At least six journalists arrested during the year were prisoners of conscience. Courts continued to impose sentences of caning. At least two people were sentenced to death during the year; it was not known if any executions were carried out. Grave human rights violations were committed against refugees from Central Africa. Presidential and parliamentary elections held in October were won by the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), Party of the Revolution, and a new govern-ment was formed by President Benjamin Mkapa. In the run-up to the elections there were allegations of harassment by the authorities of members and supporters of opposition parties, notably in Zanzibar. The opposition Civic United Front (CUF) was repeatedly denied permits by the authorities to hold public meetings in the north of Zanzibar. Following the elections in Zanzibar, which returned to power the government of Dr Salmin Amour, there were reports that CUF members and supporters in Zanzibar were harassed and detained. The election result in Zanzibar was questioned by election observers and opposition parties. The authorities continued to use criminal charges to harass journalists. At least 12 were facing charges at the end of the year. Six journalists were arrested during the year and held for several days. For example, in March Edna Ndejenbi was arrested in Moshi. Seven other journalists covering the visit of August Mrema, the leader of the opposition National Convention for Construction and Reform, were reportedly beaten by the police. Edna Ndejenbi was held for 12 hours before being charged with using abusive language likely to cause a breach of the peace and released. She was tried and acquitted in June. Also in March the editor and two publishers of the daily newspaper Majira, Sam Makilla, Rashidi Mbuguni and Richard Nyaulawa, were arrested following the publication of an article critical of the government. They were charged with sedition and withholding information and released on bail. In July the publisher and editor of the Shaba newspaper, Oliver Msuya and Yassin Sadiki, were arrested after publishing details of a letter attributed to the Interior Minister, Ernest Nyanda, in which the writer said that the Prime Minister, Ceopa Msuya, had instructed him to investigate and interfere with the activities of August Mrema. The two detainees were held for five days before being released without charge, but were required to report to a police station regularly. In November Kafiki, a Swahili weekly, was banned, allegedly for publishing information likely to cause unrest. Over 100 supporters of the CUF were harassed, ill-treated and arrested during an apparent crack-down on opposition members after the election in Zanzibar. The majority were released without charge after several days in custody. However, some were detained for longer: two CUF officials, Juma Othman and Ahmed Omar, were arrested in October, charged with treason, and held until the charge was dropped in November. Juma Othman was subsequently charged with giving false information to civil servants. He had not been tried by the end of the year. Courts continued to impose sentences of caning – a cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment. In November, two youths were sentenced to 10 strokes of the cane after being convicted of attempting to steal a car. It was not known whether the sentence had been carried out by the end of the year. At least two people were sentenced to death for murder. In early 1995 the Court of Appeal upheld the government's appeal against a ruling by the High Court in June 1994 (see Amnesty International Report 1995) that the death penalty violated the Tanzanian Constitution. At the end of March the Tanzanian Government closed its border to refugees fleeing from Burundi, in breach of its obligations under international and regional treaties. The move followed a new influx into Tanzania of around 50,000 refugees, mostly Rwandese who had been living in Burundi, and some Burundi refugees who were fleeing a wave of killings in Burundi. There were also incursions into Tanzania by Burundi government soldiers, ostensibly in pursuit of armed opposition fighters. Refugees who managed to cross the border into Tanzania after March were forcibly returned to Burundi by the Tanzanian authorities. There were reports that between April and June Tanzanian soldiers forced groups of refugees to return to Burundi after robbing and beating them, and raping some women refugees. A group of 300 Burundi refugees was forcibly returned in April. Several were reportedly killed by Burundi soldiers who were waiting for them on the other side of the border. Between three and six people were reportedly killed within an hour by soldiers who attacked them with knives and machetes. Many more were feared to have suffered a similar fate. Despite urgent representations, at the end of the year the border between Tanzania and Burundi remained closed and the Tanzanian Government continued to forcibly return asylum-seekers attempting to escape grave human rights abuses in Burundi. (See Rwanda and Burundi entries.) Rwandese armed opposition groups based in refugee camps in Tanzania, made up of members of the former Rwandese government army and interahamwe militia, committed grave human rights abuses. These included deliberate and arbitrary killings in refugee camps in Tanzania and during armed incursions into Rwanda. Amnesty International criticized Tanzania for betraying its international obligations not to forcibly return refugees who were clearly at risk of human rights violations in their own countries. The organization also called on the government to carry out impartial investigations into allegations of ill-treatment of refugees by Tanzanian soldiers. In January Amnesty International published a report on several African countries, including Tanzania, about the use of criminal charges such as sedition to harass government critics, and called for an end to such practices (see Kenya entry). In June the organization called upon the government to ratify those international human rights treaties which it had not yet ratified.

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