Last Updated: Wednesday, 23 October 2019, 13:33 GMT

Chronology for Kashmiris in India

Publisher Minorities at Risk Project
Publication Date 2004
Cite as Minorities at Risk Project, Chronology for Kashmiris in India, 2004, available at: [accessed 23 October 2019]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

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Date(s) Item
1346 - 1586 Independent Muslim Sultanate.
1586 - 1572 Kashmir region along with the rest of South Asia was ruled by the Mughal Empire.
1752 - 1819 Kashmir came under control of the Pushtun of Afghanistan.
1819 - 1846 Kashmir was ruled by the British through the Hindu Dogra dynasty of the neighboring state of Jammu.
1846 The Maharajah of Jammu bought the territory of Kashmir from the British East India Company.
1931 - 1940 Tensions developed between the predominantly Muslim population of Kashmir and its Hindu ruler.
Aug 1947 The British withdrew from the subcontinent and the partition of Pakistan and India occurred.
Oct 1947 A Pakistani-supported rebellion broke out. The region's Hindu ruler agreed to accede to India in return for help to suppress the rebellion.
May 1948 The first India-Pakistan war over Kashmir. After a ceasefire was reached in August, Pakistan retained control of 1/3 of the territory (referred to as Azad Kashmir).
Aug 1948 The United Nations Security Council passed the first of two resolutions regarding Kashmir.
Jan 1949 The United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan passed a resolution mandating a plebiscite of the Kashmiri people.
1965 Pakistan and India fought their second war over the disputed territory of Kashmir.
Dec 1971 The third Indo-Pakistani war leads to the secession of East Pakistan and the formation of Bangladesh.
Jan 1972 The Simla Agreement formally ends the war.
1975 Civil rights are suspended throughout India as Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declares emergency rule.
Jun 1976 Pro-Pakistani and orthodox Muslim students held a massive demonstration.
1980 - 1990 Various Muslim separatist organizations set off a series of bomb blasts, arson attacks and strikes. The Indian government responded with military actions.
1984 Widespread protests were held to protest increasing Indian dominance.
Jan 1990 Indian army officers fire on demonstrators protesting in Srinagar against a crackdown on the Kashmiri independence movement. 38 people are killed. Many Hindus flee the Kashmir valley fearing reprisals.
Apr 1990 A campaign of violence outside the region was initiated by the explosion of bombs at two police stations in New Delhi.
May 1990 Maulvi Mohammad Farooq, chief Muslim cleric of the Kashmir valley, is killed by unidentified gunmen. At least 50 people are killed when troops fire on mourners during a funeral procession.
Jul 1990 The Indian government suspends the Kashmiri state assembly and imposes direct federal rule over Kashmir.
Mar 1991 The Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) kidnapped a local politician's daughter, Nahida Imitiaz Soz Srinagar on February 27. On March 8th, she was freed in return for the release of imprisoned "militant" activist, Mushtaq Ahmed. Three policemen were also abducted to secure the release of five separatist activists. Indian Security forces clashed with Muslim separatists throughout the month. On March 10, there were 11 casualties and a week later, 17 people were killed. Approximately 1,000 individuals were arrested. On March 20, Indian authorities denied charges made by the Pakistani government of widespread human rights violations in Kashmir. The allegations included a mass rape of 30-60 women and girls (on February 23) when the village of Kunan Poshpura was sealed off by 800 troops of the 4th Rajput Rifles. Two Swedish engineers were kidnapped on March 31 by the MCF marking the first time foreigners were seized during the insurgency in Kashmir. The MCF demanded that the UN and Amnesty International send teams to investigate the atrocities allegedly carried out by the Indian security forces. Previously, the Indian government has denied human rights organizations access to the region.
Apr 1991 A presidential order was signed on April 18, excluding the state of Jammu and Kashmir from national elections in May.
May 1991 On May 4, the human rights group Asia Watch issued a report accusing the Indian security forces of a "deliberate campaign of terror which included shooting unarmed civilians". Summary executions, kidnappings and assaults were also reported. On May 5, All-India Radio reported that 66 "Pakistan-trained militants" had been shot dead by Indian security forces at the Line of Actual Control in Jammu and Kashmir. Security forces opened fire at a rally in Srinagar, the summer capital, killing 14 people and injuring 24. The rally was in mourning for the guerrillas killed on the border on May 5.
Jul 1991 Six Israeli tourists were kidnapped in Srinagar, by armed separatist guerrillas of the JKLF, on July 26. In an attempted escape, one Israeli and one guerrilla died; the other five Israelis escaped.
Aug 1991 On August 20, K. Doraiswamy, executive director of the Indian Oil Corporation, was released (after being held for 55 days by the Ikhwan-ul-Musalmeen group) in exchange for six activists. The extension of president's rule in Jammu and Kashmir was approved by the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha on August 26. The extension was for a further six months after its original expiration on September 2. The Pakistan Foreign Office admitted that skirmishes had taken place between Pakistani and Indian troops at the Line of Control.
Sep 1991 On the 1st of September, Indian troops attacked a Pakistani post in Nezarpur on the Line of Control, killing three Pakistani soldiers. On September 4, former Jammu and Kashmir Tourism Minister Khemlata Wakhloo was kidnapped with her husband by Hizbullah. Indian security forces allegedly entered the Hazrat Bal shrine by force and molested worshipers. The next day, on September 10, millions of Kashmiri Muslims responded to a call for an indefinite strike in protest to the entry. The call was issued by pro-Pakistani groups. Security forces stepped up their operations resulting in the deaths of at least 50 people. On September 20, firing by Indian forces left seven dead in the Neelan Valley of Kashmir.
Oct 1991 Indian police secured the release of Khamlata Wakhloo and her husband, who were abducted by Hizbullah.
Nov 1991 On November 7, a general 3-day strike was launched protesting the extent of Indian rule in the Kashmir Valley. The Indian government refused to let a delegation from the European Parliament proceed with a planned visit to the region.
Jan 1992 A French engineer held by Muslim separatists in Kashmir escaped on January 13 after three months in captivity.
Feb 1992 On February 12, at least 18 people were killed and over 350 injured when Pakistani forces fired on Kashmiris attempting to cross the Line of Control in an effort to "reunify" their homeland. The Pakistani government had repeatedly warned the leaders of the JKLF not to go through with the march as the crossing could lead to a war between Pakistan and India.
Apr 1992 On April 4, seventeen Muslim separatists were killed by Indian security forces in two clashes and on April 8, at least 50 people were killed in security operations against Muslim militants. Officials reported the number dead at 20 and the arrest of 22 members of the Ikhwan-e-Muslameen and Hizbul Muslameen groups.
Jul 1 - 30, 1992 The Lok Sabha passed a bill aimed at transferring the lawmaking powers of the Jammu and Kashmir Legislature to the President.
Aug 1992 On August 11, the Indian government announced the extension of president's rule for a further 6 months, putting off plans for state assembly elections. A strike was called to protest against the resumption of the sixth round of Indo-Pakistani talks. In the sporadic fighting that followed 23 people were reportedly killed.
Jan 1993 More than 60 people in Sopore were killed when Indian Border Security Force (BSF) troops began shooting indiscriminately and setting fire to buildings in retaliation against an attack by Kashmiri militants. Thousands of Kashmiris took part in a strike on January 7 and staged anti-India protests.
Feb 1993 On February 13, 33 people were reported killed in different incidents of shooting and violence. On February 28, the human rights organizations Asia Watch and Physicians for Human Rights accused Indian security forces of "a campaign of terror against civilians" in Kashmir, citing specifically the violence of the previous month.
Mar 1993 Former army chief, General (retd.) K.V. Krishna Rao was appointed governor of Kashmir, replacing Girish Saksena who earlier resigned as governor. Rao served in the same post during 1988-1990. On March 31, Abdul Ahad Guru, a prominent Muslim heart surgeon and leading member of the JKLF was killed after being abducted by armed gunmen. Police opened fire at mourners attending his funeral the next day.
Apr 1993 In mid-April a fresh surge of violence erupted, leading to the deaths of 70 people and on April 28, the army was called in to end a strike of thousands of predominantly Muslim police.
Jun 1993 On June 29, a joint report by Asia Watch and Physicians for Human Rights was released. It accused security forces in Kashmir of "summarily executing detainees and killing civilians in reprisal acts". The report also cited violations of human rights by rebel groups who were "engaging in summary executions, rape, kidnappings, threats and assaults against civilians".
Jul 1993 Indian security forces, on July 25, shot dead the leader of the pro-Pakistan Hizb-ul-Mujahideen, Nisar Ahmed Mir.
Aug 1993 During August 1-3, widespread protests were staged against the murder by security forces of members of a Muslim family. Police killed six people during these demonstrations. On August 14, a gunman hijacked a bus on the Jammu-Kishtwar road in southern Kashmir, and killed 16 Hindus.
Sep 1993 Muslim militants and security forces continually clashed on September 16-20. More than 48 people were killed and a further 29 reported dead on September 21.
Oct 1993 On October 13, Indian security forces laid siege to the Hazrat Bal Shrine in Srinagar, where Kashmiri separatists had taken refuge. Muslims believe that the 17th century shrine is one of the holiest sites in Islam. There were 200 hundred people in the mosque, 50 of whom were believed to be armed rebels. The siege involved the withdrawal of electricity and water supplies. Immediately afterwards Kashmiris engaged in popular protests which lead to the imposition of curfew in Srinagar. Further protests in defiance to the curfew were held, leading to the deaths of 29 people (reported on October 22).
Nov 1993 The siege of Hazrat Bal ended on November 16, as armed Kashmiri separatists peacefully surrendered. In the interim before the surrender, intense negotiations took place with the help of local Muslim clergymen, family members and pro-militant politicians. Approximately 60 people died during demonstrations triggered by the siege.
Jan 1994 At least 22 people were killed in clashes between militants and Indian security troops.
1994 Summary of year: This year 1,296 civilians, 175 police and 1,630 militants were killed in violence in Kashmir.
1994 - 1995 Note: Throughout the period covered by this update (1994-1995) there are reports and accusations of the torture and murder of Kashmiri detainees by government forces. There are also multiple reports and accusations that Indian security forces kill innocent civilians in retaliation for losses inflicted by separatist militants. Such reports will not be further noted unless otherwise noteworthy. (Note The reports of violence in Kashmir noted until November 1995 are taken solely from Reuters. Reuters' reporting of the violence is sporadic and as a result many incidents that occur during the period covered by this update may be overlooked. However, it is fair to assume with some level of confidence that most of the major incidents are covered in Reuters and therefore are reported here.)
Feb 1994 On February 3, seven Indian soldiers were killed and several wounded when militants attacked various military installations in Badgain, Srinagar, Anantnag-Islamabad and the Rajaori area. The Kashmir Valley region observed a total strike of shops and businesses on February 7, to protest against the Indian military presence. Pakistan and Azad Kashmir also participated in the strike as a display of solidarity with the Kashmiris. The strike followed several weeks of continuous clashes resulting in over 30 deaths. On February, 14 Kashmiris were killed by Indian soldiers during an alleged siege and search operation in the Chandrigam area. The next day, a strike called by the JKLF was observed in the Kashmir region.
Mar 1994 Two Indian soldiers were killed on March 4, when Kashmiri militants allegedly carried out a rocket attack on a brigade headquarters at the Kashmir Ghati in the Punch area. On March 8, a general strike, called by the All-Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC), was observed to demonstrate the determination of Kashmiris to "liberate" themselves from Indian occupation. Four days later, 4 Kashmiris were killed by Indian troops during a crackdown at various places in the Valley. On March 31, 14 people, including 3 Kashmiri youths were killed in Pulwama. In retaliation militants attacked an Indian military camp in Kakupara, killing 8 Indian soldiers.
May 1994 On May 9, Kashmiri militants attacked a military convoy resulting in "heavy" troop casualties. The attack was in retaliation for the killings of 14 Kashmiris in the past week.
May 1994 There are several clashes between Indian security forces and Kashmiri separatists across Kashmir throughout the month in which at least 17 die.
May 1994 The US State Department acknowledges that Pakistan has resumed its support for the militant Islamic separatists in Kashmir. The level of this support is in dispute. The State Department only acknowledges moral, political, and diplomatic support. The Washington Post, however, reports that this support includes arming, training and providing logistical support for the militants. There are also reports of private groups in Pakistan supporting the militants. Note: This remains the situation for the entire period covered by this chronology. Accordingly, accusations and reports on the level of Pakistani support for the Kashmiri separatists will not be further noted unless otherwise noteworthy.
May 7, 1994 2 Kashmiri leaders are rearrested shortly after India's Supreme Court ordered their release. They had originally been arrested while leading demonstrations against the 1993 army siege of the Hazrat Bal Shrine.
May 9, 1994 A general strike called by Islamic militants brings Kashmir to a halt. The strike is intended to call attention to accusations by local human rights groups that Indian security officials are killing and torturing Kashmiris in detention. Note: Accusations of torture and murder of detainees by Indian security forces are made throughout the period covered by this update. They will not be noted unless otherwise noteworthy.
May 11 - 13, 1994 Pakistan accuses India of attacking Kashmiris in the Pakistan controlled part of Kashmir. This eventually escalates to clashes between Indian and Pakistani troops. India accuses Pakistan of supporting Kashmiri rebels. Note: Tensions and sporadic clashes along the border of Indian-controlled and Pakistan-controlled Kashmir occur throughout the period covered by this update.
May 21, 1994 The leader of the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) offers to give up violence if India agrees to undertake talks on the Kashmiri question. For the time being, a unilateral cease fire is declared by the JKLF.
May 29, 1994 The Kashmiri town of Kishtwan is placed under curfew after 3 Hindus are shot dead, apparently by Islamic separatists.
Jun 2, 1994 A JKLF leader, Yasin Malik, survives a failed kidnap attempt by the Hizb-ul-Mujahideen.
Jun 3, 1994 Gunmen open fire on a march led by JKLF leader Yasin Malik. Also, Islamic militants kidnap 2 British tourists in Kashmir; the Harakatul Ansar group claims responsibility. The hostages are eventually released unharmed about 2 weeks later.
Jun 15, 1994 Indian troops kill the chief of a secessionist group called the Jehad Force. The Jehad Force accuses the troops of torturing their leader to death and all strike in protest.
Jun 17, 1994 Indian security forces kill 19 suspected Kashmiri separatists.
Jun 20, 1994 Qazi Nissar Ahmed Srinagar, a prominent Muslim Kashmiri politician, is shot dead by unknown gunmen after being abducted from his home. 20,000 mourners join in a procession to carry his body home. Separatists blame India for the killing and India blames the separatists.
Jun 21, 1994 A general strike is called to mourn the death of Srinagar. At least 150,000 attend his funeral.
Jun 23, 1994 India's Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) launches a campaign to fill up Kashmir's jails with protesters opposed to the government's handling of the Kashmiri problem. The BJP wants the government to declare the area a "disaster area" which will allow the government to carry out military operations including air strikes. Note: This remains the stance of the BJP throughout the period covered by this update. Further actions and statements by the BJP will not be further noted unless otherwise noteworthy.
Jul 1, 1994 Indian army mortar fire kills 6 Kashmiris after a separatist attack.
Jul 1994 Security forces acknowledge that they detained more than 10,000 in Jammu and Kashmir from 1990 until mid-1994 and that they released over 7,000 of those detainees. Human rights groups maintain that the government does not acknowledge holding without charge as many as 7,000 additional prisoners in incommunicado detention.
Jul 24, 1994 At least 19 people, mostly Muslim separatists, are killed in gun battles with security forces.
Jul 29, 1994 Indian troops surround the Hazrat Bal Shrine after several separatists, including JKLF leader Yasin Malik, who were trying to enter the shrine to begin a hunger strike are arrested. Indian troops are placed around the Shrine on "guard duty," sparking protests from Islamic groups.
Aug 1994 In several bombings and clashes between Indian security forces and Kashmiri Islamic separatists, at least 84, mostly separatists, are killed. This includes a bombing of a Hindu school which led to the deaths of 8 children.
Aug 6, 1994 Indian forces end their siege of the Hazrat Bal Shrine.
Aug 29, 1994 Journalist Ghulam Mohammad Lone and his young son are shot dead in their home. He had recently received a death threat from an Indian army officer in connection with a story reporting corruption in the military.
Aug 31, 1994 A general strike is called by the All Party Hurriyat (Freedom) Conference (APHC) and Hizb-ul-Mujahideen to protest an upsurge in violence and brutal actions by security forces in Kashmir.
Sep 1994 In multiple clashes between security forces and Kashmiri separatists, at least 86 are killed. This includes the killing of 9 innocent bus passengers by Indian security forces in what witnesses call an unprovoked attack.
Sep 7, 1994 India bars APHC delegates from traveling to Pakistan for an Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) convention.
Sep 20, 1994 2 young Kashmiri women defy local taboos to tell reporters that they had been gang raped by Indian troops. Note: Reports and accusations of rape by Indian security forces occur throughout the period covered by this update and will not be further noted unless otherwise noteworthy.
Sep 21, 1994 A large crowd protesting the killing of a local militant in Srinagar is violently dispersed by Indian police.
Sep 22 - 24, 1994 A 3-day strike called by the APHC in protest of political and human rights abuses paralyzes Kashmir.
Oct 1994 India frees several Kashmiri separatist leaders as part of a plan to calm the situation in Kashmir. Some of the freed leaders are greeted by crowds of several thousand well wishers.
Oct 1994 India proposes regional elections. Separatist groups almost unanimously reject the elections saying that only a plebiscite on secession will be sufficient. Note: India continues to propose elections and the separatists continue to reject them throughout the period covered by this update. This will not be further noted here unless otherwise noteworthy.
Oct 27, 1994 Kashmir virtually shuts down in a APHC-called strike on the anniversary of the 1947 arrival of Indian troops in Kashmir.
Oct 31 - Nov 1, 1994 Al Hadid, a little known Kashmiri separatist group, kidnaps 4 British tourists, demanding the release of 10 separatists from Indian jails. Police free the hostages in a raid. Note: Kidnappings by Kashmiri separatist groups are a common tactic to put pressure on the government and to raise funds. However, for the most part, those kidnapped are natives of India. The kidnapping of native Indians by Kashmiri separatists will not be further noted unless otherwise noteworthy.
Nov 12, 1994 8 militants and 4 soldiers are killed in clashes between government and separatist forces.
Nov 28, 1994 A bomb in a bus kills at least 7 Hindu pilgrims on their way to a shrine in Kashmir.
Nov 30, 1994 At least 10 militants, possibly Afghans, are killed in a major battle with the Indian army in Kashmir. Note: It is often the case that Islamic militants fighting government forces in Kashmir are not actually natives of Kashmir. There are reports of significant numbers of Afghani and Pakistani militants involved in the fighting.
Dec 10, 1994 JKLF leader Yasin Malik is severely beaten by Indian security forces as he is leading a protest march.
Dec 14, 1994 In a policy shift, the Indian government allows 2 Kashmiri separatists to attend an OIC meeting in Casablanca.
Dec 24, 1994 10 Indian soldiers are killed by a mine planted by Kashmiri separatists.
Dec 29 - 31, 1994 Several Kashmiri militants are killed in what appears to be a rivalry among Kashmiri separatists.
1995 Reports indicate that there are 400,000 Indian army troops and paramilitary forces deployed in Kashmir, although most of these are deployed along the line of control and in Ladakh at the border with China. It is estimated the various rebel groups have 6-8000 active fighters. Around 1-2000 of the insurgents are allegedly from Afghanistan and also from as far away as the Sudan (Ganguly 1996a, 152-53).
Jan 9, 1995 India offers tax breaks to businesses in Kashmir in a bid to reduce discontent in the region.
Jan 26, 1995 3 bombs kill 8 in a stadium in Jammu during an Indian republic day parade.
Jan 30, 1995 At least 9 are killed in clashes between separatists and government forces.
Feb 1995 In a landmine explosion and clashes between government security forces and Kashmiri Islamic separatists, at least 21 are killed. This includes 5 civilians shot dead by Indian security forces in retaliation for an armed attack by Kashmiri separatists.
Feb 5, 1995 A general strike paralyzes Kashmir. The APHC calls the strike after Pakistan's Prime Minister Bhutto called for a strike in Pakistan to demonstrate support for the separatist revolt in Kashmir.
Feb 10, 1995 A JKLF member is shot dead by rival militants.
Mar 1995 In several bombings and clashes between government security forces and Islamic separatists, at least 28, including an army brigadier general, are killed.
Mar 8, 1995 Indian troops surround the Chrar-e-Sharief Shrine near Srinagar where they believe over 100 armed Islamic insurgents are hiding. This leads to a general strike in Kashmir in protest of the army action. Sporadic clashes between the Indian army and the separatists holed up in the Shrine occur until the situation is resolved.
Apr 1995 In several clashes between Indian security forces and Kashmiri separatists, at least 35 are killed.
Apr 4, 1995 Indian troops fire at a group of peaceful Kashmiri protesters in the Pakistan-controlled area of Kashmir.
Apr 13, 1995 A strike in protest of the firing of 22 government workers accused of having links to separatists paralyzes Kashmir.
Apr 22 - 23, 1995 A separatist leader is shot dead by unknown gunmen. A general strike is called to protest the shooting.
May 7, 1995 JKLF leader Yasin Malik accuses Indian troops of trying to assassinate him.
May 9, 1995 Indian troops arrest Kashmiri separatist leaders taking part in a march to the Charar-e-Sharief Shrine where guerrillas have been holed up since March 8.
May 11, 1995 Indian security forces destroy the Charar-e-Sharief Shrine after a pitched battle with separatist guerrillas holed up in the shrine. Indian authorities later order a total curfew on Kashmir and order security forces to shoot on sight anyone violating the curfew. Battles with separatist militants continue for several days after the destruction of the Shrine.
May 12 - 19, 1995 Spontaneous protests, riots, and arson attacks on Hindu temples and other Hindu and Indian government targets occur in the wake of the destruction of the Charar-e-Sharief shrine by Indian security forces. Protesters often clash with Indian security forces. Indian security forces use force including tear gas and gunfire into the air to disperse the protesters.
May 13, 1995 A Pakistani Islamic fundamentalist party, the Jamaat-i-Islami says that its followers have been fighting Indian forces in Kashmir and that 900 of its own men have died in the last 4 years.
May 21, 1995 More than 5,000 march in Kashmir's capital of Srinagar to protest the destruction of the Charar-e-Sharief shrine by Indian security forces. The day is designated as "martyrs' day" by the APHC.
May 22, 1995 About 10,000 Kashmiris rally at the site of the destroyed Charar-e-Sharief Shrine. Several smaller protests are held elsewhere in Kashmir and India.
May 23, 1995 A violent demonstration occurs at the ruins of the destroyed Charar-e-Sharief Shrine.
May 26, 1995 The APHC has a rally protesting India's plans to hold elections in Kashmir next July.
May 27, 1995 A APHC called strike occurs in Kashmir protesting the proposed July elections. Note: The elections are eventually rescheduled to December 1995 after being postponed indefinitely.
May 31, 1995 An Indian army colonel and 4 soldiers are killed by a mine.
Jun 1, 1995 Indian authorities impose a curfew on Srinagar after demonstrations protesting against alleged excesses by security forces in which protesters clash with the police.
Jun 7, 1995 Indian police arrest 3 Kashmiri separatists and several others who marched in a protest to mark the Holy Islamic month of Muharram.
Jun 16, 1995 2 soldiers and 2 civilians are killed in a mine blast.
Jul 1995 Several bombs kill at least 22.
Jul 5, 1995 2 British and 2 American tourists are kidnapped while visiting Kashmir. Many separatist groups issue statements condemning the kidnapping. A previously unknown group called Al-Faran claims responsibility.
Jul 8 - 11, 1995 A German tourist and a Norwegian tourist are kidnapped in Kashmir by Al-Faran in 2 separate incidents. Al-Faran demands the release of 20 captured guerilla leaders and threatens to kill the hostages if its demands are not met. Note: Throughout the duration of the kidnapping, which drags on for several months, Al-Faran constantly changes its demands for the release of the hostages but the demands always include the release of some captured separatists.
Jul 9, 1995 One of the American hostages escapes from Al-Faran.
Jul 21, 1995 2 of the hostages held by Al-Faran are injured in a gun battle between Al-Faran militants and Indian security forces.
Jul 22, 1995 At least 7 soldiers and 2 rebels are killed when militants ambush a patrol in Kashmir.
Aug 1995 Several attacks and bombings occur on an annual pilgrimage of thousands of Hindus to a sacred cave in Kashmir despite the protection of thousands of Indian troops. At least 20 are killed. Harkat-ul-Ansar claims responsibility for most of the attacks.
Aug 1995 Violence in Kashmir including several bombings leaves at least 103 dead.
Aug 6, 1995 The Indian government impounds a book which is critical of its policy in Kashmir.
Aug 13, 1995 Al-Faran announces that it has killed one of its 5 western hostages and threatens to kill the other 4 if India does not release some jailed separatists. The beheaded body of the Norwegian hostage is found shortly thereafter. JKLF chairman Amanullah Khan and many other separatist leaders condemn the beheading.
Aug 14 - 15, 1995 Kashmiris strike to mark India's independence day and to protest the execution of a Norwegian hostage by Al-Faran.
Aug 16 - 17, 1995 There are several accusations by Pakistan and some Kashmiri separatist groups that India is staging the ongoing Al-Faran hostage crisis in Kashmir to raise tensions in the region for political ends. Pakistan and most of the separatist groups have condemned the kidnappings. India denies the charges and accuses Pakistan of being behind the kidnappings. Note: Similar accusations are made throughout the Al-Faran hostage crisis and will not be further noted here unless otherwise noteworthy.
Aug 28, 1995 Indian security forces violently break up a demonstration by Kashmiri separatists.
Sep 1995 Violence in Kashmir including several bombings and clashes between separatist militants and government security forces kill at least 30.
Sep 21, 1995 JKLF leader Khan (who is currently living in exile in Pakistan) says that he has dissolved the political wing of the group headed by Yasin Malik and appointed Shabbir Ahmad Siddiqie as president of the organization in the Indian-ruled part of Kashmir. Kahn says that Malik had failed to obey policy orders and has engaged in damaging internal vendettas on those who disagree with him on petty organizational issues. Khan also criticized the leader of the Ikhwan-ul-Muslameen outfit, which is believed to have links with Indian intelligence agencies.
Oct 11, 1995 A poll shows that 72% of Kashmiris believe that only independence can bring peace to the region and 80% say that elections are not the answer.
Oct 11, 1995 Reuters reports that the APHC is opening a propaganda office in New Delhi to campaign against India's proposal for holding elections in Kashmir.
Oct 22, 1995 Indian police violently disperse protesters angered by the arrest of 3 Kashmiri separatist leaders on their way to address a rally.
Oct 24, 1995 Indian security forces clash with protesters and arrest the leaders of the march.
Nov 4, 1995 India announces plans to hold elections in Kashmir in December. Separatist groups condemn the plan.
Nov 5, 1995 Hindus from Kashmir clash with police while attempting to disrupt the opening of a Kashmiri separatist group's office in New Delhi.
Jan 1996 Sumit Ganguly argues that the insurgency has reached a stalemate. Neither the Indian government nor the rebels, even with Pakistani support, can achieve a military victory. The Indian government is following a three-pronged approach. It continues its military campaign to suppress the insurgents while attempting to sow discord among the groups through offers of negotiation. Finally, it is attempting to revive the political process (Ganguly 1996b, 77). None of the militant groups have been willing to open negotiations with the government as such a move is considered political suicide. The rebel movement remains fragmented and dissension erupts into periodic violence between the various organizations (Ganguly 1996a, 153). There are at least a dozen major insurgent groups including the secular JKLF which supports independence and the pro-Pakistani, Islamic extremist Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HUM), Hizbollah, Ikhwan-ul-Musalmeen and the Harkat-ul-Ansar. In the early 1990s, Pakistan reportedly reduced its support for the pro-independence JKLF and now provides the bulk of its aid to the pro-Pakistani groups (Wirsing 1994, 123). The two most widely supported groups are alleged to be the JKLF and the Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. Most of the rebel groups are also reported to have links with the state's political parties. In the case of the JKLF, it has been linked to the National Conference, which previously ruled the state, although such links are strictly tacit (Wirsing 1994, 132-33). Estimates are that 15-20,000 people (insurgents, armed forces, civilians, etc) have died since the insurgency began (Ganguly, 1996b, 77).
Jan 3, 1996 The Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Front, a previously unknown group, claims responsibility for a bomb attack in Delhi which results in seven casualties (Reuters, 01/03/96).
Jan 4, 1996 Demonstrations are held and businesses are closed in Srinagar to protest recent attacks on the leader of the Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (Reuters, 01/04/96).
Jan 5, 1996 Businesses close for a second day in Srinagar; this time to protest against the UN failure to arrange a plebiscite (Reuters, 01/05/96).
Jan 10, 1996 The National Conference calls for an official enquiry into human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir (Reuters, 01/10/96).
Jan 12, 1996 Shops and government offices close in Kashmir in protest of the killing of a Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Front leader (Reuters, 01/12/96)
Jan 15, 1996 The All-Hurriyat Freedom Conference offers to help further negotiations with Al-Faran, the group reportedly responsible for kidnapping and holding four Westerners hostage for the past six months (Reuters, 01/15/96).
Jan 17, 1996 President Benazir Bhutto says Pakistan is ready to discuss the Kashmir issue if India puts it on their bilateral agenda. She also indicates that her country is willing to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) if India also does (Reuters, 01/17/96).
Jan 24, 1996 A local Congress politician is killed in Srinagar (Reuters, 01/24/96).
Feb 9, 1996 Four former leaders of rebel groups offer to open peace talks with Delhi without the inclusion of Pakistan (Reuters, 02/09/96). The Hurriyat Conference rejects the leaders' offer the next day (Ibid., 02/10/96).
Feb 14, 1996 The Muslim Janbaz Force puts out shoot-on-sight orders for the four rebel leaders who recently offered to open peace talks (Reuters, 02/14/96).
Feb 16, 1996 The Hurriyat Conference calls for tripartite talks with India and Pakistan. The JKLF says that 95% of Kashmiri residents they polled voted in favor of talks (Reuters, 02/16/96).
Feb 20, 1996 India declares a 24-hour unilateral ceasefire in Jammu and Kashmir to coincide with the Muslim festival of Eid. This is the first such offer in the six year insurgency (Reuters, 02/20/96).
Mar 8, 1996 A protest in Srinagar against excesses by both sides is broken up by police (Reuters, 03/08/96).
Mar 14, 1996 Pakistan opposes India's plans to hold peace talks with four Kashmiri rebel leaders, arguing that the peoples' true representative is the Hurriyat. Meanwhile, 15 rebels and 3 soldiers are killed in clashes between the two sides (Reuters, 03/14/96).
Mar 15, 1996 Interior Minister Shankarrao Chavan holds talks with four Kashmiri rebel leaders in Delhi. This is the first direct meeting between the government and any rebels since 1990. A day-long strike is held in Srinagar (Reuters, 03/15/96).
Mar 22, 1996 Two of the four rebel leaders who recently held talks with the government state that they are against May elections for federal posts in Jammu and Kashmir. The two leaders first want three confidence-building measures enacted by the government. These are: 1) the disarming of pro-Delhi militants; 2) the release of Kashmiri prisoners; 3) the halting of security and military operations by security forces in the state (Reuters, 03/22/96).
Mar 23, 1996 Three senior Indian officials meet with the four rebel leaders to discuss confidence-building measures in Kashmir (Reuters, 03/23/96).
Mar 24, 1996 At least seven people are killed as security forces and the JKLF clash outside the state's holiest shrine, the Hazratbal in Srinagar. JKLF rebels remain inside the shrine for two days until a deal is worked out with the government for their safe passage (Reuters, 03/24/96).
Mar 26, 1996 In a speech to the UN Human Rights Commission, Pakistani Foreign Minister Assef Ahmad Ali accuses India of making Kashmir a "killing field". He says that more than 50,000 have died so far and that war is not the only option to lasting peace (Reuters, 03/26/96).
Mar 27, 1996 Police break up a crowd in Srinagar protesting the killing of a local human rights activist. His widow asserts that the government is responsible for his death (Reuters, 03/27/96).
Mar 29, 1996 The National Conference says that it won't contest May's federal elections in Kashmir unless the region gets more autonomy. The elections will be the first held since the insurgency began in 1989 (Reuters, 03/29/96).
Mar 30, 1996 21 rebels are killed in gunbattles with security forces. Among the dead is JKLF faction leader Shabbir Siddiqie (Reuters, 03/30/96).
Mar 31, 1996 A four-day strike is held in Srinagar in protest of yesterday's killings of rebel forces (Reuters, 03/31/96).
Apr 1, 1996 The Hurriyat accuses the Western world of turning a blind eye to India's "reign of terror" in favor of profit and trade (Reuters, 04/01/96).
Apr 1996 General elections begin in India.
Apr 2, 1996 The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Jose Ayala Lasso, calls upon India to investigate the recent killing of a prominent Kashmiri human rights activist and to punish those responsible. He also calls for peace talks (Reuters, 04/02/96).
Apr 9, 1996 A Congress member is killed by rebels (Reuters, 04/09/96).
Apr 11, 1996 Two Hurriyat leaders who oppose elections in Kashmir escape deadly attacks. They allege that the government's death squads are responsible (Reuters, 04/11/96).
Apr 16 - 17, 1996 Three people are killed and 10 wounded in a bomb attack against security forces in Jammu and Kashmir. Al-Jihad claims responsibility (Reuters, 04/16-17/96).
Apr 18, 1996 A strike is held in the Kashmir valley, the heart of the insurgency (Reuters, 04/18/96).
Apr 20, 1996 12 rebels and 1 soldier are killed in gunbattles (Reuters, 04/20/96).
May 1996 No party wins a majority of seats at the federal level. The Hindu Bharatiya Janata Party emerges with 194 seats including its allies. It has the largest number of seats for the lower house, the Lok Sabha. The Congress wins 136 seats and the left-wing National Front-Left Front (now referred to as the United Front) 117 seats. The leader of the BJP, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, attempts to form a government but resigns when he faces the prospect of losing a non-confidence vote. On May 28, H.D. Deve Gowda of the United Front, with the support of the Congress, becomes Prime Minister (Reuters, 07/30/96).
May 4, 1996 Pakistan accuses India of involvement in recent bomb blasts in its Punjab province. It says that the attacks are an attempt to detract attention from upcoming federal elections in Kashmir (Reuters, 05/04/96).
May 5, 1996 Prime Minister Narasimha Rao visits Jammu and Kashmir and urges residents to vote in upcoming elections. This is his first visit since he was elected in 1991 (Reuters, 05/05/96).
May 5, 1996 8 Nepali migrant workers are killed in militants in Kashmir. This is likely to be the first attack on migrants in the state (Reuters, 05/06/96).
May 7, 1996 A strike is held in the Kashmir valley but large numbers peacefully turn out to vote in Jammu and Ladakh. Federal elections will be held in the valley on May 23 and 30 (Reuters, 05/07/96).
May 20, 1996 7 policemen are wounded in a rebel grenade attack in Srinagar (Reuters, 05/20/96).
May 21, 1996 A car bomb in a Delhi marketplace kills 13. A Kashmiri rebel group claims responsibility but police are not sure who the perpetrators are (Reuters, 05/21/96).
May 23, 1996 Around 1000 residents demonstrate against the holding of federal elections in Baramulla, 35 miles from Srinagar. Police disperse the crowd. Protests are held in other areas and some Kashmiris assert they are forced to vote by police forces (Reuters, 05/23/96).
May 25, 1996 A bomb in Jammu kills 1 and injures 46. Protests occur in Srinagar (Reuters, 05/25/96).
May 27, 1996 In pre-election violence in the valley, grenades are thrown at security patrols and three houses are burnt (Reuters, 05/27/96).
May 28, 1996 Six people die following a rocket attack on a Srinagar hotel. A general strike is held (Reuters, 05/28/96).
May 30, 1996 Anti-election protests are held in the valley. Two die and 25 are injured. A 37% voter turnout is reported in elections for federal seats from the state. Residents allege they are forced to vote (Reuters, 05/30/96).
Jun 2, 1996 5 militants of the Jammu and Kashmir Ikhwan and the Muslim Mujahideen are killed when they try to disrupt vote-counting. Both groups are reported to have ties with Indian security forces. The Congress Party wins 4/6 parliamentary seats in the state (Reuters, 06/02/96).
Jun 4, 1996 The new United Front Prime Minister H.D. Deve Gowda says that he will hold talks with Pakistan about Jammu and Kashmir. He asserts that peace will only arise through granting the state maximum autonomy and that his government is working on a new proposal. The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front says that it doesn't want autonomy but independence and reunification with Pakistan's Azad Kashmir. The Hurriyat Conference says trilateral talks that include Kashmiris, India, and Pakistan are necessary to obtain a peaceful solution. Otherwise, it says autonomy won't work. The leader of the National Conference, Farooq Abdullah asserts that the government promise is a step in the right direction. Pakistan indicates that there is nothing new in the Indian offer (Reuters, 06/05/96).
Jun 7, 1996 Indian Foreign Minister I.K. Gujral calls for high-level talks with Pakistan. No bilateral talks have been held in the past two years. Earlier, Pakistani President Bhutto had sent a letter to Prime Minister Gowda asking for negotiations (Reuters, 06/07/96).
Jun 7, 1996 Pakistan asks Sri Lanka to use its good offices to bring it and India to the bargaining table (Reuters, 06/07/96).
Jun 8, 1996 4 people are killed as Indian and Pakistani troops exchange gunfire across the Line of Control (extends over 1012 km.) (Reuters, 06/08/96).
Jun 8, 1996 Militants kill 10 Hindu villagers east of Jammu. Ambassadors from Germany, the US, Norway, and Britain visit Srinagar to help promote the release of 4 Western hostages kidnapped in 1995. Hurriyat leaders protest to the UNMOGIP over an alleged attempt by Indian forces to kill one of their leaders. This is the latest in a series of attacks on the organization's leadership (Reuters, 06/09/96).
Jun 12, 1996 A five-member EU delegation arrives in Srinagar to obtain first-hand information on the political situation. It meets with Hurriyat representatives and human rights activists (Reuters, 06/12/96).
Jun 24, 1996 The government considers introducing a resolution in next month's parliamentary session to grant autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir (Reuters, 06/24/96).
Jun 30, 1996 Up to 4 civilians are killed in gunbattles between security forces and militant. Prime Minister Gowda says that Kashmir will not be discussed in proposed bilateral talks with Pakistan (Reuters, 06/30/96).
Jul 6, 1996 Prime Minister Gowda visits the Kashmir valley. Protests are held. He is the first Indian leader to visit the valley in nearly 10 years (Reuters, 07/06/96)
Jul 7, 1996 Militants kill 11 North Indian migrant workers in the state. Recently, 10 Kashmiris were also murdered (Reuters, 07/07/96).
Jul 8, 1996 The government announces that state elections will be held in Jammu and Kashmir in September or October. New Delhi has reportedly been encouraged by indications of an economic turnaround, increased rice production in the state, and an alleged decrease in violence. Meanwhile, 19 Indian journalists are detained by rebels who want to meet with their newspaper's editors (Reuters, 07/08/96).
Jul 10, 1996 Reuters asserts that Indian security forces are reluctant to disarm pro-government militia groups. At least three such groups, comprised of former rebels, are reported to be in existence. They are the Ikhwan ul Muslimoon, the Jammu and Kashmir Ikhwan, and the Muslim Mujahideen (07/10/96).
Jul 16, 1996 6 Indian tourists are killed in the state (Reuters, 07/16/96).
Jul 19, 1996 1 civilian dies in a landmine attack aimed at security forces in Srinagar (Reuters, 07/19/96).
Jul 23, 1996 The Indian government announces a $715 million project to build railway lines along the Kashmir valley. This is part of a package to boost the state's economy. A major road project and the acceleration of two hydroelectric projects are also proposed (BBC, 07/27/96).
Jul 28, 1996 4 civilians are killed when a bomb explodes in Anantnag, Kashmir (Reuters, 07/28/96).
Jul 30, 1996 The Awami League says that it won't contest state elections due to the alleged rigging of May's federal elections. The League and its military arm, the Ikhwan-ul-Muslimoon, a pro-government militia, reportedly helped ensure the smooth running of the parliamentary polls (Reuters, 07/30/96).
Jul 31, 1996 7 Hizb-ul-Mujahideen rebels are killed after paramilitary forces storm their camp (Reuters, 07/31/96).
Aug 2, 1996 Prime Minister Gowda announces an economic plan for Jammu and Kashmir. Along with waiving the state's outstanding loans, an additional $100 million will be added to the state budget to develop an airport and other infrastructure projects to encourage tourism (Reuters, 08/02/96).
Aug 5, 1996 Prime Minister Gowda visits the state to help pave the way for upcoming state elections (Reuters, 08/05/96).
Aug 7, 1996 State elections are set for September 7, 16, 21, and 30 (Reuters, 08/07/96).
Aug 8, 1996 The head of the People's League, Shabir Singh, is suspended by the Hurriyat for meeting with Frank Wisner, the US Ambassador to India. Last week, the Hurriyat had agreed not to meet with him after Wisner reportedly stated that the Hurriyat had been meeting with Indian authorities. The Hurriyat denies any meeting with government officials and plans to boycott the upcoming state elections. Meanwhile, Pakistan denounces the Indian attempt to hold elections while its troops are still deployed in the region (Reuters, 08/08/96).
Aug 11, 1996 A key leader of the pro-Pakistani Hizb-ul-Mujahideen is killed by security forces. The National Conference, run by Farooq Abdullah, states that it will participate in the upcoming state elections as Prime Minister Gowda has promised to provide the state with autonomy (Reuters, 08/11/96).
Aug 15, 1996 A strike is held in Srinagar to mark India's independence day. Some 100 pro-India members of the Jammu and Kashmir Awami League hoist a national flag (Reuters, 08/15/96).
Aug 22, 1996 Pakistan is attempting to reverse a UN Security Council decision to delete some 50 items from its agenda, including its dispute with India over Kashmir. If a country launches a protest, the Security Council will keep the issue on the agenda for another year. Kashmir has been on the table since 1949. An Arab group within the United Nations has also taken up the issue along with a ministerial contact group of the Organization of the Islamic Conference. They will write to the Security Council to protest the deletion (Reuters, 08/22/96).
Aug 31, 1996 12 rebels and 5 security personnel are killed in gunbattles during the past two days. There has been an increase in violence in the state in the run-up to elections. British Foreign Secretary Malcolm Rifkind calls for international observers to monitor the election proceedings. India rejects this while indicating that individuals will be allowed to observe the process (Reuters, 08/31/96).
Sep 6, 1996 Over 200 anti-election protestors demonstrate in Srinagar. A strike is also observed (Reuters, 09/06/96).
Sep 7, 1996 The first phase of state elections ends in Kashmir. Voting will also take place on September 16, 21, and 30 to allow security forces and polling personnel to travel to the regions. A record 142 candidates are running for 87 seats. These are the first elections since 1987; in 1990, direct rule was imposed. In this first round, 50-53% of the electorate cast ballots amid some violence and allegations that security personnel forced some residents to vote. A number of separatist leaders are arrested. Some 200,000 troops are in the state. The APHC, a coalition of 30 Kashmiri groups, which remains divided over objectives and the degree of militancy, has boycotted the elections. A foreign diplomat says Kashmiris are tired of the violent gun culture. Meanwhile, Indian and Pakistani troops exchange gunfire across the Line of Control (Reuters, 09/07/96).
Sep 12, 1996 National Conference leader Farooq Abdullah escapes a grenade attack while campaigning in a village south of Srinagar. At least 20 political activists have been killed and 12 candidates escaped attacks since campaigning began in late August (Reuters, 09/12/96).
Sep 17, 1996 Pakistani Prime Minister Bhutto urges India to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty which was recently approved by the UN General Assembly. She says her country will not join until India does (Reuters, 09/17/96).
Sep 19, 1996 Rebels attack government forces in 10 different locales. The Dhuktaran-e-Milat (Daughters of the Nation) holds an anti-election protest (Reuters, 09/19/96).
Sep 20, 1996 Asiaweek asserts that Indian Prime Minister Deve Gowda was critical in ensuring that local leaders contest the elections. Gowda has promised maximum autonomy for Kashmir following the elections. He is opposed by Hindu nationalists from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The magazine also states that local guerrilla movements have been largely crushed (09/20/96). Reports indicate that only 28.8% of voters cast ballots in Srinagar, which is the heart of the insurgency. Twenty senior Hurriyat leaders were arrested prior to the vote. A strike was observed in the region (Reuters, 09/20/96).
Sep 21, 1996 A dozen blasts occur across the state. The attacks are targeted against security forces (Reuters, 09/21/96).
Sep 23, 1996 4 people are injured when a grenade is hurled at the Congress Party headquarters in Srinagar (Reuters, 09/23/96).
Sep 30, 1996 Sporadic violence marks the last phase of state elections. An approximately 56% voter turnout is reported (Reuters, 09/30/96).
Oct 2 - 4, 1996 The National Conference party led by former chief minister Farooq Abdullah wins a large majority in Kashmir's state elections. The National Conference captures 57/87 assembly seats, followed by the BJP with eight and the Congress with seven seats. The socialist United Front, Gowda's coalition, wins four seats. Kashmiri insurgent groups under the banner of the All Party Hurriyat (Freedom) Conference called for a boycott and a 38-day strike to oppose the polls. However, most shops and businesses only observed a two-day strike in the last phase of polling. National Conference leader Abdullah, who escaped two grenade attacks during the elections, vows to continue a crackdown on the militants, stating they should move to Pakistan. Political analysts believe the vote is in favor of autonomy although Srinagar residents remain cynical that the new state government can quell violence and obtain autonomy (Reuters, 10/02-10/04/96).
Oct 4, 1996 The All Party Hurriyat Conference rejects a government offer to hold talks. The Conference includes some 30 groups including the JKLF. APHC acting Chair Ghulam Nabi Sumji accuses Chief Minister Abdullah of being a puppet of New Delhi (Reuters, 10/04/96).
Oct 5, 1996 J & K Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah says that autonomy will be implemented within a year. He also joins Gowda's center United Front coalition. Abdullah wants a return to Kashmir's 1952 status as mandated by the Indian constitution. Kashmir was provided with wide state autonomy except in the areas of communications, foreign affairs, and defense. Also, Abdullah states that a constitutional provision should be implemented allowing the state to select its own President who cannot be dismissed by Delhi without state approval. Well-known author and analyst M.J. Akbar asserts that Kashmir could provide a model for devolution and thereby strengthen the Indian federal structure (Reuters, 10/06/96).
Oct 10, 1996 Pakistan accuses the Farooq Abdullah government of being a puppet administration. It asserts that a real solution is a UN plebiscite and that the Hurriyat is the true representative of the people (Reuters, 10/10/96).
Oct 11, 1996 Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister Abdullah asks rebels to lay down their arms. He states that his government will establish a commission to monitor human rights (Reuters, 10/11/96).
Oct 12, 1996 The Harkat-ul-Ansar has claimed responsibility for a bomb attack that kills 2 soldiers and injures eight others (Reuters, 10/12/96).
Oct 14, 1996 Three soldiers are killed in a landmine attack in Jammu and Kashmir (Reuters, 10/14/96).
Oct 18, 1996 The Jammu and Kashmir legislature convenes for the first time since 1990 (Reuters, 10/18/96).
Oct 19, 1996 Chief Minister Abdullah warns rebels to lay down their arms within 30 days or face a security crackdown, including the efforts of various pro-government private militias (Reuters, 10/19/96).
Oct 21, 1996 7 relatives of a National Conference activist are killed in a bomb attack (Reuters, 10/21/1996).
Oct 23, 1996 Rebels detonate a car bomb outside a government building in Srinagar, killing 2 people. The Jamiat-ul-Mujahideen, which favors a merger with Pakistan, claims responsibility, asserting that the attack was in response to Chief Minister Abdullah's October 19th ultimatum (Reuters, 10/23/96).
Oct 27, 1996 A strike is held in Srinagar to mark the 49th anniversary of the arrival of Indian troops in the region (Reuters, 10/27/96).
Oct 28, 1996 Pakistan says that it will fence its border with India to check illegal immigration. The fencing will begin in Pakistan's Sindh province. Meanwhile, Chief Minister Abdullah urges foreigners to invest in Jammu and Kashmir (Reuters, 10/28/96).
Nov 4, 1996 The government pledges to release 450 people imprisoned for reported links with separatist elements. India says 2400 such people are in custody; separatists state the figure is more than 10,000. Meanwhile, 144 militants have recently surrendered (Reuters, 11/04/96).
Nov 5, 1996 Pakistani President Farooq Leghari dismisses the government of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and dissolves Parliament (Reuters, 11/05/96).
Nov 16, 1996 A rebel grenade attack kills one civilian. Up to 9 Hizb-ul-Mujahideen and rebels from other groups die in gunbattles with security forces (Reuters, 11/16/96).
Nov 26, 1996 J & K Chief Minister Abdullah forms a committee to recommend ways to restore and safeguard autonomy and promote cordial relations with New Delhi. The eight-member committee is headed by Karan Singh, a former state leader. Its report is expected within a year (Reuters, 11/26/96).
Nov 28, 1996 9 people are injured when a bomb explores in a Srinagar marketplace (Reuters, 11/28/96).
Dec 3, 1996 Investigators blame Kashmiri, and not Sikh, militants for a train bomb that kills 12 near Chandigarh, Punjab province. The train was enroute to Jammu (Reuters, 12/03/96).
Dec 4, 1996 A bomb at a communist political rally in the state kills four people (Reuters, 12/04/96).
Dec 5, 1996 A bomb attack is reported against state Chief Minister Abdullah, who escapes uninjured (Reuters, 12/05/96).
Dec 10, 1996 Around 1000 Hurriyat members, mostly women, demonstrate in Delhi against human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir. They are confronted by about 50 Kashmiri Hindus who fled the state in 1990. No violence is reported (Reuters, 12/10/96).
Dec 16, 1996 A strike is held by the womens' group, Dhuktaran-e-Milat, in Srinagar to mark Bangladesh's 25th anniversary. The women assert that Bangladesh's independence is part of an Indian conspiracy to divide Muslims (Reuters, 12/16/96).
Jan 1997 Since Deve Gowda became Prime Minister around six months ago, India has made a conscious effort to ease tensions with its regional neighbors. India has settled long-standing water disputes with both Bangladesh and Nepal. The "new" approach focuses on what India can do for its neighbors and seeks to deepen relations within South Asia. The smaller regional states often accuse India of playing a Big Brother role (Reuters, 01/97).
Jan 5, 1997 A bomb explodes near Chief Minister Abdullah's residence (he is away). 7 people are killed and the Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen claims responsibility. The federal and state governments have not yet presented their autonomy package (Reuters, 01/05/97).
Jan 8, 1997 Police, residents, and analysts assert that despite recent elections violence has not abated in Kashmir. In November and December, 48 bomb explosions and 55 grenade attacks were reported. This is up from 35 explosions and 38 bomb attacks in July and August. The number of dead did decline from around 400 in July-August to 325 at year's end. However, security officials believe that the cold weather is largely the reason. They state that illegal cross-border infiltration from Pakistan has increased since the elections (Reuters, 01/08/97). Meanwhile, Chief Minister Abdullah provides the army with greater powers to counter insurgency operations. The army is no longer required to seek the approval of the state Home Ministry before undertaking operations (Ibid.).
Jan 14, 1997 3 people are dead following a bomb explosion at a Srinagar mosque (Reuters, 01/14/97).
Jan 24, 1997 Protests are held in Srinagar against security operations in advance of India's Republic Day on Jan. 26 (Reuters, 01/24/97).
Jan 31, 1997 The US State Department's 1996 Report on Human Rights Practices in India has, according to Indian officials, for the first time noted that separatists are also responsible for human rights abuses (Reuters, 01/31/97).
Feb 3, 1997 Federal elections in Pakistan lead to an overwhelming victory for Nawaz Sharif, who ruled the state before Benazir Bhutto's election in 1993. Meanwhile, the army declares a week-long unilateral ceasefire in Jammu and Kashmir to mark the Muslim festival of Eid. Some 400 foreign militants have reportedly been killed in the last three years (Reuters, 02/03/97).
Feb 4, 1997 4 policemen and 5 pro-government militants are shot dead (Reuters, 02/04/97).
Feb 13, 1997 Indian Prime Minister Gowda says that while he favors a resumption of talks with Pakistan, India will not give up the area of Kashmir that it controls. He also announces $2.1 billion in federal aid while visiting the region. Recently, Chief Minister Abdullah drew the ire of Hindu nationalists when he suggested that the line of control be made a permanent boundary (Reuters, 02/13/97).
Feb 18, 1997 The United States urges India and Pakistan to begin peace talks quickly and calls upon India to provide an "accommodation", based upon Prime Minister Gujral's new regional doctrine. US Ambassador to India, Frank Wisner, states that his country is not seeking to mediate between the two sides (Reuters, 02/18/97).
Feb 20, 1997 A member of the National Conference, Saifuddin Soz, is given a cabinet posting in the federal government. The Conference is part of the federal United Front coalition (Reuters, 02/20/97).
Feb 24, 1997 A grenade attack aimed at a security patrol misses and kills one civilian in Srinagar (Reuters, 02/24/97).
Feb 26, 1997 A grenade attack on the shrine of a Muslim saint in Bahugund village injures 31 people (Reuters, 02/24/97).
Mar 3, 1997 A former National Conference legislator is shot while a bomb blast in a mine kills three people and one soldier. Chief Minister Abdullah accuses Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence of recent car bomb attacks in the state. He argues that they are an effort to stop peace talks (Reuters, 03/03/97).
Mar 7, 1997 Three leaders of the Hizb-ul-Mujahideen are killed in a gunbattle with security forces. The Hurriyat asserts that they were murdered while in government custody (Reuters, 03/07/97).
Mar 9, 1997 The foreign ministry secretaries of India and Pakistan will meet in New Delhi from March 28-31. This will be the first talks since January, 1994 when negotiations bogged down over Kashmir. No agenda has been announced although Pakistan has previously insisted that Kashmir is the core issue. A two-day protest strike is held in Srinagar (Reuters, 03/09/97).
Mar 11, 1997 One civilian is killed and 12 injured in two grenade attacks against security forces (Reuters, 03/11/97).
Mar 13, 1997 Protests are held in Jammu and Kashmir following the decision of the US Supreme Court against a request by a coalition of Muslim groups to remove a sculpture of the Prophet from the premises. The sculpture has been in the courtroom for 66 years (Reuters, 03/13/97).
Mar 17, 1997 Referred to as Kashmir's "prisoner of conscience", one of the region's most popular separatist leaders urges India and Pakistan to involve Kashmiri leaders in their upcoming bilateral talks. Shabir Ahmad Shah was expelled from the APHC last year when he met with US Ambassador Frank Wisner against the organization's wishes. Shah says that talks will be as futile and unproductive as before unless Kashmiris are included (Reuters, 03/17/97).
Mar 20, 1997 The US State Department's top person for South Asia, Robin Raphel, says that no enduring trust can be achieved unless regular communications are held between India and Pakistan. Other officials are hailing the upcoming meeting as a "window of opportunity". In previous separate talks with India and Pakistan, the US has urged the opening of a dialogue leading to: a) the demilitarization of the Siachen Glacier area. b) mutual reduction of conventional weapons and defense expenditures. c) an agreement whereby both countries agree to stop involvement in each other's insurgencies. Selig Harrison, who is a visiting fellow at the Woodrow Wilson Center, says that the promising factor is that influential elements, that is, industrial leaders, in Pakistan now favor opening trade with India. Previously, fears of being economically swamped by India had hindered such efforts (Reuters, 03/20/97). India unilaterally eases travel restrictions against Pakistanis who want to visit India. This triggers protests by pro-Hindu Bharatiya Janata Party MPs and forces an adjournment in the federal house of parliament, the Lok Sabha. Pakistan recently released 38 Indian children held with Indian fishermen who were seized in Pakistani territorial waters (Reuters, 03/20/97).
Mar 22, 1997 Seven Hindu males are killed in J & K, the first such attack since last September's elections. The APHC condemns the incident. Noteworthy is the fact that JKLF leader Mohammad Yasin Malik lit the funeral pyres saying they were like his brothers. Hindu custom mandates that the eldest son light the pyre. Around 300,000 Hindus fled the Kashmir valley when the insurgency began in 1990; around 8000 Hindu families reportedly remained (Reuters, 03/22/97). Two grenade attacks in Srinagar injure 10 people. The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front urges the Organization of the Islamic Conference to support its freedom struggle. Toward this end, a small demonstration is held at an OIC summit in Islamabad, Pakistan (Reuters, 03/22/97).
Mar 23, 1997 One soldier and four rebels are killed in a clash outside Srinagar (Reuters, 03/23/97).
Mar 25, 1997 In Jammu, some 25,000 Hindus protest against the recent killings of seven Hindus. The demonstration is dispersed by police. Chief Minister Abdullah criticizes the Hindu protests stating that "no tears were shed when thousands of Jammu and Kashmir Muslims were killed" (Reuters, 03/25/97). A one-day Organization of the Islamic Conference Summit in Pakistan declares its "support for the fundamental rights of the Kashmiri people, including their right to self-determination" (Reuters, 03/25/97).
Mar 26, 1997 7 rebels are killed in encounters with government forces near Srinagar (Reuters, 03/26/97).
Mar 27, 1997 No agenda has been set for tomorrow's talks between India and Pakistan. Pakistan says that they need to address the core issue of Jammu and Kashmir (Reuters, 03/27/97).
Mar 28, 1997 Some 100 All-Party Hurriyat Conference supporters hold a rally in Srinagar to protest its exclusion from today's talks between India and Pakistan. A strike closes down the city. Protests are also held in Pakistani-held Azad Kashmir. Indian Prime Minister Gujral says the focus of the meeting will be on cooperation and particularly upon expanding trade and economic cooperation to ease tensions within the context of the 1972 Simla Agreement (Reuters, 03/28/97).
Mar 29, 1997 APHC Chairman Mirwaiz Umar Farooq criticizes India and Pakistan for holding talks about Kashmir's fate without including the very Kashmiris whose destiny is at stake. The APHC favors a plebiscite to determine the region's future status. It says that Pakistan did not consult the organization before its talks with India. Farooq believes that the APHC can play a positive role by attempting to persuade militants to suspend or renounce their activities, if India scales down its security operations and opens talks with the Kashmiris. A car bomb in Jammu kills 16 people (Reuters, 03/29/97).
Mar 30, 1997 Four people are injured following a grenade attack in Srinagar. Police officials report that there has been a recent increase in violence with 192 people killed this month, including 92 militants and 12 security personnel. Over 17 explosions and 18 grenade attacks occurred. No figures for February were provided (Reuters, 03/30/97).
Mar 31, 1997 Talks between India and Pakistan in New Delhi have ended. The two countries will meet again in Islamabad (Reuters, 03/31/97).
Apr 3, 1997 A grenade attack in Srinagar injures six people (Reuters, 04/03/97).
Apr 6, 1997 Five rebels are killed in two shootouts with government forces. Also, Kashmiri militants are reported to be responsible for a bus explosion in Punjab state which kills two people (Reuters, 04/06/97).
Apr 7, 1997 Four rebels are reportedly killed in encounters with security forces but witnesses asserts that two of the four were civilians murdered by government authorities (Reuters, 04/07/97).
Apr 8, 1997 At the Non-Aligned Movement meeting in New Delhi, Pakistani Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub Khan asserts that his government is determined to resolve its differences with India. He plans to meet with Indian Prime Minister Gujral (Reuters, 04/08/97).
Apr 11, 1997 One person is killed when a grenade explodes outside Jammu and Kashmir's holiest shrine, the Hazratbal (Reuters, 04/11/97).
Apr 17, 1997 Amnesty International accuses India of failing to cooperate in an investigation of last year's murder of a leading human rights activist in Jammu and Kashmir. The activist's widow asserts that the government is responsible for the attack while officials blame the militants (Reuters, 04/17/97).
Apr 23, 1997 A compromise has been reached to replace Prime Minister Deve Gowda following a no-confidence vote. The Congress Party has agreed to his replacement by United Front member, Inder Kumar Gujral, who was sworn in today. He is a former Congress Party member and was Foreign Minister under Gowda (Reuters, 04/23/97).
Apr 25, 1997 Five members of the Ikhwan-ul-Muslimoon, a pro-government militia force, are killed by rebels. In the first three months of this year, 537 people have been killed in 159 bombing and other incidents (Reuters, 04/25/97).
Apr 26, 1997 Five family members are killed in a village northwest of Srinagar (Reuters, 04/26/97).
Apr 27, 1997 To show the importance he attaches to Kashmir, Prime Minister Gujral chooses the state for his first visit outside New Delhi. He states that the focus should be on economic development. He also indicates that he has no plans to hold talks with the APHC in preparation for his meeting with Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on May 12 at the SAARC summit in the Maldives (Reuters, 04/27/97).
May 2 - 5, 1997 Both India and Pakistan issue invitations for Britain's newly-elected Labor Prime Minister Tony Blair to visit their respective countries. In pre-election campaigning, Blair stated that Britain would help negotiate a settlement on Kashmir as it is historically responsible. India says the issue is a bilateral affair while Pakistan welcomes outside involvement. Kashmir's Chief Minister Abdullah states that Blair should not meddle and instead focus on solving his problems, i.e., Northern Ireland (Reuters, 05/02-05/97).
May 8, 1997 The Hurriyat says that human rights violations by security forces are increasing at an alarming rate. It asserts that they have killed at least 818 people since January, including 141 people who were in custody. The government states that more than 700 people have been killed this year in 174 incidents (Reuters, 05/08/97).
May 10, 1997 Around 200 people in Srinagar rally against human rights abuses. A four-day strike called by the Hurriyat is observed (Reuters, 05/10/97).
May 12, 1997 Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah announces that a state human rights commission will soon be formed. He also accuses Pakistan of instigating human rights abuses (Reuters, 05/12/97).
May 13, 1997 For the first time in four years, bilateral talks are held between the prime ministers of India and Pakistan at the SAARC summit in the Maldives. Prime Ministers Gujral and Sharif agree that each country will release more than 200 civil detainees, a direct telephone hot line will be established between the prime ministers' offices and both countries will consider easing travel restrictions across their borders. Each country will also form working groups on various issues. Foreign ministry level talks are scheduled for late June in Islamabad (Washington Post, 05/13/97).
May 14, 1997 The seven countries that comprise the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) will form a free trade zone by the year 2001. Previously, SAARC sought to dismantle all regional tariffs and quotas by 2005 (Washington Post, 05/14/97).
May 15, 1997 15 rebels are killed in encounters with security forces. For the first time ever, Kashmiri newspapers halt publication for three days to protest against human rights violations (Reuters, 05/15/97).
May 19, 1997 Hundreds of people protest in Pulwama, south of Srinagar, following the killing of six people by a government-supported militia, the Ikhwan-ul-Muslimoon (Reuters, 05/19/97).
May 21, 1997 India denies Hurriyat claims of human rights violations in Jammu and Kashmir. The government says that 224 army and paramilitary personnel have been punished for human rights violations since 1990. Since 1992, government officials are reported to have investigated some 2600 abuse cases with 2288 being found false (Reuters, 05/21/97).
May 25, 1997 The Indian Navy eases requirements to increase recruits from Jammu and Kashmir. The government says that there has been a 25% decline in violence in the state from January to April, in comparison to last year. 1200 incidents with 718 casualties have been reported this year compared to 1600 incidents and 949 deaths in the same period in 1996 (Reuters, 05/25/97).
May 26, 1997 Three security personnel and two rebels die in gunbattles. Earlier, five rebels were killed in other encounters (Reuters, 05/26/97).
May 27, 1997 Worries are surfacing in India that the Taliban consolidation of power in Afghanistan and Central Asia might worsen the Kashmiri insurgency. The Taliban, along with Pakistan, have reportedly provided military assistance to Kashmiri insurgents. India had supported the former Afghani Prime Minister Rabbani (Reuters, 05/27/97). A strike is held in Srinagar to protest against human rights violations (Reuters, 05/27/97).
May 28, 1997 Pakistan lodges a protest over an overflight by an Indian jet asserting that it was engaged in a spying mission. India denies the incident (Reuters, 05/28/97).
Jun 3, 1997 8 policemen are wounded in a grenade attack against a National Conference minister who emerged unharmed (Reuters, 06/03/97). India will spend $93.3 million to clean up Jammu and Kashmir's famous lakes and forests that have been neglected due to the insurgency (Reuters, 06/03/97).
Jun 4, 1997 3 soldiers are killed in a landmine attack (Reuters, 06/04/97).
Jun 6, 1997 Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says that he has asked India to withdraw its troops from Jammu and Kashmir as a gesture toward a "new beginning" in bilateral relations. The foreign secretaries of the two countries will meet in Islamabad later this month. A hot-line between the two leaders will be installed this month and both sides will soon simplify visa procedures to allow greater cross-border visits (Reuters, 06/06/97). Seven people are dead following a bomb explosion on a bus in Punjab province. Either Kashmiri or Punjabi militants are reported to be responsible (Reuters, 06/06/97).
Jun 7, 1997 At least 13 rebels are killed in encounters with security personnel. The government says that they infiltrated the state from Pakistan (Reuters, 06/07/97).
Jun 11, 1997 A Pakistani army officer dies in shooting across the Line of Control (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 06/11/97).
Jun 16, 1997 Britain's Minister of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs says that his government will not attempt to mediate the Kashmiri dispute, indicating that it is a bilateral affair (BBC, 06/16/97).
Jun 20, 1997 Talks open in Islamabad, Pakistan between the foreign secretaries of India and Pakistan.
Jun 21, 1997 Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister Abdullah asserts that Pakistan must return its portion of Kashmir (Azad Kashmir). He says that bilateral talks should focus upon the Kashmiri issue and that Pakistan should stop supporting rebel forces. Meanwhile, six rebels are killed in battles in the state (Agence France Presse, 06/21/97).
Jun 23, 1997 Talks between the foreign secretaries of India and Pakistan lead to an eight-point agenda for future peace talks which include the issue of Kashmir. Both sides will release fishermen who were detained by the two governments on July 15. Working groups will be established to address various bilateral issues. The two foreign secretaries will meet again in September in New Delhi (Agence France Presse, 06/23/97).
Jun 27, 1997 A Hurriyat-called strike in the valley demands United Nations' intervention to resolve the Kashmiri dispute (Agence France Presse, 06/27/97).
Jul 9, 1997 A bomb blast on a train in Punjab province is being blamed on either Sikh or Kashmiri militants. 34 people are killed (Agence France Presse, 07/09/97).
Jul 17, 1997 Analysts believe that this is the first time since 1947 that India and Pakistan have had the most favorable relations (Agence France Presse, 07/17/97).
Jul 21, 1997 37 people, including 22 rebels and 5 soldiers, die in recent violence across the state (United Press International, 07/21/97).
Jul 25, 1997 Former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto accuses India of fueling cross-border tensions and asserts that a "weak [Indian] coalition government cannot solve Kashmir". She says that strong decisions are needed, especially as tensions are increasing due to the alleged Indian deployment of the Prithvi missile near the Pakistani border. India denies any missile deployment (Agence France Presse, 07/25/97).
Jul 26, 1997 A Hurriyat-called strike is held in Srinagar as Prime Minister Gujral visits the state (Agence France Presse, 07/26/97).
Jul 27, 1997 Prime Minister Gujral offers to hold unconditional talks with rebels while on a visit to Jammu and Kashmir. This is the first unconditional offer by an Indian government to Kashmiri militants. Rebel leaders hail the offer. However, the next day Gujral states that the rebels will first have to surrender their arms before any talks can occur. He also seems to rule out negotiations with the Hurriyat, arguing that they have no political mandate. The government estimates that there are some 3000 rebels, including foreigners (Agence France Presse, 07/27/97).
Aug 3, 1997 The Panun Kashmir, an organization of Kashmiri Hindus who fled due to the rebellion, rejects a government offer to relocate them in three "safe zones" in the area. The government's $780 million package also includes economic aid and education for their children. The Panun Kashmir argues that it is still unsafe to return (Agence France Presse, 08/03/97).
Aug 7, 1997 The Indian Parliament is told that since last September, 1773 people have been killed in Jammu and Kashmir. This includes 873 civilians, 138 soldiers, and 762 rebels (Agence France Presse, 08/07/97).
Aug 8, 1997 17 rebels, 2 soldiers, and 1 civilian are killed in Jammu and Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 08/08/97).
Aug 12, 1997 4 soldiers die in a landmine attack. 3 civilians are killed in two other incidents (Agence France Presse, 08/12/97).
Aug 14, 1997 Fewer protests than in recent years are held to mark Pakistan's Independence Day. Rebels do raise the Pakistani flag in the valley. India says the decline in support for the militancy is due to fatigue and a security crackdown. Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif urges India to resolve the Kashmir dispute (Agence France Presse, 08/14/97).
Aug 20, 1997 The Hurriyat appeals to the international community to stop the massacre of Kashmiris. The call follows the shooting of two women who were a part of a peaceful demonstration (BBC, 08/20/97).
Aug 20, 1997 Shooting between Indian and Pakistani troops occurs across the Line of Control. It continues for a few days (Agence France Presse, 08/20/97).
Aug 23, 1997 The Indian army says that so far it has blocked the entry of heavy weapons from the Afghan conflict into Jammu and Kashmir. Hundreds of Afghans are reportedly fighting in Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 08/23/97).
Aug 24, 1997 3 Indian and 20 Pakistani soldiers have been killed in recent shooting incidents across the Line of Control (Agence France Presse, 08/24/97).
Aug 25, 1997 New Delhi hails an Amnesty International report that condemns Pakistan's military support for Kashmiri rebels and rebel killings of Hindu civilians (BBC, 08/25/97).
Sep 1, 1997 India denies a Pakistani claim that it is backtracking on setting up a interstate working group on Jammu and Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 09/01/97).
Sep 2, 1997 Radio Pakistan reports that a new organization, the Jammu and Kashmir Solidarity Forum, has been established. The organization will form a plan for achieving self-determination for the region, including the holding of a UN plebiscite. The Forum is comprised of three organizations: Azad Jammu and Kashmir, the Hurriyat, and the Muttahida Jihad Council (BBC, 09/02/97).
Sep 14, 1997 Two Pakistani high commission staff members were expelled from New Delhi last week. Pakistan reciprocates with a similar expulsion (Agence France Presse, 09/14/97).
Sep 16, 1997 Talks between the foreign secretaries of India and Pakistan open in New Delhi.
Sep 17, 1997 Two days of talks between India and Pakistan's foreign secretaries end. India reportedly focused upon expanding trade ties while Pakistan asserted that Kashmir must first be resolved before progress can be made in other areas. Prime Ministers Gujral and Sharif will meet at the United Nations on September 23 (Agence France Presse, 09/17/97).
Sep 23, 1997 Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif calls for a non-aggression treaty with India while visiting the United Nations. He also refers to Indian aggression in Jammu and Kashmir, including the repression of the population (Agence France Presse, 09/23/97).
Sep 30, 1997 Firing across the Line of Control results in the deaths of 16 Indian and 2 Pakistani civilians (Agence France Presse, 09/30/97).
Oct 1, 1997 Pakistani leader Sharif says he will review his government's policy toward India following what he says is Delhi's backtracking on Jammu and Kashmir (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 10/01/97).
Oct 2, 1997 Shelling across the Line of Control stops after the two Prime Ministers speak on a newly established hotline. 14 Pakistani civilians have died recently in these shooting incidents (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 10/02/97).
Oct 5, 1997 17 Indian and 20 Pakistani civilians die in shooting incidents across the Line of Control (Agence France Presse, 10/05/97).
Oct 5, 1997 New Delhi asserts that there has been a decline in killings in Kashmir this year. Up to September of this year, it reports 1536 civilians, 130 soldiers, and 170 rebels have died. By the same month in 1996, 2284 civilians, 125 soldiers, and 128 rebels had been killed. Authorities also contend that over the same period there has been a 40% decline in bombings, abductions were down from 521 to 345 incidents, and attacks on security posts from 1220 to 915 (Agence France Presse, 10/06/97). Jammu and Kashmir's Chief Minister Abdullah announces that troops will be withdrawn from Srinagar, Baramulla, Anantnag, Kupwara, and Phulwama. No date is given. The soldiers were first deployed in these areas in 1990. Troops will remain on the Line of Control. Abdullah says that this is part of his government's demilitarization plan (Ibid.).
Oct 9, 1997 India rebuffs British offers to mediate the Jammu and Kashmir dispute. It says third parties cannot serve a useful purpose. 3 Indian civilians are killed in fighting across the Line of Control (Agence France Presse, 10/09/97).
Oct 10, 1997 India says it hopes that Pakistan will destroy the training camps of the Harkat-ul-Ansar as the United States recently declared the group a "terrorist organization". The group is blamed for the kidnapping of five Western tourists. It is one of 30 organizations labeled as "terrorist" by the US (United Press International, 10/10/97).
Oct 13, 1997 The Indian government denies that Prime Minister Gujral recently referred to Britain as a 3rd rate power. The comment allegedly followed Britain's offer to mediate the Kashmir dispute (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 10/13/97).
Oct 14, 1997 Four pro-independence Kashmiri groups join together to announce that they will hold rallies over the next week to coincide with a pro-Pakistani Kashmir Solidarity Forum human chain. The groups are: the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, the Jammu and Kashmir National Liberation Front, the Jammu and Kashmir National Awami Party, and the Kashmir Freedom Movement (Agence France Presse, 10/14/97). Two days of talks between Indian and Pakistani military officials end with both sides pledging to end recent clashes across the Line of Control (Agence France Presse, 10/14/97).
Oct 16, 1997 4 retired Hindu soldiers have been killed over the past month along with 7 Hindu civilians. The four soldiers were part of a village defense committee in Doda, the 2nd largest Kashmiri district with a 35% Hindu population. The committees were created after an increase in attacks on Hindu civilians (Agence France Presse, 10/16/97).
Oct 18, 1997 Prime Ministers Sharif and Gujral are expected to meet later this month during the Commonwealth summit in the United Kingdom. This would be the third meeting since the two leaders took office this year. India has not yet commented on Pakistani leader Sharif's proposal put forward at the UN in September to set up a mutual non-aggression pact (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 10/18/97). Pakistan urges India to agree to substantive discussions on Jammu & Kashmir to put their bilateral dialogue back-on-track. Pakistan says that India is still unwilling to establish a working group on Kashmir, as agreed upon in June (Agence France Presse, 10/18/97).
Oct 24, 1997 An Indian solider is killed and three injured in a shootout near Jammu city. Two others die in a bomb blast on the outskirts of Srinagar (Agence France Presse, 10/24/97). Two civilians die as Indian troops fire across the Line of Control into Azad Kashmir (Pakistan). The incident follows a recent demonstration in the area in support of the freedom struggle in India's Jammu & Kashmir. It was organized by the Kashmir Solidarity Front which is led by Pakistan's Jamaat-i-Islami party (Agence France Presse, 10/24/97).
Oct 25, 1997 British Prime Minister Tony Blair says that his country is not seeking to intervene in Kashmir which he terms as a bilateral dispute. His comments follow recent tense relations with India over an offer by Britain's Foreign Minister that it help resolve the conflict (Agence France Presse, 10/25/97).
Oct 26, 1997 Hundreds of supporters of the Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) demonstrate in Karachi, Pakistan, in support of independence for the region. They condemn both Indian and Pakistani interference. In 1995, the JKLF split with one faction, led by Amanullah Khan, which is primarily supported in Azad Kashmir. The other faction operates in Indian Kashmir. This group has condemned recent India-Pakistan bilateral talks and the UN inability to hold a referendum in the region (Agence France Presse, 10/26/97). Following meetings between Indian and Pakistani leaders at the Commonwealth Summit, the two sides agree to resume talks as soon as possible. Talks ended in a deadlock earlier this year over India's reported refusal to establish a separate working group to consider the Jammu & Kashmir issue. Pakistan maintains that this is the core dispute that needs to be resolved (Ibid.).
Oct 27, 1997 Protest rallies, some organized by the Hurriyat Conference, are held in Islamabad and parts of Azad Kashmir to demonstrate against Indian rule and push for independence (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 10/27/97). Indian Prime Minister Gujral says that progress was made during meetings with Pakistani counterparts at the recent Commonwealth summit. He states that the issues of crossborder terrorism and the need for a common extradition treaty were added to their bilateral agenda (Ibid.).
Nov 2, 1997 The Press Trust of India reports that 110 people were killed and 860 injured in 366 violent acts in Jammu & Kashmir in the first nine months of 1997. In all of 1996, there were 106 casualties and 1153 injuries. Meanwhile, 3 deaths were reported in bomb blasts in Srinagar (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 11/02/97).
Nov 7, 1997 Jammu & Kashmir's chief Muslim priest is placed under house arrest and banned from visiting Srinagar's largest mosque for weekly prayers (Agence France Presse, 11/07/97).
Nov 8, 1997 Pakistan appears pessimistic about an early resumption of talks with India. The negotiations are set to resume in December (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 11/08/97).
Nov 14, 1997 JKLF leader Amanullah Khan, in a letter to US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, asks the Americans to persuade India and Pakistan to solve the dispute based upon complete independence for a reunited Kashmir. Albright begins her tour of the region in the next few days (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 11/14/97).
Nov 18, 1997 US Secretary of State Albright says that India and Pakistan have to resolve their problems through dialogue and that the US can only "nudge the process along". She also indicates that America wants good relations with both states. Pakistan has urged the US to take an active role in resolving the Kashmir dispute. The Secretary also expressed concern over nuclear proliferation in the region (Agence France Presse, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 11/18/97).
Nov 19, 1997 Indian Prime Minister Gujral visits Bangladesh next week for a business summit where he is expected to meet with his Pakistani counterpart (Agence France Presse, 11/1/9/97).
Nov 21, 1997 Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat offers to mediate talks between India and Pakistan on Jammu & Kashmir, if both sides are willing to accept his offer. He says that he was instrumental in getting Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to hold talks in 1972 (Agence France Presse, 11/21/97).
Nov 29, 1997 Junior Indian Foreign Minister Salim Sherwani meets his Pakistani counterpart, Mohammed Siddiqie Khan Kanju on the sidelines of a SAARC summit in the Maldives. The meeting occurs just before India's federal coalition government resigns following the withdrawal of support from the Congress Party (Agence France Presse, 11/29/97).
Dec 5, 1997 Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif says he regrets the collapse of the Gujral government and hopes that talks can resume once the new government takes over (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 12/05/97).
Dec 10, 1997 A strike to protest human rights abuses paralyzes the Kashmir valley. It is called by the Hurriyat which asserts that soldiers killed 292 suspected Muslim guerrillas and destroyed 157 "rebel" houses this year. The Kashmir government denies the charges (Agence France Presse, 12/10/97).
Dec 16, 1997 A senior Chinese official visiting India denies that his country is supplying Pakistan with long-range missiles. India asserts that this could lead to an arms race on the subcontinent. Both sides agree to continue working on border issues and confidence-building measures (Agence France Presse, 12/16/97).
Dec 18, 1997 Pakistan says that it has sent new proposals to India on resuming a dialogue to normalize relations that have stalled over the issue of Jammu & Kashmir. The proposals are reportedly meant to remove "procedural bottlenecks". Pakistan does however assert that the core issue is still Kashmir (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 12/18/97).
Dec 20, 1997 Sri Lankan President Chandrika Kumarantunga says that her country supports the peace dialogue between India and Pakistan and is willing to help further the process (Agence France Presse, 12/20/97).
Dec 27, 1997 Pakistani Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub Khan says that his government seeks to promote political stability and economic cooperation in the South Asian region. But he states that the Kashmir dispute is the "primary reason for instability". While hoping that talks will resume with India after its federal elections, Khan alludes to the country's hegemonic desires (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 12/27/97).
Dec 29, 1997 The prime ministerial candidate of the Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, says that he favors a decentralization of power in Jammu & Kashmir while Delhi retains control over key areas (Agence France Presse, 12/29/97).
Jan 5, 1998 Several thousand people, including Hurriyat members, hold rallies in Pakistan and Azad Kashmir calling on the United Nations to accord the area self-determination. They also march to the UNMOGIP offices (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 01/05/98).
Jan 8, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Gujral and Pakistani PM Sharif are expected to meet next week on the sidelines of a business/economic summit in Dhaka, Bangladesh (Agence France Presse, 01/08/98).
Jan 10, 1998 40 are injured in three separate grenade attacks in Jammu & Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 01/10/98).
Jan 13, 1998 Pakistan protests to India over the alleged desecration of Islamic shrines in Jammu & Kashmir. One shrine was reportedly set on fire, while others were desecrated (Agence France Presse, 01/13/98).
Jan 14, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Gujral says that the tri-nation business summit between India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh was a "good start" for regional cooperation (Agence France Presse, 01/1/4/98).
Jan 15, 1998 Following three days of talks at a business summit in Dhaka, Pakistan's Foreign Secretary says that India and his country have agreed to resume stalled talks after India's federal elections. He also noted that Jammu & Kashmir will be on the top of the agenda (Agence France Presse, 01/15/98).
Jan 17, 1998 Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif says that solving the Kashmir dispute is vital to a normalization of relations between the two countries (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 01/17/98).
Jan 19, 1998 Jammu & Kashmir's Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah accuses Pakistan of recruiting Afghani mercenaries to create disturbances in the state. He says that normalcy is returning, many mercenaries have been killed, and several Hindus have returned (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 01/19/98).
Jan 24, 1998 Pakistan says it has received a proposal from India to resume stalled bilateral talks. But it says that India must first honor last year's agreement to set up a mechanism to tackle outstanding issues like Jammu & Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 01/24/98).
Jan 26, 1998 23 Hindus are killed on the outskirts of Srinagar (Agence France Presse, 01/26/98).
Jan 27, 1998 A couple of hundred Hindus protest in Delhi and Jammu following the recent murders of 23 Hindus near Srinagar. They call for a general strike to mark the single bloodiest attack since 1989. Jammu & Kashmir Chief Minister Abdullah earlier called upon a UN team to monitor human rights violations by Muslim rebels whom he claims are backed by Pakistan. The Hurriyat Conference has called upon Amnesty International to investigate the recent killings (Agence France Presse, 01/27/98).
Jan 28, 1998 The US condemns the recent massacre of Hindu villagers (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 01/28/98). A Kashmiri Hindu organization, the Panun Kashmir, calls for a Hindu homeland within Jammu & Kashmir. Prime Minister Gujral visits the state. Hindus enforce a strike in Jammu, attack government vehicles, and also protest in Delhi. The national human rights commission calls upon the government to shift Hindus to safe zones within Jammu & Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 01/28/98).
Feb 2, 1998 A visit by Prime Minister Gujral to a Kashmiri village where nine Muslim protestors were recently killed by troops, who were attempting to arrest two militants, has been postponed due to bad weather. A military inquiry into the incident has been launched (Agence France Presse, 02/02/98).
Feb 3, 1998 The Hurriyat Conference calls for an international probe following the recent killings of Muslims by security forces. It also criticizes Hindu Kashmiris for failing to condemn the killings of their Muslim brethren. The Hurriyat will urge both Amnesty International and the OIC to investigate (Agence France Presse, 02/03/98). Jammu & Kashmir Chief Minister Abdullah condemns Kashmiri Hindus for failing to show concern over the deaths of their fellow Muslims (Ibid.).
Feb 4, 1998 Pakistan says that it may have to review its non-proliferation policy if India goes nuclear. It also condemns a BJP plan to build a Hindu temple at Ayodhya, where in 1992 Hindu extremists tore down as centuries-old Muslim mosque (Agence France Presse, 02/04/98).
Feb 5, 1998 Thousands hold rallies and a nation-wide closure of offices and businesses is observed throughout Pakistan and Azad Kashmir to mark solidarity with Kashmir's freedom fighters. Since 1989, this day has been observed in Pakistan. This year also marks the 50th anniversary of UN resolutions calling for a plebiscite to determine the region's future status. While Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif says he will stand by India's Kashmiris, a right-wing religious party in his country, the Jamaat-i-Islami, accuses him of comprising on the issue in order to increase trade with India (Agence France Presse, Deutsche Presse Agentur, 02/05/98). In Jammu & Kashmir, eight union leaders are arrested after they advise government employees to boycott upcoming federal elections due to separatist threats (Agence France Presse, 02/05/98).
Feb 9, 1998 In a visit to Jammu, Prime Minister Gujral vows that "Pakistani-sponsored terrorism" will be wiped out (Agence France Presse, 02/09/98).
Feb 11, 1998 Pakistan dismisses India's BJP party president's comments that it and Bangladesh should reunite with India. Islamabad says that Lal Krishna Advani's views are "wishful thinking" and reveal "Indian hegemonistic ambitions". The BJP is expected to win the most seats, though short of a majority, in India's federal elections set for Feb. 16 to March 7 (Agence France Presse, 02/11/98).
Feb 15, 1998 A number of deaths are reported in Jammu & Kashmir during the run-up to federal elections. Separatists have called for a boycott of the polls (Agence France Presse, 02/15/98).
Feb 20, 1998 Two die and 10 are injured in three separate bombings in Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 02/20/98).
Feb 23, 1998 Pakistani President Muhammad Rafiq Tarar calls on India to accept the right of the people of Kashmir to determine their future through a UN-supervised referendum. He also condemns "brutal atrocities" in the state (Agence France Presse, 02/23/98).
Feb 25, 1998 Pakistani Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub Khan suggests that instead of seeking an India-Pakistan-Bangladesh confederation, BJP president Advani should strive for a conflict and tension-free relationship between India and Pakistan (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 02/25/98). The prime ministerial candidate of the BJP, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, vows to take back Azad Kashmir (under Pakistani control) if his party is voted to power. He also says Pakistani interference in Jammu & Kashmir will be halted (Agence France Presse, 02/25/98).
Feb 26, 1998 The arrest of a number of separatist leaders leads to anti-India protests and strikes in the valley. The Hurriyat continues its campaign to urge a boycott of federal polls (Agence France Presse, 02/26/98). Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says that his government won't compromise on Kashmir. He renews his calls for a UN plebiscite and indicates that he has written to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan to press for the implementation of the 1948 resolutions calling for the referendum. Pakistan also calls on leaders of the Bharatiya Janata Party, expected to form the next government in India, to refrain from statements that could halt the resumption of talks (Agence France Presse, 02/26/98).
Feb 28, 1998 A second day of strikes is held in the Valley to protest upcoming federal elections in Jammu & Kashmir. Clashes are also reported between soldiers and militants. 2 children and 1 soldier are killed and 12 Congress Party members abducted in these incidents. Many people are reported to stay away from voting (Agence France Presse, 02/28/98).
Mar 3, 1998 Pakistan warns that it will take a tough line against any provocation from India if the BJP, which is expected to win federal elections, takes power (Agence France Presse, 03/03/98).
Mar 6, 1998 The Indian army says it has discovered a huge cache of weapons in Jammu & Kashmir. The weapons were reportedly to be used to disrupt federal elections. A few days ago, rebels opened fire upon a rally held by J & K Chief Minister Abdullah. He was not injured (Agence France Presse, 03/06/98).
Mar 7, 1998 The person expected to be the next Prime Minister of India, BJP leader Vajpayee denies charges that his party will threaten India's secular traditions (Agence France Presse, 03/07/98). Russia offers to mediate talks between India and Pakistan on Jammu & Kashmir. Pakistan welcomes the offer (Ibid.).
Mar 10, 1998 Pakistan accuses India of involvement in terrorism in its country. This follows the 2nd train bomb attack in Pakistan in the last 24 hours. Around 30 people were killed. Pakistan says that India's intelligence organization, the Research and Analysis Wing, was involved (Agence France Presse, 03/10/98). The right-wing Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party has been asked to form a federal government in India. The part won 178/545 seats, the largest by a single party followed by the Congress and the United Front (Ibid.).
Mar 11, 1998 Pakistan's Foreign Affairs Minister, Gohar Ayub Khan, warns that his country will be forced to enter an arms race with India if the BJP makes good on its election promise to make India an overt nuclear power. During the federal election campaign, BJP leader Vajpayee stated that India might exercise the nuclear option (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 03/11/98). India's former Home Minister and a newly-elected Congress Party MP for Jammu & Kashmir, Mufti Mohammed Syed, calls for unconditional talks between India and Kashmiri militants. Recently, three soldiers and three rebels died in clashes in the state. Anti-India protests were also reported (Agence France Presse, 03/11/98).
Mar 12, 1998 Pakistan has approved a crackdown on religious separatists in its own country while also appealing for international pressure on India due to the "terrorism" exercised by its security forces (Agence France Presse, 03/12/98).
Mar 15, 1998 India expels some Pakistani embassy officials after a similar act by Pakistan. This is a regular occurrence in the relations between these two states (Agence France Presse, 03/15/98).
Mar 16, 1998 Pakistani Foreign Minister Khan says he hopes the new BJP-led government will resolve "procedural impasses" that have held up talks on normalizing relations between the two states. His comments were made during an Islamic Foreign Ministers meeting (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 03/16/98).
Mar 18, 1998 BJP Prime Minister designate Vajpayee vows that India will develop nuclear weapons. Pakistan says it will respond in-kind. Vajpayee's comment follows reports that Pakistan has developed a long-range ballistic missile. The acrimony signals a new low following talks between the two sides last year (Agence France Presse, 03/18/98).
Mar 19, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee says he wants friendly relations with Pakistan. The new BJP led-coalition government appears ready to repeal the "Gujral Doctrine" (his predecessor) that sought peaceful relations with neighbors on a reciprocal basis. The Prime Minister, who also holds the foreign affairs portfolio, contends that India will follow an "assertive foreign policy that stops unilateral concessions in exchange for talks...This will be unlike the previous government's stance" (Agence France Presse, 03/19/98).
Mar 20, 1998 Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif invites his Indian counterpart to resume bilateral talks, indicating that he is ready to go the "extra mile" for friendly relations (Agence France Presse, 03/20/98).
Mar 21, 1998 Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif says that a normalization of relations with India can only take place when the Kashmir issue is resolved. He reiterates his offer of talks (Agence France Presse, 03/21/98).
Mar 24, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee appeals to Pakistan to continue bilateral talks. He says his government is committed to continue the process begun under the previous United Front government (Agence France Presse, 03/24/98).
Mar 25, 1998 In the BJP-led coalition's speech to Parliament, no mention is made of the BJP's election promise to exercise India's nuclear option. The government does however state that no outside mediation or interference is needed to resolve bilateral disputes (Agence France Presse, 03/25/98).
Mar 27, 1998 The leader of the Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front, Amanullah Khan, urges India and Pakistan to solve the Jammu & Kashmir dispute based upon independence for a reunited Kashmir (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 03/27/98).
Mar 28, 1998 Pakistan says it looks forward to a stable government in India in order to resume stalled talks, especially on Jammu & Kashmir (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 03/28/98).
Apr 2, 1998 India's Defense Minister George Fernandes accuses Pakistan of helping separatists in Jammu & Kashmir. He says his government is prepared to respond in kind to the "proxy war". Fernandes also indicates that he has evidence of Pakistani interference in Kashmir and India's northeast states (Agence France Presse, 04/02/98). Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee says that he welcomes talks with Pakistan on any issue but Jammu & Kashmir (Ibid.).
Apr 3, 1998 Pakistan says that fighting along the Line of Control has resulted in the deaths of 8 Indian soldiers and 6 Pakistani injuries. India denies that any incident occurred (Agence France Presse, 04/03/98).
Apr 6, 1998 Pakistan contends that is has not exported and never will export its nuclear or missile technology to other countries. Prime Minister Sharif's comments come one day after Pakistan successfully test-fired a long-range missile, called Ghauri. He says that the test should not influence the process of normalizing relations with India (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 04/06/98; Agence France Presse, 04/07/98).
Apr 7, 1998 India accuses Pakistan of clandestinely obtaining ballistic missiles and missile technology. It accuses China and North Korea of providing Pakistan with the know-how. China denies the charges (Agence France Presse, 04/07/98).
Apr 8, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee says that Pakistan's recent missile test poses no danger to India's security (Agence France Presse, 04/08/98).
Apr 11, 1998 Pakistan's Foreign Minister Ayub Khan calls upon India to negotiate a settlement over Jammu & Kashmir instead of issuing threats (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 04/11/98).
Apr 15, 1998 US Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs, Karl Inderfurth, says that the recent Pakistani missile test was "regrettable and avoidable". He says that talks on the nuclear issue should be held between India and Pakistan. Inderfurth also asserts that the recent North Ireland accord could serve as the basis to resolve the Jammu & Kashmir dispute. In the past few months, the US has restored OPIC facilities to Pakistan. These were withdrawn under the Pressler Amendment in 1990 when US President Bush refused to certify that Pakistan did not possess nuclear weapons. President Clinton is set to visit South Asia this autumn (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 04/15/98, 04/16/98).
Apr 18, 1998 Pakistan says it is ready to resume official talks with India with Kashmir being the core issue on the agenda. India says that it has already put forward proposals to Pakistan to resume talks and that it is waiting for a response to its ideas (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 04/18/98).
Apr 20, 1998 26 Hindus are killed by Muslim rebels in a village north of Jammu. In the last six months, some 30 Hindus have been murdered. The state's chief minister, Farooq Abdullah accuses Pakistani-backed rebels for the incident (Agence France Presse, 04/20/98).
Apr 22, 1998 Some 1000 Hindus flee the region where 26 Hindus were recently killed. In the past week, nine rebels and four soldiers died during a gunbattle (Agence France Presse, 04/22/98).
Apr 24, 1998 The head of the foreign affairs committee of the BJP, the largest party India's coalition government, says that India may introduce nuclear weapons into its arsenal without any testing in order to avoid international sanctions. He also indicates that India will not be the first to use nuclear weapons (Agence France Presse, 04/24/98).
Apr 25, 1998 Pakistan says it will respond in kind if India introduces nuclear weapons in its arsenal (Agence France Presse, 04/25/98).
Apr 28, 1998 India's Defense Minister George Fernandes says his government is ready to talk with militants in Jammu & Kashmir. He says he might meet some of them during his current visit to the state (Deutsche Presse-Agentur,. 04/28/98). Pakistani officials have blamed Indian "terrorism" for the massacre of some 22 persons in a village in Azad Kashmir, located next to the Line of Control. They assert that the killings could be revenge for the April 10 murders of some 2 dozen Hindus in Jammu & Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 04/28/98).
May 1, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee says that he is keen to have talks with Pakistan over a wide-range of issues, including trade. Pakistan has proposed that talks focus upon the major dispute, Jammu & Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 05/01/98). India says it is attempting to verify reports carried by a notable Indian newspaper that an American firm is helping Pakistan develop a new weapons facility, likely with a nuclear capability (Ibid.).
May 3, 1998 The BJP, the largest party in India's coalition government, says that Pakistan will be "brought to its knees" if it continues to foment terrorism in India. The party also reiterates its commitment to its Hindu ideology, asserting that it is "cultural nationalism" and that it is an inclusive approach (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 05/03/98). Indian Defense Minister Fernandes contends that China is a bigger threat to India than Pakistan due to its military buildup around the country. Fernandes asserts that a Chinese naval expansion along with the building of bases and the deployment of nuclear weapons in Tibet threaten India's security (Agence France Presse, 05/03/98).
May 4, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee expresses anger at yesterday's outspoken remarks by his defense minister regarding China. The major opposition party, the Congress, asserts that Fernandes' comments could jeopardize relations with the PRC (Agence France Presse 05/04/98).
May 5, 1998 The PRC slams Indian Defense Minister Fernandes' recent comments that China is the number one threat to India, indicating that this is "ridiculous" (Agence France Presse, 05/05/98). Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says that Islamabad is keen on developing tension-free relations with India (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 05/05/98).
May 6, 1998 Hindu mobs rampage in Poonch district in Jammu & Kashmir, burning government offices and vehicles following the recent murders of four Hindus. Up to 10 others are killed when conducting funeral rites for the dead (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 05/06/98). Some Indian film-makers arrive in Jammu & Kashmir, for the first time since 1989. Despite heavy security, the presence of the film stars and crew is seen as an attempt to restore normalcy to the state (Agence France Presse, 05/06/98). Seeking to diffuse recent tensions between India and China, India's Defense Minister Fernandes indicates that he favors talks with the PRC (Ibid.). The Communist Party of India-Marxist calls for Defense Minister Fernandes to quit over his recent anti-China comments. The CPI-M is the third largest party in parliament (Ibid.).
May 7, 1998 Hindu families flee Poonch district following the recent murder of four Hindus. In the past six months, more than 30 Hindus have been killed (Agence France Presse, 05/07/98).
May 11, 1998 India tests three nuclear devices, including a thermonuclear one, in the Rajasthan desert. Pakistan vows to take all the necessary steps to ensure its security. Domestic pressure to follow suit begins to build within Pakistan. Countries such as Japan and the United States condemn the Indian explosions and move to impose sanctions against New Delhi. Sanctions are automatically imposed under American domestic legislation. France, Russia, and China do not levy sanctions. The Indian tests occur just over a month after Pakistan successfully test-fired a medium-range ballistic missile, which was reportedly developed with Chinese assistance (Agence France Presse, 05/11/98).
May 13, 1998 India conducts two more nuclear explosions. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) does not comment on the tests as under its mandate it is not allowed to become involved in the internal affairs of member countries or in bilateral issues. Bangladesh and Nepal do however call for restraint and a halt on any further testing (Agence France Presse, 05/13/98).
May 15, 1998 US Assistant Secretary of State Strobe Talbott meets with Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in Islamabad to dissuade Pakistan from a tit-for-tat response to India's nuclear tests (Agence France Presse, 05/15/98).
May 19, 1998 India's ruling Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) warns that Pakistan will pay a heavy price for fueling the rebellion in Jammu & Kashmir. In Kashmir, Muslim rebels attack a military camp while Indian and Pakistani soldiers exchange fire across the Line of Control (Agence France Presse, 05/19/98).
May 21, 1998 India reportedly moves heavy arms to the border between Indian-held Kashmir and Pakistan. Delhi contends that Pakistan has increased military activity in the region. Sporadic firing across the LOC continues (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 05/21/98). New Delhi warns that relations with Britain could be adversely affected after the British Foreign Office officially received the Prime Minister of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 05/21/98).
May 24, 1998 Jammu & Kashmir Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah indicates that a major offensive will be launched against foreign guerrillas in the state, particularly those who are reported to be from Pakistan and Afghanistan. Indian intelligence reports assert that some 1200 foreigners are actively participating in promoting turmoil C many of these are alleged to be members of the Afghan-dominated Harkat-ul-Ansar. Abdullah says their activities need to be stopped to restore peace in the region. The Chief Minister also "dares" Pakistan to conduct its own nuclear test in response to India's explosions two weeks ago (Agence France Presse, 05/24/98). Violence in Srinagar results in six casualties (Ibid.). Home Minister Lal Krishna Advani, referred to as a BJP hardliner, is put in charge of the federal portfolio on Jammu & Kashmir (Ibid.).
May 28, 1998 Pakistan conducts five nuclear tests in the Baluchistan desert. Prime Minister Sharif says that the account with India has been evened. US and Japanese sanctions enter into effect against Pakistan (Agence France Presse, 05/28/98). Islamabad contends that its actions were in response to reports that India was planning to conduct a preemptive strike against its military facilities.
May 30, 1998 Pakistan conducts two more nuclear tests (Agence France Presse, 05/30/98).
Jun 3, 1998 Around 60 Muslims try to march on the Pakistani embassy in New Delhi to denounce Pakistan's nuclear tests. They are arrested (Agence France Presse, 06/03/98).
Jun 4, 1998 A general strike called by the All Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC) is observed in the Kashmir valley. Four people are injured as protesters demonstrate in front of the UN's observer office in Srinagar demanding international mediation to settle the Kashmir dispute (Agence France Presse, 06/04/98).
Jun 7, 1998 Pakistan blames India for a train bombing that kills 23 people in its Sindh province. Both countries regularly accuse each other of sponsoring cross-border terrorism (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 06/07/98).
Jun 9, 1998 The Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan are set to meet at next month's SAARC summit in Sri Lanka. India's leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee has urged Pakistan to return to bilateral talks while his counterpart, Nawaz Sharif, says that outside involvement is needed to resolve the Kashmir issue (Agence France Presse, 06/09/98).
Jun 19, 1998 Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif says that his country has no intention of conducting more nuclear tests in the near future but that he will not sacrifice national security to appease international concerns. The United States asserts that $4 billion in multilateral loans will be frozen yearly as part of the sanctions imposed on the two countries (Agence France Presse, 06/19/98).
Jun 23, 1998 25 Hindu men participating in a wedding ceremony were killed by rebels in Jammu & Kashmir on June 19. Two days later, 10 other people died in separatist-related violence. Muslim leaders ask Amnesty International to investigate the killings of the Hindus (Agence France Presse, 06/23/98). Four people are killed and several injured as a bomb explodes under a train heading from Jammu to New Delhi. This is the 6th train bombing in the last two years. The incident coincides with a visit to the region by Home Minister L.K. Advani, who also recently assumed the federal portfolio for Jammu & Kashmir (Ibid.).
Jun 24, 1998 Indian Home Minister Advani accuses Pakistan of fueling rebellion in Kashmir, but states that the democratic process and development in the region will be extended. He indicates that contentions over Kashmir should not hold back cooperation with Pakistan on other issues. Large parts of the Kashmir valley observe a APHC-called strike to protest Advani's visit (Agence France Presse, 06/24/98).
Jun 26, 1998 Indian Defense Minister Fernandes says that security concerns over the US, China, and Pakistan played a part in the decision to conduct last month's nuclear tests (Agence France Presse, 06/26/98).
Jul 7, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee urges Pakistan to sign a no-first-use and non-aggression pact. He rules out accepting the Line of Control (LOC) as the permanent border between the two countries. Islamabad has also rejected this suggestion. While speaking to the United Nations General Assembly last fall, Pakistani leader Sharif proposed a non-aggression pact between the two countries. However, Vajpayee says that he didn't receive any communications from Sharif about his proposal (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 07/07/98).
Jul 10, 1998 The UN Security Council asks Secretary General Kofi Annan to convince India and Pakistan to settle their differences through dialogue. Last month, Annan sent an envoy to the region. The envoy reported that the two countries' nuclear tests are likely to lead to long-term tensions. In early June, the Security Council asked India and Pakistan not to conduct further tests, to adhere to non-proliferation treaties and to begin talks on issues like Jammu & Kashmir (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 07/10/98). Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee says that his country will not sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). He also indicates that India will not shelve plans to develop and build an arsenal of guided missiles. Delhi did state that it was prepared to join talks on a Fissile Materials Cut-Off Treaty in Geneva. This treaty would prevent the export of nuclear-related materials (Agence France Presse, 07/10/98).
Jul 13, 1998 Pakistani leader Nawaz Sharif urges UN Secretary General Kofi Annan to visit the region to help promote peace ahead of an expected meeting between the leaders of India and Pakistan at a SAARC summit in Sri Lanka at month's end (Agence France Presse, 07/13/98).
Jul 14, 1998 Pakistan offers to discuss a nuclear test ban treaty with India that would formalize the moratoriums declared by the two countries. Islamabad is likely to raise the issue when the two Prime Ministers meet at the SAARC summit (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 07/14/98). Indian Defense Minister Fernandes contends that the Indo-Pakistan dispute over Kashmir has grown worse and can't be resolved by UN mediation, as proposed by Pakistan. He rules out a plebiscite in the region (Agence France Presse, 07/14/98).
Jul 15, 1998 Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat offers to mediate between India and Pakistan. Arafat was reportedly involved in the negotiations that resulted in the 1972 Simla Agreement. That agreement followed India's military intervention in East Pakistan that helped ensure the secession of Bangladesh (Agence France Presse, 07/15/98). 15 militants are killed in Jammu & Kashmir. Home Minister Advani asserts that militancy is on the ebb and that tourism has increased. Some 5000 people reportedly visited the region last year (Ibid.).
Jul 16, 1998 5 Indian border security troops are killed in an exchange of gunfire with Pakistani forces across the Line of Control. A few civilians on both sides also die in the encounter (Agence France Presse, 07/16/98). A Pakistani envoy dispatched ahead of the SAARC summit in Colombo, Sri Lanka, urges member states of the regional organization to pressure India to open talks on the nuclear issue and the Kashmir dispute. He asserts that negotiations are vital to improving regional economic ties. Colombo says that it does not want to act as a mediator with regard to the Kashmiri conflict (Ibid.). Jammu & Kashmir Chief Minister Abdullah contends that India and Pakistan should impose a 25-year freeze on their dispute over the region in an effort to promote peace. He instead suggests that the two should build relations on other issues such as trade and tourism. Abdullah however does not believe that the Kashmir dispute will lead the two sides to a nuclear confrontation (Ibid.).
Jul 18, 1998 China states that India and Pakistan should solve Jammu & Kashmir within a bilateral framework. After the two countries' nuclear tests, Beijing offered to act as a mediator (Agence France Presse, 07/18/98).
Jul 20, 1998 Firing across the Line of Control results in the deaths of 4 Indian soldiers. New Delhi contends that the incidents are a diversion to allow for the infiltration of foreign guerrillas into Jammu & Kashmir. 7 soldiers and 2 rebels are killed in four separate incidents in Jammu (Agence France Presse, 07/20/98). A US delegation led by Assistant Secretary of State Strobe Talbott meets with Indian officials in New Delhi. India suggests that it is willing to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in return for international recognition of its nuclear status and a permanent seat on the UN Security Council. The two parties will meet again in Washington in August (Ibid.). Indian lawmakers are considering a proposal that would impose stiff punishments for illegal entry. The bill is aimed at the alleged involvement of foreign rebels, especially from Pakistan, in the Kashmir insurgency. Home Minister L.K. Advani asserts that more than 9000 people have been killed by Pakistani-supported rebels in the state in the past three years. Advani also reveals that security at the India-Pakistan border has been stepped up (Ibid.).
Jul 23, 1998 Three days of talks between Pakistani officials and a US delegation led by Assistant Secretary of State Talbott end without any agreement. Islamabad rejects American efforts to obtain its accession to the CTBT. Pakistan argues that the Kashmir dispute must first be resolved. The US says it will use its influence to help promote a settlement. The American delegation did reveal that the US will no longer block credit to the country from the International Monetary Fund. This funding was frozen as part of the sanctions against Pakistan after its nuclear tests. The two sides will meet again in Washington in August (Agence France Presse, 07/23/98). India rejects a Pakistani suggestion for third-party mediation of the Kashmir dispute. The announcement follows Prime Minister Sharif's suggestion to US Assistant Secretary of State Talbott that the international community should help resolve the conflict (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 07/23/98).
Jul 25, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee says that he will discuss the nuclear and Kashmir issues with Pakistani leader Sharif at the upcoming SAARC summit. He will again offer Islamabad a no-first-use agreement. This will be the first meeting between the prime ministers of the two countries since last November's SAARC summit in the Maldives (Agence France Presse, 07/25/98).
Jul 26, 1998 Exchanges of gunfire are reported at three different sites at the Line of Control. No casualty tolls are given. Within Jammu & Kashmir, 6 civilians and 7 militants are killed in three incidents (Agence France Presse, 07/26/98). The chairman of the Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front, Amanullah Khan, contends that the dispute over the region could lead to a nuclear war. He urges the two countries to seek a peaceful solution (Ibid.).
Jul 27, 1998 The United States and China renew their commitment to press India and Pakistan to reduce nuclear tensions. They will urge the two states to adopt the benchmarks laid down by the UN Security Council and the Group of 8. These include: non-deployment of nuclear weapons, unconditional accession to the NPT and the CTBT, and the undertaking of confidence-building measures (Agence France Presse, 07/27/98). Pakistani Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub Khan asserts that the first talks with India since the two countries conducted their nuclear tests will be futile if Delhi refuses to discuss Kashmir. Khan urges third-party mediation, a proposal that has been consistently rejected by India (Ibid.). Analysts expect that the upcoming meeting between the leaders of India and Pakistan at a SAARC summit could eventually set the way for a rapprochement. While nuclear weapons are not on the official agenda, last year's SAARC summit resulted in a call for world-wide nuclear disarmament. The summit is expected to focus on plans to implement a South Asian free trade zone by 2001 (Ibid.).
Jul 28, 1998 15-18 Hindus are killed in two attacks in Doda district in Jammu & Kashmir. In an unrelated incident, 2 of 6 militants killed in clashes with security forces are reported to be Afghans (Agence France Presse, 07/28/98). Shelling across the Line of Control claims the lives of 2 people. Since mid-May, 12 people have been killed in cross-border exchanges (Ibid.).
Jul 29, 1998 Prime Ministers Vajpayee and Sharif meet for 90 minutes on the sidelines of the SAARC summit in Sri Lanka. The two agree to have their foreign secretaries attempt to work out a timetable and agenda for future talks (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 07/29/98). A strike called by the APHC closes down the Kashmir valley. The action is held to protest the exclusion of Kashmiris from talks between India and Pakistan at the SAARC summit (Ibid.).
Jul 30, 1998 Pakistan agrees to join talks on a treaty banning the production of fissile material for military uses. The decision follows meetings between US and Pakistani officials last week. In return for Pakistan's involvement in the Geneva talks, the US will stop blocking IMF aid to Islamabad (Agence France Presse, 07/30/98).
Jul 31, 1998 Talks between India and Pakistan at the SAARC summit fail to make any headway. Both countries blame each other for the failure to re-open bilateral negotiations. Pakistan asserts that India is taking a rigid position on Kashmir while India counters that Islamabad is "neurotic" in its insistence that Kashmir be the main issue in any talks. The two leaders could possibly meet again later this year at a Non-Alignment Movement summit in South Africa (Agence France Presse, 07/31/98). Two days of heavy fighting across the Line of Control results in over 50 casualties. Many of the dead are villagers who reside in the border areas of the two countries (Ibid.).
Aug 1, 1998 The death toll reaches 70 on both sides as Indian and Pakistani troops continue firing across the Line of Control (LOC). New Delhi denies Pakistani claims that Indian fighter jets violated the ceasefire line. Indian Home Minister Lal Krishna Advani contends that the two countries' bilateral relationship is worsening due to the Kashmir issue. Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif proposes confidence-building measures including greater UN involvement (Agence France Presse, 08/01/98).
Aug 2, 1998 Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif urges India to "act responsibly" in Jammu & Kashmir as both states are nuclear powers (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 08/02/98).
Aug 3, 1998 Authorities indicate that Kashmiri militants killed 34 construction workers in camps in neighboring Himachal Pradesh. Nineteen other people are killed in a remote village in Jammu & Kashmir in what police refer to as a dispute between rival rebel groups. Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee says he wants "purposeful interaction" with Pakistan that would address all aspects of their relationship rather than just Kashmir (Asiaweek, 08/14/98; Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 08/03/98).
Aug 4, 1998 Firing across the Line of Control slows down. Since July 29, more than 110 people on both sides have died with some 200 wounded (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 08/04/98).
Aug 10, 1998 Twenty-two people are reported dead in Jammu & Kashmir including 9 militants and 2 soldiers in an army operation in northern Kupwara district. The Kashmir valley comes to a halt due to a APHC-called strike to protest the "custodial killing" of three rebels (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 08/10/98).
Aug 24, 1998 A National Conference member is killed in Jammu & Kashmir. He is the second member of the state's ruling party to be killed in the past two days (Agence France Presse, 08/24/98).
Aug 25, 1998 Former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto urges the government to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in return for an economic bailout. Pakistan is participating in talks for the Fissile Material Convention. The country's economy is in dire straits due to sanctions imposed following its May nuclear tests (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 08/25/98).
Aug 28, 1998 The prime ministers of Pakistan and India are expected to meet on the sidelines of a summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in Durban, South Africa next week (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 08/28/98).
Aug 28, 1998 During its next border talks with China, New Delhi plans to raise the issue of re-opening a route that will allow pilgrims to make visits safely to Hindu holy sites in Tibet. The route was closed in 1959. Some 50 pilgrims died last week on another route to the religious sites ((Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 08/28/98).
Aug 31, 1998 A group of Indian soldiers are arrested on charges of allegedly gang raping a pregnant Muslim woman in Baramulla district. Local residents had held protests to press for official action (Agence France Presse, 08/31/98).
Sep 2, 1998 At least 10 people including a cleric die in violence in Jammu & Kashmir. Of these, 5 civilians were shot in Kupwara district and rebels reportedly killed 2 Hindu civilians in the south (Agence France Presse, 09/01-02/98).
Sep 5, 1998 Pakistani Foreign Minister Sartaj Aziz says that progress was made on procedural matters during talks with his Indian counterpart at a Non-Aligned Movement summit in South Africa. The prime ministers of the two countries were scheduled to meet but Pakistani leader Sharif indicated that he could not attend due to "pressing engagements" at home (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 09/05/98). The ruling BJP warns third parties about involvement in the Kashmir dispute. It was referring to South African President Nelson Mandela who raised the issue of promoting a peaceful settlement at the recent Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) summit. The APHC says that this is the first time NAM has publicly recognized the Kashmir dispute (Agence France Presse, 09/03/98).
Sep 8, 1998 A spokesman for India's ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) denounces UN Secretary General Kofi Annan for comparing Kashmir to the deadlocked peace process in Cyprus and turmoil in Afghanistan. He says that Jammu & Kashmir is a bilateral issue. Annan stated that all three cases are a major cause for concern (Agence France Presse, 09/08/98).
Sep 8, 1998 A massive army search is underway in the Ladakh region for militants who attacked an army convoy with homemade explosives. Authorities indicate that three soldiers were injured. Train service is suspended in Kashmir after two bombs explode on tracks linking Jammu with the rest of the country. No injuries are reported. Shelling is renewed across the Line of Control. On August 13, there were two bomb blasts in Drass district in Ladakh, resulting in the deaths of 2 soldiers (Agence France Presse, 09/08/98).
Sep 10, 1998 Two government troops and three militants are killed in a clash in Jammu & Kashmir. A previously unknown group, the Taliban-e-Kashmir, warns Muslim women in Kashmir to start wearing veils by today or face unspecified action (Asiaweek, 09/10/98).
Sep 11, 1998 The prime ministers of India and Pakistan will meet on September 23 during a UN General Assembly meeting. It will be the second talks between the leaders since both countries conducted nuclear tests in May (Agence France Presse, 09/11/98).
Sep 17, 1998 In what is reported as a botched security operation against militants, Indian security forces kill two people, including a child, when they open fire on a school in Baramulla district. Hundreds of protestors block a key highway demanding that the soldiers be brought to justice (Agence France Presse, 09/17/98).
Sep 23, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee and his Pakistani counterpart Nawaz Sharif meet on the sidelines of a UN General Assembly meeting. The two agree to resolve the Kashmir dispute peacefully and announce the resumption of talks between their foreign secretaries. These are scheduled for October 15-18 in Islamabad. They also agree to re-open a hot line telephone link between the two states and to start a bus service between Lahore and New Delhi. Analysts indicate that while a resumption of talks might ease tensions in the short-term, they are not hopeful for a solution on Kashmir as both sides' positions remain too exclusive. The two countries also signal their willingness to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty within the next year. Pakistan first wants economic sanctions against it lifted. The treaty cannot be ratified without the accession of the two states. India and Pakistan have already announced voluntary moratoriums on testing. In Srinagar, Indian police reportedly used truncheons and tear gas to break-up a protest by some 40 Hurriyat leaders who were demonstrating against their exclusion from bilateral talks. Hurriyat chairman Syed Ali Shah Geelani asserts that the negotiations would go nowhere without the third party involvement of Kashmiris (Agence France Presse, 09/23-24/98).
Sep 25, 1998 Two Indian soldiers and three civilians are reported dead as Indian and Pakistani troops exchange heavy gunfire across the Line of Control. An explosion near Srinagar and two gunbattles lead to the deaths of 2 soldiers and 5 militants. A strike called by the Kashmir State Workers' Union to protest human rights violations cripples the valley (Agence France Presse, 09/25/98).
Sep 27, 1998 A Pakistani news agency reports that Indian troops opened fire on members of the UN military observers group in Kashmir's Neelum valley. No injuries are noted (Agence France Presse, 09/27/98).
Sep 30, 1998 Indian police state that 7 rebels, including 2 Afghan mercenaries, are killed in various gunbattles. They also say that militants killed a Hindu villager who was a member of a local vigilante group (Agence France Presse, 09/30/98).
Oct 3, 1998 Indian officials indicate that soldiers killed 12 rebels, including 5 Afghans, and lost one soldier in different assaults across Jammu & Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 10/03/98
Oct 5, 1998 Protestors shut down businesses and traffic in the northern Kashmiri town of Darhal following the alleged rape of a Muslim cleric's daughter by Indian troops. The Defence Ministry denies the claim (Agence France Presse, 10/05/98).
Oct 6, 1998 The next round of India-Pakistan talks is scheduled for November 5-13 in New Delhi. Issues such as economic cooperation, drug trafficking, and disputed areas will be discussed. India says that its troops, who have been placed on alert for the possible infiltration of foreign mercenaries, killed 8 rebels. It also notes that 1l civilians perished in a rebel landmine attack (Agence France Presse, 10/06/98). The American Ambassador to India, Richard Celeste, states that the dispute over Jammu & Kashmir has internal and global implications. He says that the issue needs to be dealt with in bilateral talks (Ibid.).
Oct 7, 1998 India's ruling BJP government denounces US Ambassador Celeste's comments stating that there will be no third party involvement in the Kashmir dispute. The US contends that Celeste's comments were taken out of context. Former Congress Home Minister Mufti Sayeed urges the government to hold unconditional talks with separatist leaders, asserting that ill-conceived policies have alienated the Kashmiri people and led to human rights abuses (Agence France Presse, 10/07/98).
Oct 7, 1998 Officials indicate that more than 30 people were injured in a series of explosions in Srinagar including an attack on Jammu & Kashmir Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah. A local leader of the state's ruling National Conference party and 4 militants are among 8 people killed overnight. To mark his second anniversary in office, Abdullah calls for an end to the rebellion, stating that the state's infrastructure will be rebuilt by the year 2002. He also notes that 150,000 tourists have visited the region this year; before the rebellion began in 1989, there were over 500,000 tourists annually (Agence France Presse, 10/08/98).
Oct 9, 1998 The All Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC), including the JKLF, decries remarks by Pakistan that it will speak for the Kashmiris at next week's talks with India. New Delhi has already lodged its protest (Agence France Presse, 10/09/98).
Oct 12, 1998 India will build 6000 bunkers along the Line of Control to protect civilians from cross-border gunbattles. Last year, it built some 700 bunkers in Kargil district (Agence France Presse, 10/12/98).
Oct 14, 1998 Indian media report that a rebel rocket attack on a police barracks in Poonch district resulted in 2 casualties and 12 injuries (Agence France Presse, 10/14/98).
Oct 15, 1998 The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) asserts that Kashmiris will fight if India and Pakistan try to impose a decision on the constitutional future of the state. One of its leaders, Amanullah Khan, proposes that the UN Security Council form an international committee to unify and support an independent state. India controls 2/3 and Pakistan 1/3 of the pre-independence territory of Jammu & Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 10/15/98).
Oct 16, 1998 Jammu & Kashmir Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah contends that relations with Pakistan will not improve until it stops supporting rebels in the state (Agence France Presse, 10/16/98).
Oct 17, 1998 No progress on Kashmir is reported in talks between the foreign secretaries of India and Pakistan in Islamabad. Further meetings on this topic will be held in February of next year. Pakistan rejects as "outdated" India's no first strike nuclear proposal. While no details are provided, Islamabad offers plans for a regime of mutual nuclear restraint (Agence France Presse, 10/17/98).
Oct 18, 1998 In an effort to defuse tensions, Pakistan and India agree to hold fire across the Line of Control in the Jammu region (Agence France Presse, 10/18/98).
Oct 22, 1998 Indian Defence Minister George Fernandes states that he has documented evidence that the Pakistani military made three military incursions into Jammu & Kashmir in 1990 and suffered heavy losses. His comments follow recent reports by the former Pakistani army chief Aslam Beg that a Pakistani military commander acted on his own when he sent troops into the Indian-side of Kashmir three times in 1990. The comments by Beg are reported to be the first recorded assertion by a top army officer of a Pakistani role in the rebellion (Agence France Presse, 10/22/98).
Oct 25, 1998 Police and residents indicate that Indian troops allegedly shot dead four Muslim civilians in the region of Doda. Small street protests against Delhi and for independence are dispersed (Agence France Presse, 10/25/98).
Oct 28, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee says China is not India's enemy and Delhi wants to resolve all substantive problems through negotiations. Last April/May, Defence Minister Fernandes referred to China as the main threat to India (Agence France Presse, 10/28/98, 11/02/98). Six Pakistani troops are reported dead in bilateral clashes in the Siachen glacier region. Talks between India and Pakistan set for November will address military confrontations on Siachen along with other economic issues. These will be the first talks in six years to consider Siachen (Ibid.).
Oct 30, 1998 Authorities report that 2 militants were killed in a gunbattle in Badgam district and that 2 rebels and 1 soldier died in an attack on a militant hideout in Jammu (Agence France Presse, 10/30/98).
Nov 2, 1998 Two Indian civilians are reported dead in shooting across the Line of Control. Pakistan denies Indian claims that 9 of its soldiers died in recent fighting on the Siachen glacier. Officials say twenty-one other people died in recent violence including 8 Pakistani and 5 foreign mercenaries and 4 soldiers (Agence France Presse, 11/02/98).
Nov 3, 1998 Pakistan accuses India of escalating tension along the Line of Control, especially in the Neelum valley, stating that this could jeopardize upcoming bilateral talks. Press reports indicate that 12 civilians and 3 soldiers have been injured on the Pakistani side (Agence France Presse, 11/03/98).
Nov 5, 1998 Bilateral talks which include the defense ministers of India and Pakistan open in New Delhi. A top separatist leader of the now defunct Muslim United Front (MUF) is shot dead by unidentified gunmen in the village of Arin. The MUF was a coalition of Jammu & Kashmir parties whose loss in the 1987 state elections was reportedly rigged by New Delhi (Agence France Presse, 11/05/98).
Nov 6, 1998 No progress is made in bilateral talks on the issue of the Siachen glacier. India and Pakistan will continue talks on other issues. Both countries deployed troops in Siachen in 1984. Since then, more soldiers have died there due to the severe weather conditions rather than cross-border battles. A Pakistani spokesman says that Siachen cannot be separated from the larger Kashmir dispute. Both countries are reported to have 3000 troops in Siachen (Agence France Presse, 11/06/98). A strike called by the pro-Pakistan Hizb-ul-Mujahideen paralyzes the Kashmir valley. Police state that militants killed two men who were employed by the Indian army (Ibid.). Pakistan's Islamic Jamaat-i-Islami party admits that part of its jihad fund is used to aid the rebellion in Jammu & Kashmir (Asiaweek, 11/06/98).
Nov 7, 1998 A senior Indian police officer asserts that more than 200 Pakistani soldiers are active in Jammu & Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 11/07/98).
Nov 9, 1998 An police spokesman says that 8 out of 10 rebels killed recently were foreign mercenaries. Five Afghans and one soldier were reported dead following a gunbattle on the outskirts of Handwara town (Agence France Presse, 11/09/98).
Nov 11, 1998 Police say that three foreign mercenaries and two civilians died in a gunbattle with soldiers. No injuries are reported when militants attack a security bunker in Srinagar (Agence France Presse, 11/11/98).
Nov 12, 1998 No headway is reported on the issue of cross-border terrorism as India and Pakistan continue talks in New Delhi. India accuses Islamabad of sponsoring armed militants in Jammu & Kashmir. Pakistan denies the claim and tries to link New Delhi to violence in Karachi. The head of the Indian army in Kashmir admits that due to the geography of the region it is impossible to stop militants from sneaking across the border from Pakistan. He also states that there has been a marked decrease in militancy-related incidents although it is premature to say that normalcy has returned (Agence France Presse, 11/12/98).
Nov 13, 1998 Seven days of talks between India and Pakistan end without real progress on any of the issues under discussion. Pakistan condemns attempts by "extremist" elements in India to wreck the bilateral peace process; Indian Home Minister L. K. Advani recently described Pakistan as a terrorist state (Agence France Presse, 11/13/98).
Nov 17, 1998 Indian media report two separate bomb attacks in Poonch and Anantnag districts that result in at least 7 casualties (Agence France Presse, 11/17/98).
Nov 20, 1998 Witnesses and police say at least 15 people were injured when militants hurled a grenade at a bunker outside Hazratbal shrine near Srinagar (Agence France Presse, 11/20/98).
Nov 21, 1998 Police arrest prominent separatist leader Shabir Ahmed Shah, the head of the Democratic Freedom Party, along with 18 of his supporters who were protesting against what they assert are increasing custodial deaths. This is the second protest in two days after a 13 year old died after allegedly being tortured by soldiers. Shah has spent 20 years in Indian jails (Agence France Presse, 11/21/98).
Nov 23, 1998 Pakistan says that Prime Minister Sharif will ask US President Clinton to mediate the Kashmir dispute when he travels to the US in December (Agence France Presse, 11/23/98).
Nov 26, 1998 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) approves a $5.5 billion rescue package for Pakistan to avert it from defaulting on its debt (Agence France Presse, 11/26/98).
Nov 30, 1998 Authorities state that eight rebels were killed in two clashes in southern Doda district. They note that 285 militants have been killed this year compared to 141 last year (Agence France Presse, 11/30/98).
Dec 1, 1998 The United States waives for one year some of the sanctions that it imposed against India and Pakistan following their nuclear tests in May. This will allow the two countries to obtain some aid and more importantly multilateral loans from the International Monetary Fund (Agence France Presse, 12/01/98). Police report that 10 people died in clashes in Jammu & Kashmir including 7 militants (Ibid.).
Dec 2, 1998 Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif meets with US President Clinton at the White House. Clinton offers his services to help resolve the Kashmir issue but states that India must first agree (Agence France Presse, 12/02/98).
Dec 3, 1998 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee firmly rejects US or any other third party mediation of the Kashmir dispute (Agence France Presse, 12/03/98).
Dec 6, 1998 A general strike cripples the valley during a visit by Prime Minister Vajpayee. A prominent Kashmiri politician, Shabir Ahmed Shah, says that it is time for India to accept third party mediation (Agence France Presse, 12/06/98).
Dec 9, 1998 A border guard and three civilians die after an attack on a military convoy near Bandipora town. Two rebels and two civilians are killed in gunbattles in Kupwara district (Agence France Presse, 12/09/98).
Dec 10, 1998 Police beat and arrest around 20 Muslim separatists in Srinagar for protesting against alleged human rights abuses by security forces (Agence France Presse, 12/10/98).
Dec 14, 1998 Police say that 10 rebels and 1 soldier were killed in various incidents (Agence France Presse, 12/14/98).
Dec 15, 1998 Some 600 Muslims block a national highway linking Jammu & Kashmir with the rest of the country to protest the alleged murder of a teenager by a government-backed militia. In Srinagar, around 200 people stage a sit-in to press for the release of a detained civilian (Agence France Presse, 12/15/98).
Dec 21, 1998 Reports indicate that pro-India militias killed four members of the Jamaat-i-Islami organization in Kulgam district. Two militia members were also killed in another incident in the same region (Agence France Presse, 12/21/98).
Dec 23, 1998 Police blame the Hizb-ul-Mujahideen for the deaths of nine family members of retired separatists (Agence France Presse, 12/23/98).
Dec 29, 1998 Reports indicate that over the past three months there has been an increase in violence between militants and former separatists, many of whom have joined forces with the government. Since October, more than 100 former rebels have been killed. The police state that around 24,000 people have died in more than 50,000 incidents of violence since the insurgency began in 1989. They report that the casualties include 10,600 rebels, an equal number of civilians, and some 1730 security personnel. There were 2820 incidents of violence in the region in 1998, down from the high of 6000 in 1994 (Agence France Presse, 12/29/98).
Jan 5, 1999 Police say two people died in a rebel rocket attack on a police complex in Pattan in Jammu & Kashmir. Three rebels and three civilians were killed in other incidents (Agence France Presse, 01/05/99).
Jan 8, 1999 Protests are held in both India and Pakistan as the first bus link between the two states is established. A trial run of the Delhi to Lahore service was held and regular operations are expected within the next month (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 01/08/99).
Jan 13, 1999 Police say two former rebels and one policeman died in an attack in the town of Anantnag (Agence France Presse, 01/13/99).
Jan 15, 1999 A bar and liquor store open in Srinagar in defiance of a ban by Kashmiri rebels. Most of these facilities were closed in 1989 due to pressure from the militants who also banned cinemas and beauty parlors. A cinema did reopen last August (Agence France Presse, 01/15/99).
Jan 19, 1999 Hundreds of Muslims demonstrate in Srinagar at the end of Ramadan to protest a security operation yesterday in which 30 civilians were allegedly beaten by soldiers. The protest is lead by a JKLF leader, Yasin Malik (Agence France Presse, 01/19/99).
Jan 22, 1999 Pakistan calls for UN intervention in the Kashmir dispute. Last week, Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee said he would demand the return of Pakistani-controlled Azad Kashmir in any future talks (Asiaweek, 01/15/99, Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 01/22/99).
Jan 23, 1999 A Muslim member of the BJP is shot dead by rebels in Ganderbal district. Four others died in the incident (Agence France Presse, 01/23/99).
Jan 26, 1999 Witnesses say demonstrations were held in Muzaffarabad, the capital of Azad Kashmir, and other towns in the region in support of Kashmiri self-determination. A strike was observed in Jammu & Kashmir to mark India's Republic Day (Agence France Presse, 01/26/99)
Feb 1999 US Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott visits India and Pakistan to hold negotiations on their nuclear programs. The US has had numerous talks with both sides in the past eight months (Deutsche Presse-Agentur).
Feb 6, 1999 Police say six rebels and one soldier are among 12 people killed in two gunbattles in Jammu & Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 02/06/99).
Feb 9, 1999 Authorities report 15 deaths including eight in a grenade attack in Pulwama district (Agence France Presse, 02/09/99).
Feb 11, 1999 Witnesses state that the police arrested some 24 JKLF activists in Srinagar as they led an anti-India march to denounce the killing of their organization's founder, Maqbool Bhat. Bhat was executed in 1984 for reportedly masterminding the murder of an Indian diplomat in London (Agence France Presse, 02/11/99).
Feb 14, 1999 The leader of the Hizb-ul-Mujahideen, Abdul Majeed Dar, asserts that Pakistan is betraying the Kashmiri cause of independence by trying to improve relations with India (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 02/14/99).
Feb 15, 1999 Some 60 Indian law-makers, including members of the BJP, hold the first unofficial meeting with their Pakistani counterparts in Lahore. The politicians call on the two countries to open a dialogue on the nuclear issue (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 02/15/99). Police report 8 dead, including 5 militants in gunbattles in Anantnag region. Militants reportedly attack three cable television operators. They want the cable stations to stop showing soap operas and films. Last month, liquor stores and beauty parlors were attacked; the rebels banned these after the insurgency began (Agence France Presse, 02/15/99).
Feb 19, 1999 Police say 9 soldiers and 5 militants were killed in clashes near Srinagar. The APHC calls for a strike to protest upcoming talks between India and Pakistan. It says Kashmiris should be allowed to participate. The pro-Pakistan Hizb-ul-Mujahideen also calls for Kashmiri participation. The regional leader of the Congress party says that Prime Minister Vajpayee should hold unconditional talks with Kashmiri Muslim separatist and political leaders before he meets Pakistani leader Nawaz Sharif (Agence France Presse, 02/19/99).
Feb 20, 1999 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee makes a historic visit to Lahore as the leaders of the two countries inaugurate the opening of the first direct bus link between the two states. Vajpayee is the first Indian leader to visit Pakistan in the past decade. Protests against the trip are held in both countries (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 02/20/99). In Jammu & Kashmir, Hindus protest the killings of 11 Hindus by militants in three attacks in Rajouri district. Since the insurgency began in 1989, more than 300,000 Hindus have fled their homes (Ibid.).
Feb 21, 1999 Talks between the Indian and Pakistani Prime Ministers result in a joint statement referred to as the Lahore Declaration. It states that the two countries will take "immediate steps" to reduce the risk of an accidental or unauthorized use of nuclear weapons; both agree not to interfere in each other's internal affairs and to work together to combat terrorism and protect human rights. Talks on Jammu & Kashmir along with other issues will continue. Negotiations set for this month were postponed due to the meeting of the prime ministers. Analysts indicate that the declaration is a strong political commitment to normalize strained relations. Islamic parties in Pakistan protest against the declaration as they fear it could lead the government to strike a deal on Kashmir (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 02/21/99; Inter Press Service, 02/23/99).
Feb 23, 1999 Police say three rebels were killed in gunbattles while three civilians suspected of being government agents died in rebel attacks (Agence France Presse, 02/23/99).
Feb 25, 1999 A landmine blast in the village of Nowgam results in the deaths of three soldiers (Agence France Presse, 02/25/99).
Feb 26, 1999 The US criticizes India for human rights abuses in Jammu & Kashmir. These include the use of torture, rape, and extra-judicial killings by security forces (Agence France Presse, 02/26/99).
Feb 27, 1999 Police say rebels killed 5 policemen in the village of Chogal. Four of the policemen were former militants. Some 6000 militants have reportedly taken jobs in the police force. A strike is held in parts of Srinagar to protest the killing of a Hizb-ul-Mujahideen leader (Agence France Presse, 02/27/99).
Mar 3, 1999 Hundred of women stage a rally in Azad Kashmir to protect human rights violations against women by Indian security forces in Indian-occupied Jammu & Kashmir. They call for UN action (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 03/03/99).
Mar 9, 1999 Indian Home Minister L.K. Advani denies that Prime Minister Vajpayee tacitly accepted the idea of a referendum on the Kashmir issue during his recent talks with Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif. Advani says that no referendum will be held as the accession to India is "an article of faith". He reports that 999 militants were killed last year in Jammu & Kashmir (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 03/09/99).
Mar 15, 1999 Twenty-two people die including 2 soldiers, 5 militants, and 3 civilians in a clash in Khiram (Agence France Presse, 03/15/99).
Mar 17, 1999 Witnesses say three people were injured when a gunman fired on a Christian missionary-run girls school in Srinagar. This would be the first attack on a Christian-run institution since the insurgency began. The police assert that the injuries were the result of stray gunfire. No group has claimed responsibility. The school has both Muslim and Christian students. Police state that 12 rebels died in various other incidents (Agence France Presse, 03/17/99).
Mar 26, 1999 Press reports indicate that for the first time since the insurgency began the army has deployed helicopter gunships to Jammu & Kashmir. The helicopters are shelling rebel areas in the forest areas of Kupwara district (Agence France Presse, 03/26/99).
Apr 1, 1999 Police say 10 rebels are among 12 people killed in Jammu & Kashmir. Clashes have increased recently as the army recently launched its annual summer offensive (Agence France Presse, 04/01/99).
Apr 12, 1999 Pakistan asserts that India's testing of the medium-range Agni ballistic missile has harmed their ongoing dialogue ((Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 04/12/99).
Apr 14, 1999 Prime Minister Vajpayee says India has achieved a "minimum" nuclear deterrent with the successful testing of the Agni ballistic missile. The Agni II has a range of 2500 km. Vajpayee says Pakistan was informed of the tests in line with the Lahore Declaration (Agence France Presse, 04/14/99).
Apr 20, 1999 Some 6000 Muslims protest in Srinagar when police bar the region's top cleric from traveling through certain areas on his return from a pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia. At least 6 people die in a major bomb blast at a bridge northwest of Jammu (Agence France Presse, 04/20/99).
Apr 27, 1999 Indian security personnel baton-charge a Shiite religious procession in Srinagar. Over 100 people are arrested. Mass processions have been banned since 1989. In the town of Poonch, a gunbattle results in 11 casualties, including 7 rebels and 1 officer (Agence France Presse, 04/27/99).
May 9, 1999 Twenty-two people die in Jammu & Kashmir. Witnesses say the police beat up civilians in Srinagar after a policeman was shot (Agence France Presse, 05/09/99).
May 15, 1999 Rebels kill a prominent member of the state's ruling National Conference Party. He is the first sitting legislator to be killed since the insurgency began. Twenty-three former legislators have died in rebel attacks (Agence France Presse, 05/15/99).
May 23, 1999 Officials say thousands of visitors are returning to Jammu & Kashmir. Some 60,000 people visited the region in April and May. Prior to the insurgency, there were over 700,000 tourists annually. Some reports indicate that violence appears to be diminishing and that most of it is concentrated away from Srinagar (Agence France Presse, 05/23/99).
May 26, 1999 India launches air strikes against what it says are 400-1000 armed Pakistani and Afghan mercenaries and Pakistani army personnel who are occupying a series of border outposts in the Drass-Kargil sector of Jammu & Kashmir. Pakistan asserts that the rebels are Kashmiri militants and that it only provides political and moral support to the rebels. For the past two weeks, some 3000 troops have been trying to dislodge the rebels from 35 vantage points atop a glacial ridge. The occupied area threatens the only military highway between Srinagar and Leh and it is used extensively in the summer to re-stock military provisions. Indian authorities state that some 100 militants and around 17 soldiers have been killed in the past few weeks. They expect that the operation to push the militants back to the line of control will take at least 2-3 months due to the mountainous terrain. The rebels apparently took control of the posts which are abandoned in the winter sometime before they were detected on May 5. Meanwhile, reports contend that over the past four years, foreign mercenaries, mostly Afghan and Pakistani, have taken control of the insurgency as the armed struggle no longer attracts local recruits (Inter Press Service, 05/26/99).
May 27, 1999 Pakistan says that two Indian aircraft flying on its side of the Line of Control were shot down. India is using airpower at the border for the first time in over 27 years as it attempts to dislodge rebels in the Drass-Kargil region. Both countries accuse each other of breaching the letter and spirit of the Lahore Declaration and the 1972 Simla Agreement. More than 350 exchanges of artillery fire across the Line of Control were reported in less than six months after the May 1998 nuclear tests by both states (Inter Press Service, 05/27/99).
May 28, 1999 Russia says it is prepared to help both India and Pakistan reach a political settlement on Jammu & Kashmir. Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif proposes sending his foreign minister to Delhi for talks to defuse the fighting in Kargil (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 05/28/99).
May 29, 1999 A senior Indian army general describes the situation in Kargil as "near war". Prime Minister Vajpayee rejects a Pakistani suggestion to stop military actions to flush out the militants. Indian media report that the rebels are lodged in four pockets spread over 120 km in Kargil sector. Officials state that some 300 rebels, 125 Pakistani army regulars and 29 soldiers have died in this month's fighting (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 05/29/99).
May 31, 1999 India rejects UN Secretary General Kofi Annan's offer to mediate on the Kashmir issue. Four rebel organizations claim that they are active in the Kargil sector. They are the Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, the Mujahideen Al-Badar, the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, and the Tehrike-Jehad (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 05/31/99).
Jun 1, 1999 Indian Defence Minister George Fernandes rules out a ceasefire until the militants occupying parts of Kargil district are pushed back across the Line of Control (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 06/01/99).
Jun 2, 1999 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee says he hopes that Pakistan will not embark on the course of exercising its nuclear option due to the past month's fighting in Kargil. He states that India would consider offering safe passage if the militants choose to withdraw (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 06/02/99).
Jun 8, 1999 Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee warns Pakistan against trying to unilaterally alter the Line of Control by supporting rebels fighting in the Kargil district. Last week, the Organization of the Islamic Conference urged the UN to play a greater role in Jammu & Kashmir to end the escalating conflict (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 07-08/99). Six people were injured when police broke up a protest by hundreds of Muslims in Srinagar. They were demonstrating against the alleged rape of a woman by border guards (Agence France Presse, 06/08/99).
Jun 9, 1999 The head of the United Jehad Council -- an alliance of 14 Kashmiri militant groups -asserts that there is no Pakistani forces helping its campaign in Kargil. India says it has captured two main posts in the Kargil region where fighting has displaced some 200,000 civilians (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 06/09/99).
Jun 12, 1999 Pakistani Foreign Minister Sartaj Aziz visits New Delhi to hold talks on Kargil. No progress is reported as India calls for Pakistan to pull the militants back and Islamabad suggests that India stop its offensive. An anti-Pakistan demonstration is held outsides its Delhi embassy (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 06/12/99).
Jun 16, 1999 New Delhi welcomes US President Bill Clinton's call for Pakistan to withdraw its troops from Kargil district. A delegation of Muslim imams stage a demonstration in Delhi to condemn the militant intrusions in Kargil. The imams volunteer to fight to avenge Indian deaths (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 06/16/99).
Jun 20, 1999 Indian army officials assert that casualties would likely be minimized if the army crosses the Line of Control and encircles the rebels who have been lodged in Kargil district since May. Reports indicate that India is unlikely to take this course of action due to the threat of escalation and also due to its campaign to portray Pakistan as the aggressor (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 06/20/99). Prime Minister Sharif says Pakistan is willing to settle the whole Kashmir dispute outside its stated position. No further details are provided. Sharif's comments are viewed by some analysts as an abandonment of the campaign to press for a plebiscite in the region ((Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 06/20/99; Inter Press Service, 06/24/99). The Pakistan India Peoples Forum for Peace and Democracy calls for a ceasefire in Kargil and the withdrawal of all forces to their original positions. The Forum is a Track II (unofficial) initiative begun by concerned citizens in both India and Pakistan in 1995. It holds periodic meetings (Ibid.).
Jun 24, 1999 Indian media report that the army has recaptured the last remaining height in the Tololing area in Kargil district. Defence Minister Fernandes says the militant offensive in Kargil reflects a domestic power struggle between Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif and the army (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 06/24/99).
Jun 27, 1999 Police state that they arrested four separatist leaders, including the chair of the APHC, for leading a procession to mark the birthday of the Prophet Mohammed (Agence France Presse, 06/27/99).
Jun 28, 1999 The chair of the Jammu-Kashmir Democratic Party, Shabir Ahmed Shah, and members of his party are arrested in Srinagar for leading a procession to demand a plebiscite to settle the issue of Kashmiri independence. The government has banned marches in Srinagar (Agence France Presse, 06/28/99).
Jun 29, 1999 Police say 11 Muslims in two villages in Poonch district were killed by unidentified gunmen. The Hizb-ul-Mujahideen blames security forces for the attacks (Agence France Presse, 06/29/99).
Jun 30, 1999 Indian Defence Minister Fernandes says that New Delhi is taking seriously a Pakistani threat to use nuclear weapons in the event of a full-scale war. As fighting continues in Kargil, officials assert that more than 600 militants and Pakistani army regulars have died along with 200 soldiers. Police and witnesses state that rebels gunned down 12 Hindu migrant laborers in Sandhu, north of Srinagar. Some 300 migrants flee the area (Agence France Presse; Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 06/30/99).
Jul 1, 1999 Some 60 members hold a demonstration at the New Delhi headquarters of the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party to demand war with Pakistan and the capture of Azad Kashmir (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 07/01/99).
Jul 2, 1999 Police say rebels killed at least 9 Hindus in a village in Poonch district (Agence France Presse, 07/02/99).
Jul 3, 1999 A general strike called by the APHC to denounce the recent massacre of 41 Hindus and Muslims cripples parts of the valley including Srinagar (Agence France Presse, 07/03/99).
Jul 4, 1999 As fighting continues in Kargil, India says it has recaptured a vital peak (Tiger Hill) that overlooks a strategic highway from Srinagar to Leh (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 07/04/99).
Jul 5, 1999 Following a meeting yesterday at the White House, US President Clinton and Pakistani Prime Minister Sharif issue a joint statement that commits Pakistan to take "concrete steps" to restore the Line of Control. It basically calls on Pakistan to withdraw the forces fighting in the Kargil region in Indian-controlled Jammu & Kashmir. For the past month, India has been pressing the US and other G-8 states to pressure Pakistan to withdraw. It is not clear if Sharif will be able to get the army and the militants to agree to a withdrawal. Protests by an Islamic party, the Jamaat-i-Islami, are held in Pakistan to oppose the agreement with the US. A spokesman for one of the rebel organizations allegedly fighting in Kargil rejects a withdrawal (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 07/05/99; Inter Press Service, 07/05/99).
Jul 8, 1999 A former President of Azad Kashmir asks the rebels to withdraw from Kargil to protect Pakistan's security. He says that some "forces" want an India-Pakistan war. Fighting in Kargil is reported to be heavy with Indian officials stating that 92 militants and 38 soldiers died in recent days. In New Delhi, a dozen activists of the right-wing Hindu Shiv Sena Party attack the offices of Pakistan International Airlines. They call for the closure of all Pakistani businesses in India No injuries are reported (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, 07/08/99).
Jul 10, 1999 Pakistani political and military leaders announce that they will appeal to rebels holding positions in Kargil district in Indian-occupied Jammu and Kashmir to withdraw. Prime Minister Sharif later meets with representatives of 15 rebel groups. On July 4, Sharif met with US President Clinton and agreed to facilitate a withdrawal (Agence France Presse, 07/10/99).
Jul 11, 1999 Indian and Pakistani military officials agree on a disengagement from the Kargil region. A sector-wise cessation of hostilities will allow for the withdrawal of rebels who were discovered occupying the area in May. Protests against the withdrawal are held in Pakistan by opposition parties, including religious ones. The Pakistani government calls for the revival of talks with India based on discussion in Lahore in February (Agence France Presse, 07/11/99).
Jul 12, 1999 It is announced that federal elections will be held in India from September 4 to October 1 (Agence France Presse, 07/12/99).
Jul 13, 1999 Rebels reportedly kill four people when they attack a high-security paramilitary camp at Bandipur (Agence France Presse, 07/13/99).
Jul 17, 1999 Pakistan says that the rebel withdrawal from Kargil is almost complete. Over 1000 people on both sides have died in fighting since May (Agence France Presse, 07/17/99).
Jul 18, 1999 India declares victory in the ten week battle in the Kargil region. It says that the retreat of the intruders into Pakistan is almost complete. New Delhi states that there will be no bilateral talks until Pakistan ends its support for Kashmiri rebels (Agence France Presse, 07/18/99). Pakistan's major opposition party, the Pakistan Peoples' Party, calls for Prime Minister Sharif's resignation in the aftermath of the Kargil crisis. It also wants a full-scale inquiry into the incident which it says threatened to escalate to a nuclear war. Opposition parties view the Kargil incident as a major blow to the Kashmiri self-determination struggle (Ibid.).
Jul 19, 1999 India again rejects any foreign mediation in the Jammu and Kashmir dispute. Limited fighting is still occurring in one part of the Kargil region. Several reports suggest that the rebel incursion could have begun as early as last November. The militants were not detected until this May (Agence France Presse, 07/19/99).
Jul 20, 1999 India warns Pakistan that it will face a stern military response to any new intrusion in Jammu and Kashmir (Agence France Presse, 07/20/99). In the fourth massacre in as many weeks, 15 Hindu villagers are killed in Doda district. Authorities suspect the militant group, the Laskar-i-Toiba. The United States condemns the incident, demands an end to terrorist violence and urges peace talks (Ibid.).
Jul 21, 1999 Two civilians are killed in a grenade attack in Baramulla district. Authorities fear an upsurge in militant activities due to the recent fighting in Kargil (Agence France Presse, 07/21/99).

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