There were further allegations of torture and ill-treatment by law enforcement and prison officers. There were numerous trials of officers accused of torture and ill-treatment. Attacks by the armed Basque group, Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA), Basque Homeland and Liberty, on the security forces and civilians continued throughout the year. Thirteen people, including four civilians, were killed and more than 20 people were injured. Special legislation regarding armed groups remained in force. People suspected of belonging to or collaborating with an armed group can be held incommunicado for up to five days by judicial order, 48 hours longer than the normal limit, and are denied the right to designate lawyers of their choice. A major national human rights organization, the Association against Torture (ACT), recorded 267 complaints of torture by law enforcement and prison officers in its report for 1993 published in October. This was a significant increase over the previous year. ACT stated that its examination of judicial action on torture allegations revealed "the continuation of the policy of reward and pardon" which effectively provided impunity for officers convicted of torture. In March a judicial investigation opened into the alleged suicide of José Luis Iglesias Amaro, who had been found on 28 February hanging by his shoe laces in an isolation cell in Picassent II prison, near Valencia. He had a history of self-injury and a few days before his death had attempted to escape from a hospital where he was receiving treatment for self-inflicted injuries. Fellow prisoners alleged that he was taken on a stretcher to the cell where he later died. According to their statements, he was repeatedly beaten by prison guards armed with truncheons in the days leading to his death. Photographs of the deceased and the autopsy revealed numerous injuries, two to four days old, including large blood clots in the head and severe bruising to the face and body. The injuries were consistent with blows from truncheons. The investigating magistrate failed to interview fellow prisoners, stating that he considered it unnecessary. The inquiry was still open at the end of the year. Numerous trials of officers charged with torture and ill-treatment took place. In January the Provincial Court in Valencia sentenced a police officer to four months and one day in prison for assaulting and seriously injuring Hamid Raaji, a Moroccan national (see Amnesty International Report 1994). In September the Supreme Court rejected the officer's appeal against this sentence. The officer was not imprisoned, as custodial sentences of less than one year and one day are customarily not served. The trial of 16 prison officers accused of ill-treating 17 prisoners in the Modelo prison in Barcelona in 1990 (see Amnesty International Reports 1991 and 1993) opened in October. In November, 12 officers were found guilty of injuring the prisoners and using "unnecessary severity". Two officers were suspended for four years and 10 for three years; four others were acquitted. In October a police officer in La Coruña was committed for trial in December on charges of ill-treating and injuring Carlos Viña Pena, a Civil Guard reservist (see Amnesty International Report 1994). However, the court hearing was postponed on procedural grounds at the plaintiff's request. Two Civil Guards and three policemen were charged in October with beating, ill-treating and threatening Mohamed Hegazy and Raed Shibli in Ibiza in 1991 (see Amnesty International Reports 1992 and 1994). In November the Provincial Court in San Sebastian retried five Civil Guard officers charged with torturing Juan Carlos Garmendia Irazusta in 1982. In July the Supreme Court had ordered the retrial after overturning the 1993 acquittal of these officers by the Provincial Court in San Sebastian (see Amnesty International Report 1994). Three officers were found guilty and the court passed minimum sentences of two months' imprisonment. The other two officers were acquitted. In June the government granted the petition for pardon of a lieutenant colonel in the Civil Guard. He was the senior officer among nine defendants sentenced in 1990 to terms of imprisonment, fines and disqualification from duty for torturing Tomás Linaza Euba in 1981 (see Amnesty International Reports 1982 and 1991). The officers did not serve their sentences, claiming that proceedings relevant to their convictions were pending. In February the Provincial Court of Vizcaya ordered the lieutenant colonel to prison to serve his six-year prison sentence. Two other officers were not imprisoned as they had been sentenced to less than the customary custodial term of one year and one day. The court also opposed the granting of the lieutenant colonel's petition for pardon. Four months later the government pardoned and released him. At the end of the year the government was considering the appeal for pardons of five Civil Guard officers found guilty in October 1992 of torturing Joaquín Olano in 1983 (see Amnesty International Reports 1984 and 1993). Amnesty International urged the authorities to ensure that all allegations of torture and ill-treatment were thoroughly and impartially investigated and to bring those responsible to justice.

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