Global Overview 2012: People internally displaced by conflict and violence - Chad
|Publisher||Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC)|
|Publication Date||29 April 2013|
|Cite as||Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC), Global Overview 2012: People internally displaced by conflict and violence - Chad, 29 April 2013, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/517fb06e16.html [accessed 28 February 2017]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
|Number of IDPs||About 90,000|
|Percentage of total population||About 0.8%|
|Start of displacement situation||2006|
|Peak number of IDPs (year)||185,000 (2007)|
|New displacement in 2012||–|
|Causes of displacement||x International armed conflict|
✓ Internal armed conflict
x Deliberate policy or practice of arbitrary displacement
✓ Communal violence
✓ Criminal violence
x Political violence
|Human development index||184|
Despite continued instability in the wider region, the situation in Chad remained relatively stable in 2012 with no new internal displacement taking place during the year. There were, however, still about 90,000 people living in protracted displacement in the east of the country as of the end of year. They were forced to flee their homes six years ago as a result of armed conflict between government forces and armed opposition groups, inter-communal violence and attacks by criminal groups known as coupeurs de route.
The government undertook various initiatives to secure its borders during 2012, including joint Chadian-Sudanese border patrols and a joint military operation with troops from the Central African Republic (CAR) against the Chadian armed group the Popular Front for Recovery (Front Populaire pour le Redressement or FPR) in northern CAR. Insecurity caused by inter-communal conflicts and fighting between cattle herders and farmers persisted, however, as did the activity of bandits.
The overall humanitarian situation in Chad was made worse by a severe food crisis in the Sahel belt and heavy flooding during the rainy season. Against this backdrop, the crisis in Libya and attacks by the Islamist group Boko Haram in Nigeria forced around 90,000 Chadian migrants, including many unaccompanied children, to return to the country.
An estimated 91,000 IDPs have returned to their homes, integrated locally or settled elsewhere in the country since 2008. In some cases return appears to have been a permanent move, while in others IDPs are reported to return home during the agricultural season but spend the rest of the year living in displacement camps. Others still move frequently between their camps and their villages of origin.
The government favours returns, but a significant number of IDPs have chosen to pursue local integration or settlement elsewhere in the country, which has contributed to the unexpected and unprepared for urbanisation of former villages in the regions of Sila and Assoungha. This in turn has placed considerable pressure on limited local infrastructure and has increased competition for access to land, both between and among host communities and IDPs.
The internally displaced population generally faces challenges in achieving durable solutions including unstable security situations in areas of origin, and limited access to land, basic services and livelihood opportunities.
Both remaining and returning IDPs were in need of assistance during 2012 in terms of access to land, adequate housing, property and documentation. In the camps as well as in return areas, domestic and sexual violence including rape, female genital mutilation and early and forced marriages have been reported.
Children make up two-thirds of the current total number of IDPs, and they have specific protection needs particularly those who have been separated from their families and who are at risk of dropping out of school, neglect, exploitation and malnutrition. Despite the government's signing in 2011 of an action plan to stop child recruitment by the armed forces and non-state armed groups, the practice continues and children particularly those internally displaced are still at risk.
The government has made efforts to support IDPs, especially in their search for durable solutions. It developed a recovery programme for eastern Chad in 2010, and has distributed land plots to some IDPs who chose to resettle in Assoungha. Limited capacity and funding, however, mean political commitments are not always matched by action on the ground.
Chad has ratified the Kampala Convention, but as of the end of 2012 the government had still not enacted a national policy or legislation to protect IDPs. Chad is also party to several international human rights instruments, including on women and children's rights, but national legislation still needs to be brought into line with the country's international obligations.
Seven clusters were still active in Chad in 2012. The protection cluster focused mainly on supporting IDPs in their search for durable solutions. It assisted in planning for return, resettlement and local integration, and raised awareness among IDPs of the three options available to them. The cluster was, however, extremely short of funding. Only five per cent of its budget had been funded by the end of the year, and as such it was unable to support the government in the development of national legislation on IDPs.
The 2012 CAP humanitarian appeal for Chad was 67 per cent funded, reflecting gaps in support across all sectors except food assistance.