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Case Law

Case Law includes national and international jurisprudential decisions. Administrative bodies and tribunals are included.
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Alimov v. Turkey

6 September 2016 | Judicial Body: Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights | Legal Instrument: 1950 European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) | Topic(s): Arbitrary arrest and detention - Effective remedy - Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment - Immigration Detention - Prison or detention conditions | Countries: Turkey - Uzbekistan

Mukhitdinov v. Russia

21 May 2015 | Judicial Body: Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights | Topic(s): Arbitrary arrest and detention - Extradition - Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment - Immigration Detention - Statelessness - Withdrawal of nationality | Countries: Russian Federation - Uzbekistan

Musaev v. Turkey

21 October 2014 | Judicial Body: Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights | Topic(s): Effective remedy - Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment - Immigration Detention - Prison or detention conditions | Countries: Turkey - Uzbekistan

Kim v. Russia

17 July 2014 | Judicial Body: Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights | Topic(s): Expulsion - Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment - Immigration Detention - Right to liberty and security - Statelessness | Countries: Russian Federation - Uzbekistan

Bakoyev v. Russia

5 February 2013 | Judicial Body: Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights | Topic(s): Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment - Immigration Detention - Non-refoulement | Countries: Russian Federation - Uzbekistan

Zokhidov v. Russia

5 February 2013 | Judicial Body: Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights | Topic(s): Criminal justice - Effective remedy - Freedom from torture, inhuman and degrading treatment - Immigration Detention - Rule of law / Due process / Procedural fairness | Countries: Russian Federation - Uzbekistan

[2012] UKUT 390 (IAC) - Already in Refworld

(1) Article 223 of the Uzbekistan Criminal Code (UCC) makes it an offence for a citizen to leave the country without permission – what is described as "illegal exit abroad". The basic offence of "illegal exit abroad" is punishable by a fine or by imprisonment for between three to five years. (2) In specified aggravating circumstances (a physical breach of the border, conspiracy, or the exit abroad of a state employee requiring special permission) the penalty for "illegal exit abroad" under Article 223 of the UCC rises to five to ten years' imprisonment. It is unclear from the evidence before us whether a fine will also be imposed. (3) Uzbek citizens are required to obtain an exit permit prior to leaving the country. However, Annex 1 to the Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 8, issued on 06.01.1995, provides that no penalties apply to someone who returns to Uzbekistan after the expiry of their exit permit. Normally, exit permits can be renewed at the Uzbekistan Embassy in the third country where an Uzbek citizen is living. (4) There are cases of Uzbek nationals, having left the country lawfully, nevertheless being charged with "illegal exit abroad" and prosecuted under Article 223 following their return to Uzbekistan with expired exit permits. However, those cases involved pre-existing interest by the authorities, association with the events in Andijan in 2005, association with Islamic militant activity, travel to countries other than that authorised in the exit permit or other such distinguishing features. (5) There is no evidence of prosecutions under Article 223 of the UCC of ordinary returning Uzbek citizens with expired exit permits, including failed asylum seekers, where such individuals had no particular profile or distinguishing features which would otherwise have led to any adverse interest in them. It has therefore not been established that such returnees are at real risk of persecution on return. (6) The ill-treatment of detainees is a pervasive and enduring problem in Uzbekistan, for which there is no concrete evidence of any fundamental improvement in recent years (Ergashev v Russia [2009] ECtHR 12106/09 ECHR 2249). Therefore, where an Uzbek citizen is likely to be detained on return, Article 3 ECHR will be engaged. (7) The country guidance given by the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal in OM (Returning citizens, minorities, religion) Uzbekistan CG [2007] UKAIT 00045 is re-affirmed.

23 November 2012 | Judicial Body: International Association of Refugee Law Judges | Topic(s): Entry / Exit - Immigration Detention | Countries: Uzbekistan

Niyazov v. Russia

16 October 2012 | Judicial Body: Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights | Topic(s): Immigration Detention | Countries: Russian Federation - Uzbekistan

Rakhmonov v. Russia

16 October 2012 | Judicial Body: Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights | Topic(s): Habeas corpus - Immigration Detention | Countries: Russian Federation - Uzbekistan

Alikhonov v. Russia

31 July 2012 | Judicial Body: Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights | Topic(s): Extradition - Immigration Detention - Prosecution vs persecution | Countries: Russian Federation - Uzbekistan

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