United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, U.S. Committee for Refugees World Refugee Survey 1998 - Turkmenistan, 1 January 1998, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6a8a224.html [accessed 20 September 2017]
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In 1997, Turkmenistan hosted about 13,000 refugees, including an estimated 11,000 from Tajikistan, 2,000 from Afghanistan, and smaller numbers from Iran and Azerbaijan. As many as 9,000 of the Tajik refugees were ethnic Turkoman, according to UNHCR. In a late 1997 survey, UNHCR found most of the ethnic Turkoman refugees from Tajikistan to be well integrated in the country. On June 12, 1997, Turkmenistan's parliament adopted legislation on refugees establishing procedures and conditions for determining refugee status and the legal, economic, and social rights of refugees. Turkmenistan also acceded to the UN Refugee Convention.