of parliament (MPs). Since PiS assumed office in November 2015, Poland's parliament – the Sejm – approved 157 new laws; 78 of these were introduced by PiS. Of those 78 bills, 72 (over 90 percent) were prepared by the PiS caucus and introduced by individual MPs without consulting nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) or special interest groups. This marked a significant break from previous practice: in the two preceding parliamentary terms, only 26 and 13 percent of bills, respectively, were introduced without prior public consultation.[10]

  • One of the last parliamentary sessions for the year, held on 16 December, was marred by allegations of procedural abuse and illegality. The speaker of the Sejm, Marek Kuchciński, excluded opposition Civic Platform (PO) MP Michał Szczerba from a session deliberating the 2017 national budget.[11] This sparked protests from the opposition, who considered Szczerba's removal to be illegal, and opposition MPs blocked the podium. In response, Kuchciński proceeded to move the session to a different room, where PiS MPs approved the budget. While PiS maintained that the budget vote was held in accordance with Sejm rules, the result had to be determined through the Sejm's electronic monitoring system and photographs posted on social media. Opposition parties refused to recognize the legality of the vote, and from 16 December until the end of the year, PO and Nowoczesna MPs held a sit-in protest at the debating chamber while supporters of KOD rallied in front of the parliament.[12] The 16 December parliamentary session was the first time since 1989 that a sitting of Poland's lower house of parliament was conducted outside the main chamber.[13]

  • The ruling PiS employed harsh rhetoric against "the elites." In a July party convention speech, Jarosław Kaczyński laid out plans for societal transformation, including his government's goals and processes enacted thus far. He advocated for the transition of power from elites caught up in their own self-interest to those who want to benefit Poland.[14] Kaczyński also called for the destruction of the "archipelago of small kingdoms or principalities, small dictatorships in municipalities, workplaces, and universities, where people are afraid to express their views."[15] Concrete actions during the year included staff changes in state-owned enterprises, progovernment journalists in the public media, a purge of the civil service, a shakeup of the Constitutional Tribunal, and discussion of electoral law reforms limiting the reelection of city presidents.[16]

  • In February, the government started an investigation into the 2010 airplane crash in Smolensk that resulted in the death of 96 people, including Jarosław Kaczyński's twin brother and Poland's then-president, Lech Kaczyński. As part of the investigation, the Prosecutor's Office also decided on the exhumation of 83 victims.[17] During the year, government officials fueled allegations that the Russians were behind the crash and the former government led by Donald Tusk was complicit in the tragedy.[18]

  • Following terrorist attacks in Brussels in March 2016, PiS introduced antiterrorism legislation expanding the powers of the Internal Security Agency (ABW). The new laws allow the ABW to surveil Polish citizens and foreigners residing in Poland, including the wiretapping of foreign citizens' devices for up to three months without prior court approval. The security organ's head is empowered under the new legislation to deport foreigners suspected of posing a terrorist threat, and the deported may only appeal the decision once they have been removed from Polish territory. The sweeping new legislation also permits suspects to be held without charges for up to 14 days. The ABW's Anti-Terrorism Center – a unit within the agency responsible for the prevention of terrorist attacks – was given access to "all relevant" state databases under the new legislation, where previously it could only access some. The perceived threat of terrorist activity also precipitated the announcement of "specific alarm levels"; once an alert is declared, public events and gatherings may be suspended.[19]

  • The government introduced or announced many structural reforms designed to implement its plan for societal transformation and benefit its primary voter base. Concerned with Poland's declining fertility rate, the government rolled out the "Family500+" program in April. This scheme distributed payments of PLN 500 ($125) per child to parents with two or more children, provided that the monthly income per household member was below PLN 800 ($200). The overall cost of the "Family500+" program equated to 1.3 percent of Poland's GDP.[20] The government also introduced the hourly minimum wage starting in 2017,[21] introduced a higher tax-free bracket for low-income earners,[22] and in November passed reforms lowering the pension age for men to 65 and for women to 60.[23] Additionally, the government promised to introduce universal healthcare in 2018 and make deep changes to the system's financing.[24]

  • There were more than a million Ukrainians working in Poland in 2016. During the year, 1.3 million temporary work permits were granted to Ukrainians, a significant increase from the 750,000 issued in 2015.[25] At the same time, political tensions between Poland and Ukraine emerged following a declaration by the Sejm proclaiming that the Volhynian massacres during World War II amounted to a Ukrainian genocide against Poles. In both Poland and Ukraine, this declaration fed nationalist sentiments.[26]

Electoral Process:


  • With an eye toward major reforms in electoral law, PiS commissioned research in 2016 on possible changes to the electoral system.[27] Presently, Poland has a multiparty parliamentary system: its parliament and president are chosen through popular elections. In one proposed model, Poland would adopt a German-style proportional mixed system. Under this proposal, PiS envisages that the Sejm's 460 seats would be equally divided between single-member districts and 16 constituencies overlapping with voivodeship boundaries.[28] The proposed reform does not allow for independent candidates to run in the single-member districts, while the order of candidates on party lists would be decided by party leaders, thus strengthening their positions. The opposition widely criticized the proposed reforms, viewing them as a possible instance of wide-reaching gerrymandering designed to strengthen the ruling party.

  • Talk of further PiS plans to change the electoral processes – including proposed term limits for local government officeholders – caused additional stir in 2016.[29] The opposition accused PiS of trying to create a new governing system in certain local governments, and changing the borders and structures of self-government in Warsaw.[30] In 2014, PiS itself took aim at local electoral processes, claiming that 18 percent of the votes cast in the local elections were invalid,[31] an allegation that caused protests at the time. The NGO Batory Foundation has advised that voting irregularities in the 2014 local elections resulted from the layout of the ballots, and recommended that a supervisory body design ballots for the next election cycle in 2018. It further advocated for the introduction of nonpartisan election observers and separate counting of blank and void votes (in 2014, both types were categorized as invalid).[32]

  • There was only one major by-election in 2016.[33] Senator Bohdan Paszkowski was appointed voivode of Podlasie, and elections were conducted in March for his senate seat. Anna Maria Anders – a PiS candidate and daughter of Polish World War II hero Władysław Anders – took the seat with 47 percent of the vote. Her opponent, Mieczysław Bagiński of PSL, who was backed by PO and Nowoczesna, claimed 41 percent. Anders also serves as the plenipotentiary for international dialogue in the prime minister's office.

  • In September, the Supreme Court upheld the decision of the National Electoral Commission (PKW) that the opposition Nowoczesna party committed procedural errors in its campaign finances.[34] It was found that Nowoczesna had unlawfully transferred money from the party's account directly to the PKW; under the Electoral Code, money must first be transferred through each party's electoral committee. Accordingly, the party will have to return 75 percent of the funds it annually receives from the state, which are crucial to financing its day-to-day activities. The party is anticipating a loss of up to PLN 6.2 million ($1.48 million) yearly. The leftist Razem party, which won just over 3 percent of the vote, will receive a one-time payment of PLN 3 million ($72,000) for also failing to keep its books accurate. Other parties who follow correct procedure receive funding annually.[35]

Civil Society:


  • Legal protections for the right of free assembly were eroded in 2016. In November, the government adopted a new law on "cyclical demonstrations" restricting assembly rights and essentially banning counter-demonstrations.[36] According to the law, once a so-called cyclical manifestation – an event held several times a year in a given place – is registered, no other demonstrations or spontaneous gatherings may be organized within 100 meters of the reserved venue.[37] The provisions also proposed that cyclical assemblies organized by the state would take priority over those planned by other organizations, including civil society groups.[38] PiS faced opposition regarding this proposal from watchdog groups, the Supreme Court, the Council of Europe, and OSCE, and some of the less important articles were dropped from the final bill.[39] After its adoption, President Duda referred the law to the Constitutional Tribunal for an assessment of its constitutionality, making this the first bill adopted by the PiS-run Sejm that he did not sign.[40]

  • Throughout the year there were several demonstrations, and in the fall, large-scale protests stopped a restrictive abortion bill from becoming law. On 22 September, the Sejm supported a proposal further limiting the already restrictive Polish legislation and seeking to ban abortion in almost all circumstances. The proposal, originally prepared by the "Stop Abortion" committee, sparked protests around the country. The "Save The Women" civic committee organized demonstrations in front of the Sejm on 1 October, and two days later, about 30,000 women protested in Warsaw with 100,000 more across the country in the so-called Black Protest. On 6 October, with only 32 PiS deputies supporting it, the Sejm rejected the proposal, signaling the first time the government had listened to civil society concerns.[41] In the same month, PiS introduced a bill giving financial help to women who elect not to terminate a pregnancy where the fetus is known to have birth defects.[42]

  • Other forms of organized opposition failed to gain much support during 2016. While in March the National Court Register approved the request of the Committee for the Defense of Democracy (KOD) – a grassroots movement arising after the 2015 constitutional crisis – to form an association, the organization barely had a thousand members at year's end.[43] KOD expanded its activities to include organizing debates and discussions and launched, a new information service, in June. Although the organization successfully raised PLN 1,000,000 ($250,000) in public donations, its activities were hampered by internal disagreements, and elections to regional deputy positions, scheduled for autumn 2016, were postponed by the group's central leadership.[44] Attendance at KOD-organized demonstrations against PiS also declined, threatening the organization with marginalization.

  • Progovernment journalists and the public media launched a smear campaign aimed at NGOs and civil society activists. In August, the public broadcaster's news program, TVP-1, started publishing allegations about the relationship between NGOs and Poland's opposition party, PO, implicating a number of prominent activists and public figures, including daughters of the Constitutional Tribunal's president and the former Polish president, Bronisław Komorowski.[45] During the next months, the broadcaster presented materials supposedly highlighting the links between various organizations and family members of PO politicians, and alleged that a large proportion of NGO budgets were allotted to board members' salaries.[46] Those accused and prominent civil society members protested the claims.[47] Moreover, Piotr Gliński – the deputy prime minister and minister of culture – accused the station of spreading propaganda during a live interview on TVP Info.[48] Other PiS politicians were quick to distance themselves from Gliński's comments, noting that his views were influenced by his wife, a board member for one of the NGOs mentioned by the public broadcaster.[49]

  • Far-right ideas gained more prominence during the year, and Poland's new political leadership, at times, appeared to offer tacit endorsement to Polish nationalists.[50] In 2015, five members of the far-right Nationalist Movement (RN) were elected to the Sejm on the Kukiz'15 ticket. Since the election, Kukiz'15 has focused its efforts toward petitioning for a referendum to stop entry of Muslim refugees and immigration. During the year, the National Radical Camp (ONR) – named for a radical anti-Semitic group banned in Poland in the 1930s and one of the most active far-right Polish groups – held a series of fascist-style marches protesting Muslim immigration and the EU.[51] At one such event in Białystok in April, which began with a mass celebrating the anniversary of the formation of the original ONR, the priest told the flag-wielding, black-shirted crowd that Poland was infected by a "cancer" that could only be cured by "uncompromising national-Catholic radicalism."[52] In August, during a funeral, scuffles broke out between ONR and KOD activists, including KOD leader Mateusz Kijowski.[53] High-ranking government politicians also present failed to condemn ONR's actions. Earlier, the minister of defense suggested that ONR activists could be included in the formation of new "territorial defense" militias, and the organization's "Falange" symbol was dropped from police training manuals on xenophobia.[54] In September, four PO deputies requested that the prosecutor general submit a motion to dissolve ONR (which is a legally functioning association) as it promotes fascist and anti-Semitic ideology prohibited under the Polish constitution.[55]

Independent Media:


  • Legislation passed at the close of 2015 foreshadowed the transformation of the public media into a government mouthpiece. On 30 December, PiS adopted an amendment to the media law allowing the ruling party to terminate the contracts of the heads of public television and radio.[56] This was followed in June 2016 by the creation of the National Media Council (RNM), a new state organ usurping the prerogatives of the constitutionally mandated National Broadcasting Council (KRRiT). The RNM consists of five members: three, including its head Krzysztof Czabański, are PiS nominees; the remaining two were nominated by Kukiz'15 and the opposition PO party. The five-person body is tasked with choosing the management of public radio and television. The RNM is also responsible for coordinating the work of all public media outlets.[57] On 12 December, the Constitutional Tribunal ruled that the transfer of powers from KRRiT to the RNM was unconstitutional, but the government disregarded the judgment.[58] The RNM is reportedly working on a reform of the financial model of public broadcasters, although the details were unknown at year's end.

  • In January, Jacek Kurski, a former PiS politician, became head of public broadcaster TVP. His leadership was characterized by divergent views with RNM chief Krzysztof Czabański as to how deeply the public media should be reformed. Czabański advocated for far-reaching reforms, arguing that practically everyone working under the previous government should be fired. Although Kurski terminated a number of on-air staff contracts, he stopped short of removing all prior employees and retained technical staff.[59] These divergent views led to the RNM terminating Kurski's contract in August.[60] However, Kurski subsequently escalated the situation to Jarosław Kaczyński, who allegedly strong-armed the council into revoking its decision.[61] The latter reinstated Kurski as a temporary CEO of TVP, a position that became permanent in October.

  • The decline of the public media's editorial independence is observed in the increasing favoritism afforded to PiS. KRRiT found that in the first quarter of 2016, PiS was provided 52 percent of airtime devoted to political parties, whereas the main opposition parties – PO and Nowoczesna – were allotted 23 and 8 percent, respectively.[62] The gap widened in the second quarter: PiS was afforded 59 percent of airtime, whereas PO fell to 16 percent. Under the previous PO-led government, the airtime difference between the opposition and ruling parties was 40 hours; in 2016 this discrepancy was more than 100 hours. KRRiT received many complaints in 2016, and its former head, Jan Dworak, called on TVP to cease violating official rules pertaining to unbalanced reporting.[63]

  • By May, according to the opposition and some media reports, over 130 journalists working for the public radio and television broadcasters[64] had been fired or left of their own accord. Those fired were most often terminated for work performed under the previous management, whereas those who left voluntarily usually attributed their move to the public broadcasters' becoming too politicized and serving a propagandistic cause. In perhaps the most exemplary termination, a Polish Radio Three journalist was fired despite being the leader of the trade union at the company and, in theory, protected by labor law.[65]

  • Funding for magazines that are ideologically sympathetic to a given government is frequently cited as a problem affecting editorial independence, and 2016 was no exception.[66] Every year, the Ministry of Culture grants approximately PLN 3.5 million ($1 million) to nonprofit organizations that publish cultural and political magazines. Following Culture Minister Piotr Gliński's declaration in March that he would "divide the pie differently this year," funding was predominantly allocated for right-wing magazines.[67] Gliński further stated that he wanted to finance publications building national identity; in this vein, the conservative Kronos magazine was allocated the largest share of funding in 2016 – PLN 135,000 ($33,000), up from PLN 70,000 ($17,000) the previous year. Contrary to previous years, no funding went to the leading liberal magazines Liberte!, Przegląd Polityczny (Political Review), Respublica Nova, or the leftist Krytyka Polityczna (Political Critique). Conservative magazines also benefited from government advertising, much of it coming from state-owned enterprises. In the first half of 2016, Gazeta Polska earned PLN 4.1 million (287 percent increase over the first six months of 2015), while W Sieci earned PLN 18 million (33 percent increase).[68] During the same time, the centrist, pro-opposition media outlet Gazeta Wyborcza saw revenues decline by 2 percent over the previous year with a 21.5 percent decrease in advertising.[69]

Local Democratic Governance:


  • In 2016, the government began to strip local authorities of certain powers and funding, leading to accusations that the ruling party was not consulting with local authorities about the scope of its reform plans, thereby paralyzing the Joint Central and Local Government Commission.[70] In late December 2015, the Ministry of Education had overhauled guidelines on the functioning of regional school superintendents, who are now directly nominated by the government.[71] Moreover, the Ministry announced the creation of eight-grade common schools to replace primary and junior-high schools. According to trade unions, the new education system would see half of the heads of primary schools replaced under the direction of PiS-appointed superintendents. In March, the Ministry of Environment made changes to the Water Law, according to which a new central institution, Polish Waters, will manage the inland waterway economy beginning in 2017. The revenues from water use will go to the central, rather than the local, budget.[72] Also in March, the Ministry of Interior amended the law on regional tax chambers that audit municipality finances in order to increase its power over local governments.[73]

  • The first restitution law of land nationalized under the Communist regime came into force in 2016.[74] The so-called Small Law on Restitution was signed in 2015 but remained pending in front of the Constitutional Tribunal until July 2016. The law requires a notarized deed when selling restitution claims to property in Warsaw and grants the city preemption rights. It also allows for the transfer of property in the case of public institutions, such as schools and hospitals. In recent years, compensation payouts for previously nationalized land rose steeply, amounting to several hundred million PLN a year. The new law could limit the number of proceedings for restitution against the city of Warsaw.

  • The restitution process has been marred by corruption for the last 20 years. In August, Gazeta Wyborcza published allegations of corruption against municipal officials responsible for overseeing the process.[75] The following month, Warsaw's PO mayor, Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz, dismissed two deputy mayors, dissolved the Office for Property Management, and suspended the return of property. The issue of restitutions had fallen victim to political conflict between the PiS government and the PO-led city hall. During the year, Minister of Justice and Prosecutor General Zbigniew Ziobro launched several probes, including into property owned by the mayor's husband.[76]

  • According to a survey from March 2016, most Poles have a positive opinion of local government performance. Seventy-two percent of respondents assessed the work of local offices positively – the highest level of support for local governance in Poland since 1997.[77] In a poll from 2015, less than half of all respondents said they have influence on matters in their city or neighborhood; when asked about their control over matters on the national level, only 24 percent felt that they were influential.[78]

Judicial Framework and Independence:


  • Controversies surrounding the Constitutional Tribunal (CT), which began in October 2015 with the appointment of five judges by PO, escalated in 2016 and showed that PiS intended to take over the court as soon as possible.[79] During the year, PiS changed the law on the CT seven times, out of which only one change (concerning the transparency of judge's incomes) was found constitutional. Among other changes, the CT ruled in March that amendments passed at the end of 2015, essentially marginalizing the institution, are unconstitutional. The reforms would have mandated a two-thirds majority for CT cases and required that 13 judges must be present for controversial cases.[80] The government, however, refused to publish the decision – a binding condition of legal validity – arguing it did not conform to the amendments that it declared unconstitutional.[81] In August, the Supreme Administrative Court issued a ruling, also applying the unpublished judgment of the CT.[82] While the government decided a few days later to publish 21 CT decisions, it still did not publish the CT's ruling on the changes to the tribunal's composition.[83] The conflicting legal judgments and executive acts resulted in a high level of legal uncertainty.

  • CT president Andrzej Rzepliński's term ended in December 2016. The ordinary mechanism for replacing the court president involves the selection of 3 candidates by CT judges, from which the Polish president appoints his or her choice. However, at the close of Rzepliński's term, only 9 judges from the total of 15 participated in the selection of presidential candidates; 3 PiS-elected judges were on sick leave.[84] Since the relevant legislation required a quorum of 10 judges, the government and President Duda dismissed the candidates and chose Julia Przyłębska, a PiS-nominee judge, for the position.[85] Only 6 CT judges attended Przyłębska's confirmation on 20 December; those appointed to the court by the Sejm in previous terms refused to attend. While her confirmation was ostensibly held under the provisions of a law that did not establish a quorum requirement, Przyłębska's colleagues asserted that she should be legally appointed to the CT, a process requiring a quorum. At year's end, the CT was waiting for a decision by the Supreme Court on the issue.[86]

  • In January, the constitutional crisis led to Poland becoming the first EU member state to be scrutinized by the European Commission (EC) with regard to upholding rule of law. The deteriorating situation in Poland obligated the EC to activate the so-called rule of law mechanism, a process of dialogue with offending member states, potentially resulting in sanctions under Article 7 of the Treaty of Lisbon.[87] In July, following an opinion from the Venice Commission that the steps violated international norms, the EC handed down five recommendations aimed at settling the crisis. These included executing the CT's ruling from December 2015 and reinstating the three judges appointed by the previous Sejm; publishing the CT's March decision that struck down PiS's judicial reforms; and restraining from further undermining the legitimacy and effectiveness of the tribunal.[88] The EC advised the Polish government that it had three months to implement the ruling or risk sanctions, including suspension of the country's voting rights in the EU, but the deadline was extended by another three months in October. However, given a deal between Poland and Hungary, sanctions are an improbable option as they need unanimity.[89] By year's end, the Polish government, growing tired of the Venice Commission proceedings, stopped any dialogue with its representatives.[90]

  • Minister of Justice and Prosecutor General Zbigniew Ziobro spearheaded a new draft law allowing for the extended confiscation of assets allegedly obtained through organized crime or VAT fraud. The proposed reform strengthens the powers of Prosecutor General Ziobro and the special services headed by Mariusz Kamiński, and grants various law enforcement organs – including the police, the Central Anti-Corruption Bureau (CBA), fiscal control, border guards, and military police – permission to record the contents of telephone conversations. Under the draft law, courts would be empowered to seize all proceeds from criminal activity, including real estate,[91] while placing the onus on the defendant to establish that his or her assets were acquired through legal means. In cases of organized crime, a presumption of felonious acquisition will extend retroactively to five years before the alleged crime. Seized assets would become state property even if they are in the hands of a third party unless the interested parties proved the legality of the holdings' origins. The bill's focus on VAT fraud has triggered fears in the business community (where such fraud is common) that the government will use this power to confiscate assets even in cases where fraud was committed by independent contractors.[92] Furthermore, the new law will possibly result in multiple probes, investigations, and arrests, and may bring public awareness to the scale of corruption by shining light on a number of cases.

  • Anxious about the government reforms, the National Judiciary Council (KRS) and various associations organized an extraordinary convention of the Polish judiciary in September. Earlier, that month, President Duda refused to appoint 10 judges to the KRS, overstepping his constitutional prerogatives.[93] Approximately one tenth of Poland's judges convened to debate the courts' independence as well as upcoming drafts to the Law on Common Courts.[94] Under the proposed amendments, one layer of the judicial hierarchy of courts – possibly the regional courts – might be removed, creating a new, two-tier judicial system in place of the present three-tier system. At the same time, more judges were retiring in 2016. Between January and May, 122 judges filed for retirement; only 140 judges retired in the whole of 2015.[95] This increase is partly the result of updated regulations allowing early retirement by the end of 2017 but also due to ministry announcements of lowering the maximum age of service and a potential vetting process.[96]



  • In May, Prime Minister Beata Szydło and her ministers released a lengthy audit of the eight years of PO-PSL rule, accusing the previous government of offenses ranging from mismanagement to outright corruption.[97] Following the prime minister's report, police arrested the former head of the National Center for Research and Development (a subsidiary of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education) and charged him with bribery.[98] However, despite the PiS dossier, there have been few investigations or arrests, particularly concerning the biggest political figures implicated in the report. The former Deputy Minister of the Treasury, Jan Bury (PSL), implicated in the so-called Podkarpacie case and accused of bribery and influence peddling, was waiting for his trial to start; [99] while the head of the National Audit Office, a friend of Bury accused of similar crimes, had yet to have his immunity revoked at the end of 2016.[100]

  • In September, Prime Minister Szydło dismissed Minister of the Treasury Dawid Jackiewicz.[101] The ministry is to be dissolved in 2017,[102] and while the prime minister congratulated Jackiewicz on a job well done, most commentators and analysts agreed that the actual reason for his dismissal was nepotism and corruption in state-owned enterprises (SOEs) under his control.[103] Jackiewicz and his team had replaced almost all management and supervisory boards with acolytes. On the eve of Jackiewicz's dismissal, Jarosław Kaczyński and his second in command, Joachim Brudziński, both criticized the way the companies were run, and shortly after the minister's dismissal, the CBA launched probes into 66 SOEs.[104]

  • [105] The opposition vocally criticized the government for corruption and nepotism in SOEs. In a successful campaign, the opposition – with the help of the media – published the names and affiliations of PiS members and their cohort of SOE hires.[106] The opposition was able to compile 202 names, partly by using the hashtag #Misiewicz, as well as through Nowoczesna's website, where the public could report new and allegedly unqualified appointments to SOEs.[107] The hashtag derives from Bartłomiej Misiewicz, a spokesperson and advisor to the Minister of Defense, who was appointed to the supervisory board of the Polish Armaments Group (PGZ) despite a statutory requirement that board members must hold university degrees. Misiewicz, who did not attend university, had previously worked in a pharmacy before securing employment with a PiS politician and was later appointed to the PGZ as the "direct representative" of the Minister of Defense.


Piotr Arak is chief researcher at the Polityka Insight Center for Policy Analysis in Warsaw. He is a PhD candidate in public policy at the University of Warsaw and a graduate of social policy and statistical methods.

Andrzej Bobiński is deputy director at the Polityka Insight Center for Policy Analysis in Warsaw. Previously he headed the external relations team at Orange Polska and was a program coordinator at Warsaw's Center for International Relations. He graduated from applied linguistics at the University of Warsaw.

The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of their employer.


1 "Bartłomiej Misiewicz nie jest już członkiem rady nadzorczej PGZ", [Bartłomiej Misiewicz is no longer a member of the PGZ supervisory board], Newsweek, 21 September 2016,…

1 For more information about the nature of the conflict please read the Nations in Transit 2016 report:

2 K. Dziubka "Wojna Platformy z Nowoczesną. Będzie ostro!" [PO's war with Nowoczesna. Heat's up!] 24 July 2016,….

3 C. Łazarewicz „Kulisy zmian w TVP", [A behind the scenes account of the changes in TVP], 31 March 2016,,1329,title,Kulisy-zmian-w-TVP-Info,wid,1823….

4 J. Gądek, "Morawiecki zastąpi Szydło?", [Morawiecki to replace Szydło], 21 April 2016,,1342,title,Morawiecki-zastapi-Szydlo-Stanis…

5 On April 10, 2016 Kaczyński attributed the "moral responsibility" for the tragedy to the government of Donald Tusk. According to PiS leader, "the real investigation has begun, and Poles were often wrong when they were forgiving too easily". In 2014, the civil prosecutor's office decided to examine whether a number of public officials – including the former head of PM Chancellery Tomasz Arabski – might also be responsible for the disaster. In 2015, victims' plenipotentiaries chose to submit the so-called private subsidiary bill of indictment. The proceedings began on March 31, 2016.

6 H. Foy, "Jaroslaw Kaczynski: Poland's kingmaker", 26 February 2016,

7 "Kaczyński po spotkaniu z Cameronem: Uzyskaliśmy pełne zabezpieczenie praw Polaków w Wielkiej Brytanii" [Kaczynski after his meeting with Cameron: We have obtained full protection of the rights of Poles in Great Britain],, 5 February 2016,….

8 "Motorówką do Wyszehradu. Kaczyński ponownie spotyka się z Orbanem" [On a speedboat to Visegrad. Kaczyński meets with Orbán again],, 9 August 2016,

9 D. Serafin, "Polacy w sondażu: to prezes PiS rządzi Polską" [Poles in a poll: it's chairman Kaczyński who rules Poland],, 18 February 2016,….

10 "Obserwacja praktyki procesu legislacyjnego w okresie od 16 maja do 10 września 2016 roku" [Observation of the legislative process practice in the period 16 May to 10 September 2016], Obywatelskie Forum Legislacji, 2016,….

11 "Opposition MP to sue for being 'illegally' excluded from debate", Radio Poland, 23 January 2017,,Opposition-MP-to-sue-for-being-illegally-excluded-from-debate

12 J. Cienski, "Protesters block Polish parliament", Politico, 17 December 2016,….

13 "Poland crisis: Donald Tusk calls for respect of people and constitution", The Guardian, 17 December 2016,

14 J. Kaczyński, "Przemówienie na kongresie PiS" [Speech at the PiS congress],, 2 July 2016,

15 TV Republika, "Mocne przemówienie Jarosława Kaczyńskiego. Na anarchię w państwie się nie zgodzimy" [Strong speech of Jaroslaw Kaczynski. We will not agree with anarchy in the country], TV Republika, 2 May 2016,….

16 "Kaczyński dokona wymiany elit? Ekspert: Skutki takiej zmiany nigdy nie spełniają oczekiwań" [Kaczynski will replace the elites? Expert: The effects of such a change would never meet expectations],, 5 June 2016,,kaczynski-dokona-w….

17 On April 10, 2016 Kaczyński attributed the "moral responsibility" for the tragedy to the government of Donald Tusk. According to PiS leader, "the real investigation has begun, and Poles were often wrong when they were forgiving too easily". In 2014, the civil prosecutor's office decided to examine whether a number of public officials – including the former head of PM Chancellery Tomasz Arabski – might also be responsible for the disaster. In 2015, victims' plenipotentiaries chose to submit the so-called private subsidiary bill of indictment. The proceedings began on March 31, 2016.

18 Smolensk plane crash 2011 report 'was result of doctored evidence,' The Guardian, 16 September 2016,

19 "Ustawa antyterrorystyczna weszła w życie. Służby mają większe uprawnienia" [Anti-terror law came into force. Secret services have more power],, 2 July 2016,….

20 K. Goraus, G. Inchauste, "The Distributional Impact of Taxes and Transfers in Poland", World Bank, August 2016,….

21 "Pracujący w nietypowych formach zatrudnienia" [Working in atypical forms of employment], GUS (National Statistical Office), 27 January 2016,….

22 "Fiskus ulży najuboższym. Po wielu latach wreszcie wzrośnie kwota wolna od podatku" [Tax authorities will relieve the poorest. After many years finally an increase in the tax-free amount],, 26 November 2016,….

23 "Obniżenie wieku emerytalnego do 60 i 65 lat. Sejm przyjął prezydencki projekt ustawy" [Lowering the retirement age to 60 and 65 years. Parliament adopted the presidential bill],, 16 November 2016,,Obnizenie-wieku-emer….

24 Poland among couple of other OECD countries does not have a universal healthcare scheme see: "OECD Health Statistics 2016", OECD, 2016,

25 R. Mundry, "Milion Ukraińców zasiliło polski rynek pracy w 2016 roku" [Million of Ukrainians were absorbed by the Polish labor market in 2016],, 9 March 2017,….

26 "Sejm przyjął uchwałę dotyczącą Wołynia ze stwierdzeniem o ludobójstwie" [Sejm adopted a resolution on Volyn with a statement about genocide],, 22 June 2016,….

27 "PiS, by utrzymać się u władzy, zmieni ordynację wyborczą?" [PiS to change the electoral system in order to remain in power?], Newsweek, 6 June 2016,…

28 W. Ferfecki, "Pis chce nowej ordynacji wyborczej" [PiS wants a new electoral law"],, 18 January 2016,

29 M. Dobski, "Czy PiS przygotowuje wcześniejsze wybory?" [Is PiS preparing for earlier elections?], 29 September 2016,….

30 M. Fabisiak, "PiS szykuje rewolucję w samorządach i dzieli opozycję" [PiS is preparing a revolution in local government and is dividing the opposition" 8 December 2015,,1329,title,PiS-szykuje-rewolucje-w-samorzad…

31 "Nieważnych głosów w wyborach było nie 3 ale aż 5 mln. Można to wyliczyć" [There were 5 and not 3 million invalid votes. It's countable],, 18 December 2014,….

32 "Prezentacja raportu "Nieważne głosy, ważny problem" [Presentation of the „Invalid ballots, a valid problem" report], 5 October 2016,….

33 "Anna Maria Anders o zwycięstwie w wyborach na Podlasiu" [Anna Maria Anders on her victory in the Podlasie elections], Polskie Radio, 7 March 2016,,Anna-Maria-Anders-o-zwy….

34 "Sąd Najwyższy zdecydował: Sprawozdanie finansowe Nowoczesnej jest błędne" [The Supreme Court has decided: Nowoczesna'a financial report is erroneous], 22 September 2016,….

35 "Skoro nie z budżetu, to skąd? Nowoczesna i Razem szukają pieniędzy na istnienie" [If not the budget than what? Where are Nowoczesna and Razem looking for funding?], 22 November 2016,nowoczesna-razem….

36 "Annex to the joint NGO letter to the European Commission on Poland", International Federation of Human Rights, 16 February 2017,

37 E. Siedlecka, "Prawo o zgromadzeniach stało się prawem władzy. Ale wolność jest w nas" [Law on assemblies became the law of the ruling power. But freedom is in us], Gazeta Wyborcza, 2 December 2016,,75968,21062737,prawo-o-zgromadzeniach-stalo-sie-pr….

38 "Annex to the joint NGO letter to the European Commission on Poland", International Federation of Human Rights, 16 February 2017,

39 "Siedem grzechów głównych ustawy o zgromadzeniach. Prawo stanu wyjątkowego" [Seven Deadly Sins of the law on assemblies. The law on the state of emergency],, 6 December 2016,,3/prawo-o-zgromadzeniach-krytycz….

40 T. Orszulak, "Prezydent Andrzej Duda skierował do Trybunału Konstytucyjnego ustawę o zgromadzeniach" [President Andrzej Duda sent the law on assemblies to CT], 29 December 2016,,1038663,title,Prezydent-Andrzej-Duda-skiero….

41 "Sejm odrzucił projekt ustawy antyaborcyjnej. 428 posłów głosowało, za odrzuceniem 352, przeciw 58, wstrzymało się 18" [Sejm rejected the bill on abortion ban. 428 MPs took part in the voting, 352 voted in favor of the rejection of the law, 58 were against, 18 abstained from voting], 6 October 2016,,Sejm-odrzucil-projekt-ustawy-antyaborcyjnej-428-poslow-glosowalo-za-odrzuceniem-352-przeciw-58-wstrzymalo-sie-18.

42 "Sejm poparł program "Za życiem". Kobiety dostaną pieniądze za urodzenie chorego dziecka" [Sejm supported the "Pro life" program. Women will get the money for the birth of a disabled child],, 4 November 2016,,114871,20931695,sejm-poparl-pr….

43 S. Kluziński, „Jak zostać KOD-erem. Komitet zacznie przyjmować członków" [How to become a KOD-er. Committee started taking on members], Gazeta Wyborcza, 31 May 2016,,75398,20157439,jak-zostac-kod-erem-komitet-zacznie….

44 "Ludzie w KOD powinni być przyzwoici. A nie zawsze tak jest. Szef lubuskiego KOD żali się Wyborczej" [People from KOD should be decent. And it's not always the case. Head of KOD from Lubuskie complains to Wyborcza],, 9 December 2017,….

45 A number of organizations were also mentioned in the news: Fundacja Rozwoju Demokracji Lokalnej (Foundation for the Development of Local Democracy), Stowarzyszenie 61 (Association 61, which created a watchdog portal MamPrawoWiedzieć.pl, whose name means "I have the right to know"), Pracownia Badań i Innowacji Społecznych "Stocznia" (Research and Social Innovation "Shipyard"), not to mention the Batory Foundation, which for years has been considered by the right-wing media as a source of foreign influence in Poland, because it was responsible for granting money from the Open Society Foundation financed by George Soros.

46 W. Głowacki, 2016, "Skąd kampania przeciwko organizacjom pozarządowym?" [Where does this campaign against NGOs come from?], Polska The Times, 2 December 2016,….

47 "Zofia Komorowska odpiera zarzuty dot. organizacji pozarządowych. Nie mam sobie nic do zarzucenia, czekam na jakiś dowód" [Zofia Komorowska refutes allegations concerning NGOs. I have nothing to hide, I am waiting for some proof],, 9 December 2016,,59154,title,Zofia-Komorowska-odpiera-zarzut… ; "Organizacje pozarządowe protestują przeciwko TVP" [NGOs protest against TVP],, 9 November 2016,,1339,title,Organizacje-pozarzadowe-protestu….

48 "Samuel Pereira o wywiadzie wicepremiera Piotra Glińskiego w TVP Info: Pluralizm" [Samuel Pereira about the interview with Deputy PM Piotr Gliński in TVP Info: Pluralism],, 28 November 2016,….

49 A. Kondzińska, W. Mrozek, 2016, "Piotr Gliński – między żoną a prezesem" [Piotr Gliński – between the wife and the chariman], Gazeta Wyborcza, 2 December 2016,,124059,21064636,piotr-glinski-miedzy-zona-….

50 D. Tilles, "Is Poland's new government opening the door to the far right?", PolitcalCritique.Org, 10 May 2016,

51 "Poland 'changing for the worse' for Muslims and refugees", EU Observer, 22 July 2016,

52 "Ks. Międlar z całkowitym zakazem wystąpień publicznych" [Priest Międlar with total ban on public speaking],, 20 April 2016,….

53 "Liderzy KOD-u zaatakowani przez członków ONR-u podczas pogrzebu " [KOD leaders attacked by members of the ONR at the funeral of "Inka"],, 29 August 2016,,50144,20613123,liderzy-kod-u-zaatakowani-przez-czlonkow-onr-u-podczas-pogrzebu.html

54 "Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny będzie bronił kraju?" [National-Radical Camp will defend the country?],, 23 April 2016,…; W. Ferfecki, "Zgoda na symbol narodowców" [Consent to nationalists symbol],, 7 July 2016,,1041267,title,Zgoda-na-symbol-narodowcow,wi….

55 M. Domagalski, "ONR: co z wnioskiem PO? Delegalizacja stowarzyszenia to ostateczność" , Rzeczpospolita, 8 September 2016,….

56 "Sejm uchwalił nowelizację tzw. ustawy medialnej", [Sejm passes novelization of so-called media law],, 30 December 2015,,3/sejm-uchwalil-nowelizacje-tzw-….

57 "Krzysztof Czabański: wkrótce powstanie Rada Mediów Narodowych", [Krzysztof Czabański: National media Board to be formed soon], Polskie Radio, 29 June 2016,,Krzysztof-Czabanski-wkro….

58 A. Kublik, E. Siedlecka, "Dla Rady Mediów Narodowych wyrok Trybunału nie istnieje. Czabański: TK dokonał nadinterpretacji konstytucji" [For the National Media Council the CTs judgment does not exist. Czabański: TK over-interpretated the constitution],, 5 January 2017,,75248,21207320,dla-rady-mediow-narodowych-wyrok-tr….

59 "Czym podpadł Jacek Kurski? Oto prawdziwy powód", [Why was Jacek Kurski fired? We know the real reason], Fakt, 3 August 2016,….

60 "Prawicowa wojna o media publiczne. Kto przejmie władzę w TVP?", [A right-wing war over the public media, who will control TVP?], Newsweek, 10 August 2016,….

61 "Jacek Kurski został nowym prezesem TVP", [Jacek Kurski becomes new president of TVP], Wirtualna Polska, 12 October 2016,,1329,title,Jacek-Kurski-zostal-nowym-prezes….

62 "Co do minuty wyliczyli, ile czasu TVP poświęca partiom. Dysproporcja jest rażąco wysoka", [How much on air time for each party. They couldn't the minutes. The disproportion is blantly high], Gazeta Wyborcza, 6 September 2016,,114884,20649625,co-do-minuty-w….

63 "One-sidedness of TVP's broadcasts violates the Broadcasting Act", National Broadcasting Council,2374,one….

64 A. Kublik, "Media publiczne. Wielka czystka w radiu i TV", [Public media. A grand clean-up in radio and TV], 17 May 2016,,132907,20091853,media-publiczne-wie….

65 "Polskie Radio: Paweł Sołtys zwolniony z Trójki" [Polish Radio: Paweł Sołtys fired from channel three],, 28 November 2016,….

66 R. Pawłowski, "Kłótnie o dotacje dla czasopism trwają od 20 lat. Czas z nimi skończyć" [Quarrels subsidies for magazines last 20 years. Time to finish with them], Gazeta Wyborcza, 2 March 2015,,75410,17503338,Klotnie_o_dotacje_dla_czasopism_trw….

67 Ł. Grzeszczak, G. Nurek, "CzasoPiSma wsparte centralnie. Odwołania pism lewicowych i liberalnych rozpatrzy minister Gliński" [Magazines supported centrally. Leftist and liberal magazines writing appeals which will be considered by Gliński], Gazeta Wyborcza, 4 March 2016,,75410,19720122,czasopisma-wsparte-centralnie-odwol….

68 "Prawicowe media zarabiają coraz więcej z reklam. Gazeta Polska bije rekordy" [Right-wing media earn more on advertising. Gazeta Polska breaks the record],, 2 August 2016,,114883,20487600,gazeta-polska-z-najwyzszym-wzrostem-przychodow-z-reklam-prawie.html.

69 "Agora ma stratę. Gazeta Wyborcza z niższymi przychodami" [Agora loss. Gazeta Wyborcza with lower revenues],, 13 May 2016,; "Gazeta Wyborcza ofiarą 'dobrej zmiany'? Przychody z reklam o 21,5 proc. w dół" [Is Gazeta Wyborcza victim of a "good change"? Advertising revenues down by 21.5 per cent],, 13 May 2016,….

70 P. Jedlecki, "Samorządy przeciw władzy PiS i centralizacji państwa" [Local governments against the authority of the PiS and the decentralization of the state], Gazeta Wyborcza, 24 August 2016,,75398,20589065,samorzady-przeciw-wladzy-pis-i-cent….

71 O. Szpunar, K. Łakwa, J. Suchecka, "Nowi kuratorzy z wielką władzą. PiS zmienia prawo i odwołuje" [New superintendents with great power. PiS changes law and dismisses], Gazeta Wyborcza, 14 December 2015,,75398,19340840,nowi-kuratorzy-z-wielka-wladza-pis-….

72 "Nowe Prawo wodne: podwyżki opłat za wodę pod kontrolą" [New water law: increases in water charges under control], Polskie Radio (Polish Radio), 3 August 2016,,Nowe-Prawo-wodne-pod….

73 "Rząd we wtorek zajmuje się utworzeniem tzw. sieci szpitali", [The government on Tuesday is involved with the creation of the so-called hospital network], ONET Biznes, 14 February 2016,; A. Kondzińska, "Rząd bierze się za samorządy i nowelizuje ustawę. To nie przypadek, że akurat teraz" [The government takes on the local governments and amends the law. It is no coincidence], Gazeta Wyborcza, 11 August 2016,,75398,20529144,rzad-bierze-rio-by-zyskac-wplyw-na-….

74 "Reprywatyzacja: co zmienia ustawa?" , TVN Warszawa, 27 July 2016,,news,reprywatyzacja-br-co-zmieni….

75 I. Szpala, M. Zubik, "Układ warszawski. Czy reprywatyzacja w stolicy zatrzęsie polską polityką?" [Warsaw Pact. Will the restitution in the capital shake Polish politics?], Gazeta Wyborcza, 20 August 2016,,124059,20572140,uklad-warszawski-czy-repry….

76 J. Oworuszko, P. Wróblewski, „Warszawa: Jest mapa dzikiej reprywatyzacji. 28 śledztw wznowionych, wraca sprawa Jolanty Brzeskiej" [Warsaw. A map of wild restitution. 28 probes opened, the Jolanta Brzeska case returns], Gazeta Krakowska, 12 October 2016,…

77 "Ponad połowa Polaków pozytywnie ocenia działania prezydenta Andrzeja Dudy" [More than half of Poles positively asses President Andrzej Duda],, 18 March 2016,….

78 N. Hipsz, "25 lat państwa obywatelskiego. Społeczne oceny samorządności terytorialnej" [25 years of a civil state. Social assessment of local self-government], CBOS (Public Opinion Research Center), 2015,

79 For more information about the nature of the conflict, see the Nations in Transit 2016 report:

80 "Poland's legal reforms do not comply with constitution, court rules", The Guardian, 9 March 2016,….

81 E. Ivanova, "Wydawcy programów prawniczych mają twardy orzech do zgryzienia", [Publishers of legal programs have a hard nut to crack], Dziennik Gazeta Prawna, 11 April 2016,,wydawcy-programow-prawnicz…

82 "NSA nie czekał na opublikowanie przez Szydło orzeczenia TK. Zastosował je w swoim wyroku" [Supreme Administrative Court did not wait for the publication of the ruling by Szydło. It used it in its ruling], Gazeta Wyborcza, 16 August 2016,,75398,20552991,nsa-nie-czeka-na-opublikoanie-przez….

83 "Rząd opublikował zaległe wyroki Trybunału Konstytucyjnego. Poza dwoma" [The government has published overdue rulings of the Constitutional Tribunal], TVN 24, 16 August 2016,,3/trybunal-konstytucyjny-rzad-op….

84 "Trzech kandydatów na następcę Rzeplińskiego. Wybrani mimo braku kworum" [Three candidates to succeed Rzepliński. Selected despite the lack of quorum],, 30 November 2016,…

85 "Oświadczenie sędzi TK na zwolnieniu. Nie chciałam legitymizować obrad" [Statement by CT judge on leave. I did not want to legitimize the proceedings],, 2 December 2016,,3/oswiadczenie-sedzi-tk-julii-pr….

86 S. Skarżyński, "Sfałszowana uchwała pogrąża Przyłębską. Sąd Najwyższy zdecyduje, czy jest czy nie jest prezesem TK" [Fake resolution plunges Przyłębska. The Supreme Court will decide whether or not she is the CT president],, 12 February 2017,….

87 "A new EU Framework to strengthen the Rule of Law", European Commission, 19 March 2014,

88 N. Nielsen, "EU confrontation with Poland escalates", EU Observer, 27 July 2016,

89 A. Chapman, "Poland and Hungary's defiant friendship", 6 January 2016, Politico,…; "European Parliament resolution of 14 September 2016 on the recent developments in Poland and their impact on fundamental rights as laid down in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2016/2774(RSP))", European Parliament, 14 September 2016,

90 "Polish FM slams Council of Europe over constitutional crisis", Deusche Welle, 16 October 2016,….

91 "Przestępca straci majątek nawet bez wyroku. Znamy szczegóły ustawy o konfiskacie rozszerzonej" [The offender will lose the assets even without a ruling. We know the details of the law on the extended confiscation], RMF FM, 27 May 2016,….

92 A. Łukaszewicz, 2016, "Rozszerzona konfiskata majątku zagrożeniem dla firm" [Extended assets confiscation a threat to companies], Rzeczpospolita, 27 July 2016,….

93 "András Baka", Stowarzyszenie Sędziów Polskich Iustitia (Association of Polish Judges Iustitia), 2016,

94 "Nadzwyczajny Kongres Sędziów Polskich: Oklaski dla Rzeplińskiego" [The extraordinary Congress of Judges Polish: Applause for Rzepliński], Gazeta Prawna, 3 September 2016,,nadzwyczajny-kongres-sedzi….

95 A. Łukaszewicz, "Sędziowie SN i NSA będą wcześniej przechodzić w stan spoczynku" [Judges of the Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court will early retire], Rzeczpospolita,….

96 E. Szadkowska, "Sędziowie boją się czystki. Mają powody?" [The judges are afraid of purges. Do they have a reason?], Gazeta Prawna, 30 August 2016,,czystka-pis-w-sadownictwie….

97 "Premier i ministrowie przedstawili w Sejmie audyt rządów PO-PSL" [The Prime Minister and her ministers present an audit of PO-PSL years in office],, 11 May 2016,,Premier-i-ministrowie-pr…

98 "Sąd skazał b. szefa NCBiR. Usłyszał zarzut przyjęcia korzyści majątkowej w zamian za wsparcie finansowe ze środków publicznych dla spółek" [The court rules on the former head of NCBiR. He heard charges of bribery in exchange for financing companies with public funds],, 7 July 2016,…

99 M. Jałoszewski, "Afera podkarpacka: tajemnica trzech sztabek" [The Podkarpacie case: the secret of three bars of gold], Gazeta Wyborcza, 15 January 2016,,75398,19478723,afera-podkarpacka-tajemnica-trzech-…

100 "Szef NIK chce uchylenia własnego immunitetu: 'Nie popełniłem żadnego przestępstwa'", [Head of NIK wants to revoke his own immunity. "I didn't commit a crime"] TVN24, 21 September 2016,,3/prezes-nik-krzysztof-kwiatkows….

101 "Szydło odwołała Jackiewicza z funkcji ministra skarbu państwa" [Szydło dismisses Jackiewicz from office], PAP, 15 September 2016,,644262,premier-w-najblizszych-godzin…

102 "Ministerstwo Skarbu Państwa zostanie zlikwidowane w 2017 r.", [Ministry of the Treasury to be closed in2017], Wprost, 26 January 2016,…

103 R. Kiewlicz, "Minister skarbu odwołany. Zmienią się też szefowie Lotosu i Energi?", [Minister of the Treasury dismissed. Changes in Lotos and Energa?],, 15 September 2016,…

104 M. Fijołek, "Albo wypalenie gorącym żelazem, albo TKM i czerwona kartka. PiS musi pokazać inną jakość niż Platforma. Inaczej skończy tak samo" [Branding with hot irons or a red card. PiS needs to show it's different than PO. Otherwise it will end the same], 11 września 2016,…


106 „Lista "40 Misiewiczów". Jest ojciec makijażystki Kaczyńskiego, kolega Szydło z podstawówki..." [40 Misiewicze. Amongst them Kaczyński's make-up artists' father, Szydło's friend from school ...], Gazeta wyborcza, 15 September 2016,,114883,20699628,oto-lista-40-m…

107 "Zgłoś #Misiewicze na nowej stronie", [Report #Misiewicze on a new webpage], Nowoczesna, 21 September 2016,

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