Last Updated: Friday, 15 December 2017, 10:07 GMT

U.S. Committee for Refugees World Refugee Survey 1999 - Togo

Publisher United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
Publication Date 1 January 1999
Cite as United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, U.S. Committee for Refugees World Refugee Survey 1999 - Togo , 1 January 1999, available at: [accessed 15 December 2017]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Togo hosted more than 11,000 refugees, the vast majority from Ghana.

More than 3,000 Togolese refugees remained outside the country at year's end, including more than 2,000 in Benin and about 1,000 in Ghana. About 4,000 Togolese refugees repatriated from Ghana during 1998.

Refugees from Ghana

Inter-ethnic conflict in northern Ghana in 1994 forced some 15,000 Ghanaians to flee to Togo. Approximately 11,000 remained in northern Togo at the end of 1998, according to UNHCR. About 1,000 returned spontaneously to Ghana between July and September.

Togo's reception of refugees was generally hospitable. Most refugee families had farm land. They were largely self-sufficient and integrated into local communities.

Refugees from Togo

In 1993, more than 200,000 Togolese fled to neighboring countries to escape a violent crackdown against democratic reform by President Eyadéma and Togo's military. Most refugees were from Togo's capital, Lomé. While half returned home the following year, some incidents of persecution forced some to flee again.

A general amnesty for Togolese refugees in 1994 and relative improvement in the political and security situation in Togo in subsequent years led to the large-scale return of Togolese refugees as part of a UNHCR-organized repatriation program completed in mid-1997. In 1998, about 4,000 Togolese repatriated from Ghana although the official repatriation program had already ended.

About 3,000 Togolese refugees remaining outside the country at year's end appeared unlikely to repatriate soon. Many were prominent opponents of the ruling regime. During elections in June, President Eyadéma secured another five-year term amid widespread reports of systematic fraud.

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