Hundreds of unarmed civilians were deliberately killed by members of armed political groups on account of their membership of a particular clan. Many women were raped by militias. A woman and 12 men had limbs amputated as punishments ordered by an unofficial Islamic court in Mogadishu, which also decreed and carried out a death sentence by stoning and over 160 floggings. There were at least two other executions in Mogadishu after unofficial courts condemned prisoners to death. The UN peace-making operation, UNOSOM II, established in May 1993 with a two-year mandate to end fighting between the two main clan alliances and launch a national reconstruction program (see Amnesty International Report 1994), had failed to achieve many of its objectives by the end of the year. In March the UN Security Council authorized the withdrawal of the 20,000 western troops in its military operation, and in November it decided to pull out the remaining 15,000 African, Arab and Asian troops by March 1995, the planned end of the UNOSOM II operation. Yet fighting between General Mohamed Farah Aideed's Somali National Alliance (SNA) and Ali Mahdi's Somali Salvation Alliance (SSA) broke out frequently during 1994. Little progress had been made by the end of the year towards implementing a Peace and Reconciliation Declaration which both parties signed in Nairobi in March, or towards establishing a Transitional National Council as an interim government to administer the collapsed Somali state with UN assistance. Somali civilians, including women who were raped, were the main victims of the continuing high level of inter-clan violence. The insecurity also seriously affected humanitarian operations run by international non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Several aid workers and journalists reporting on their relief work were killed or taken hostage for some weeks by armed groups, and most international NGOs, after losing relief supplies and property to looters, pulled out of the country. UN troops provided a measure of security in escorting food convoys but they were progressively pulled back to bases in Mogadishu towards the end of the year in the run-up to the planned withdrawal. Dozens of UN troops were killed in clashes, as well as Somali militia members and possibly hundreds of unarmed civilians. In January the UN freed eight senior SNA officials it had detained the previous October. They were held in poor conditions without charge or trial, and denied access to their relatives or lawyers. UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali ordered their release on the recommendation of an independent jurist appointed by the UN to visit Somalia to review their detentions. Somalis detained by the UN during 1994 on suspicion of involvement in armed attacks on the UN or criminal offences were apparently transferred quickly to the custody of the new Somali police, prisons and judicial services established by the UN. No details were disclosed by the UN on people detained, charged, tried or released. An Independent Expert appointed by the UN in August 1993 on the recommendation of the UN Commission on Human Rights visited Somalia in January but the Ombudsman function he proposed to undertake to examine complaints of human rights violations by Somali groups or militias or UN troops had not started by the end of the year. In late 1994 the UN released the report of an international commission of inquiry which it set up in 1993 to review the attacks on UN troops that year (see Amnesty International Report 1994). It criticized military aspects of the UN operation and proposed compensation should be paid for abuses by UN troops. The UN did not disclose what specific measures it was taking to meet these recommendations but during 1994 UN policy on the use of force changed and UN troops performed a predominantly defensive role. In November and December there was fighting in Hargeisa, the capital of the breakaway Republic of Somaliland in the northwest, which had been under President Mohamed Ibrahim Egal's interim administration since May 1993. Tens of thousands of people fled to neighbouring Ethiopia. President Egal declared a state of emergency in December. Despite the failure by the UN command force and the US Rapid Reaction Force to investigate alleged human rights abuses by their own troops, cases of alleged abuses involving soldiers of three national contingents continued to be under investigation by their own governments – in Canada, Belgium and Germany (see Amnesty International Report 1994). In Canada, seven soldiers were brought to court, mostly in connection with the death of a Somali prisoner in 1993; one was convicted of manslaughter and imprisoned for five years, two were convicted of lesser offences, three were acquitted, and a seventh case was pending. A public inquiry was announced after the publication in November 1994 of photographs depicting ill-treatment of a Somali intruder into the Canadian army compound in Mogadishu in March 1993. In Belgium, 13 cases continued to be under judicial investigation since 1993 and a court martial of eight alleged offenders began in December, for offences including manslaughter. In Germany in September, a military inquiry investigated reports of ill-treatment of detained Somali criminal suspects in 1993. Hundreds of unarmed civilians, including women and children, were deliberately killed by members of armed political groups on account of their membership of a particular clan during fighting between opposing clan factions. Many women were raped by members of clan-based militias. Information was difficult to obtain, and details of individual incidents hard to verify. Hundreds of civilians and many more fighters were killed in flare-ups of fighting in Mogadishu in October and December between General Aideed's SNA and Ali Mahdi's SSA. There was also fighting at times, although on a less serious scale, between clan-based groups in Belet Huen, Baidoa and Kismayu. Scores of unarmed civilians as well as fighters were killed in clashes between troops loyal to President Egal and his Somali National Movement (SNM) party and armed men of a clan group supporting former Somaliland President Abdirahman Ali Ahmed in November and December in Hargeisa. In a part of northern Mogadishu controlled by the ssa, an unofficial Islamic court was established in August which imposed cruel, inhuman and degrading punishments. A woman and 12 men were convicted of violent robbery and sentenced to amputations of a hand or a hand and a leg, which were carried out immediately in public. The court also ordered and publicly carried out over 160 floggings of between 20 and 100 lashes each. On 8 December the same court condemned a man to death by stoning for rape and he was immediately stoned to death by a crowd. At least two other people were executed on the orders of unofficial courts in 1994. Amnesty International appealed to the UN and Somali political groups to work together for justice and human rights. In a letter to the UN in March, Amnesty International criticized the lack of emphasis placed on human rights in the UNOSOM operation, and particularly the inadequacy of investigations into killings by UN and US troops in 1993, arbitrary detentions without charge or trial, and the absence of any real program of human rights. Amnesty International called for the unosom Human Rights Office to be fully activated and supported, and for the Ombudsman to be established. It recommended human rights training for all UN troops and for officers in the new Somali police and prison services, and urged the UN to report regularly and publicly on its work to re-establish the judiciary and develop protection of human rights. The organization welcomed steps being taken by the Canadian, Belgian and German authorities to bring to justice any soldiers found to be responsible for human rights abuses. Amnesty International urged General Aideed and Ali Mahdi to assert control of their armed militias and supporters and to end the summary executions and ill-treatment of members of other political or clan groups. It condemned the stoning execution, amputations and floggings in northern Mogadishu, and called on Somali political leaders not to allow these cruel, inhuman and degrading punishments and to intervene to prevent any executions.

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