World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - United Kingdom
|Publisher||Minority Rights Group International|
|Publication Date||July 2012|
|Cite as||Minority Rights Group International, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - United Kingdom, July 2012, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4954ce5d23.html [accessed 23 January 2018]|
|Comments||In October 2015, MRG revised its World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. For the most part, overview texts were not themselves updated, but the previous 'Current state of minorities and indigenous peoples' rubric was replaced throughout with links to the relevant minority-specific reports, and a 'Resources' section was added. Refworld entries have been updated accordingly.|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Last updated: July 2012
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a set of islands off the north-west coast of Europe. Great Britain includes England, Wales and Scotland. England includes the Isles of Scilly. Wales includes the island of Angelsey. Scotland includes the Shetland, Orkney, Inner and Outer Hebrides and other western islands. Northern Ireland consists of six of the original nine counties of Ulster in the northern part of Ireland. The Isle of Man, in the Irish Sea, and the Channel Islands, close to Brittany, are dependent Crown territories and part of the British Isles, but not part of the UK. The UK has a land border with the Republic of Ireland and is connected to France via the Channel Tunnel. Otherwise, it is surrounded by sea, the English Channel, North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea.
Britain has had a constant flux of migrants since early history. The Celts invaded and settled in Great Britain and Ireland over several centuries from 1500 BC. The Romans settled in England in 54 BC and left in AD 44. Angles, Saxons and Jutes were also present, and the Celts withdrew to the peripheries, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. Danes shared England with the Anglo-Saxons from the eighth to the ninth centuries. Norman Vikings conquered England in 1066.
England gained control over Wales in 1284 with the Statute of Rhuddlan. English law was applied to Wales from 1535. English rulers slowly gained control over Ireland from the twelfth century, consolidating this in 1690, but Ireland had a separate parliament until 1800. Scottish King James VI became King James I of England in 1603 but Scotland retained its own parliament until 1707, when the United Kingdom of Great Britain was established. Although it lost its parliament, Scotland kept its own laws and educational system. In 1914 the British Parliament agreed to restore Home Rule to Ireland but this was postponed during the First World War. After the war the Irish republican party Sinn Fein won the Irish elections in 1918 and declared a republic in 1919. The British government introduced separate Home Rule bills for Northern and Southern Ireland, as Ulster Protestants wanted to remain with the UK. The Ulster Protestants accepted the division of Ireland in 1920. After a war against the British which neither side could win, the Republicans also accepted it in 1921. The Irish Free State had dominion status within the British Empire, similar to that of Canada and Australia. In 1937 it adopted a republican constitution and in 1949 became a republic and left the Commonwealth.
Irish migration in the nineteenth century
In the nineteenth century Irish unskilled labourers and domestic servants migrated to the large English, Scottish and Welsh cities to find work in manufacturing industry, mining, the docks and construction. Mass migration continued from the mid-nineteenth century when the potato famine left many destitute in Ireland through the 1930s, when the USA restricted Irish immigration. The majority of Irish were poor and Roman Catholic and settled in ghetto areas, where they clashed with the English poor. In Glasgow Northern Irish Protestants and Roman Catholics vied with each other. Middle-class and wealthy Irish also migrated to England. Irish passport holders could freely come to Britain before and after, but not during the Second World War.
From the sixteenth century black Africans were brought to England as slaves. By the mid-eighteenth century some gained their freedom and set up businesses. In the seventeenth century French Huguenots (Protestants) came to England as refugees. From the eighteenth century Indian sailors settled in England. Sailors of many nationalities followed in the nineteenth century.
Jews were banned from England from the late thirteenth century to the mid-seventeenth century, when they returned and were encouraged to engage in finance. In the 1890s a large wave of Jewish refugees came to England from Russia and other East European countries.
The Industrial Revolution and British Empire
The Industrial Revolution developed not long after England became the world's strongest naval and trading power in the eighteenth century. Industrial and colonial expansion made Britain the world's leading economic power in the nineteenth century, but by the end of the century that power was on the decline. Two World Wars in the twentieth century and the 1930s economic depression further reduced Britain's economic and diplomatic strength.
In 1931 the British Community of Nations (Commonwealth) was established under the Statute of Westminster, which formally recognized the independence of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Independence movements in India and other colonies strengthened in the period between the First and Second World Wars. The Second World War demonstrated that Britain did not have enough power to protect its empire, especially its Asian colonies, some of which were invaded and occupied by Japan. After the war Britain was impoverished and its cities wrecked. It could no longer resist demands for independence.
India and Pakistan agreed partition and became self-governing in 1947. The British Community of Nations was renamed the Commonwealth of Nations in 1949 following India's decision to become a republic. Most of Britain's colonies won independence during the following two decades and most joined the Commonwealth as their last political link with Britain. Some, notably Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, kept the British monarch as their head of state. In 1961 South Africa became a republic and withdrew from the Commonwealth because of the latter's criticism of the apartheid system of racial segregation.
Britain encouraged immigration from the Commonwealth countries, especially from the Caribbean, India, West Pakistan and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and from Hong Kong, to fill labour shortages during the post-Second World War reconstruction and economic boom. The intention was that these workers would return to their countries, but most established settled communities in Britain.
During the empire, subjects from the colonies had the right to travel to Britain and work there. This continued during the early period of post-colonial independence until 1962, when immigration was restricted to those who had work permits or were dependants of people already settled in the UK. In the late 1960s Kenyan and Ugandan Africanization policies led to the expulsion of thousands of Asians, many of whom came to the UK. However, their British passports did not allow them free access to Britain and the racist views of MP Enoch Powell, who warned of 'rivers of blood' if immigration continued, were echoed by many of the British public.
Substantial numbers of Greek and Turkish Cypriot office and service workers came to Britain between 1955 and 1962. Cyprus gained its independence in 1960. Cypriots tended to move into occupations vacated by other minorities, such as Jews in the clothing industry and Italians in catering.
Relations with Europe
In 1973 Britain joined the European Economic Community and nationals of the other eight EC countries had the right to work and live in the UK. In 1980, 1986, 2004 and 2007 the European Union (EU) expanded. The 2004 expansion brought large numbers of Polish and other East European nationalities to Britain as most other EU countries would not allow them entry until 2011.
The number of asylum seekers rose in the 1990s on account of wars in the former Yugoslavia and elsewhere, for example, Somalia, former Soviet Union countries and China. The government had problems in coping with the numbers and in deporting those whose bid for refugee status failed. Politicians and the media whipped up public fears and anger at people portrayed as scroungers taking British taxpayers' money.
Main languages: English, Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Bengali, Chinese, Gujarati, Urdu, Punjabi.
Main religions: Christianity (Church of England, Roman Catholicism, Presbyterianism, Methodism, Baptism), Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism, Buddhism.
Minority groups include Scots 5.1 million (8.7%), Welsh 2.9 million (4.9%), Northern Irish 1.7 million (including Roman Catholics 737,412), Indians 1.05 million (1.8%), Pakistanis 747,285 (1.3%), Afro-Caribbeans 565,876 (1.0%), Black Africans 485,277, Bangladeshis 283,063, Chinese 247,403 and Roma/Gypsies 90,000-320,000. (2001 Census, except Roma which reflects a range of estimates).
The main minority religions are Muslims 1.6 million (2.7%), Hindus 588,342 (1.0%), Sikhs 336,179, Jews 267,373, and Buddhists 149,157.
Indigenous linguistic minorities include speakers of Scottish and Irish Gaelic, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Scots and Ulster-Scots, and of Norman French in the Channel Islands. Welsh, Scottish and Manx Gaelic are now official languages for Wales, Scotland and the Isle of Man along with English.
The largest non-British minority is the Irish community, who have free access to the UK. Since the UK and Ireland joined the European Economic Community (now renamed European Union – EU), other EU nationals also have the right to live and work in the UK. They constitute over half of the foreign population. Commonwealth citizens and citizens of UK dependent territories also live in the UK. There is a significant US community.
The main new ethnic minorities live mostly in large cities and towns and work in all kinds of employment. They include many wealthy business owners. The South Asian and Chinese communities are largely self-contained and have integrated less than other new minorities.
Undocumented immigrants account for a significant part of the low-paid workforce. Some do not seek asylum, but those who do so and fail often remain in the country.
The guarantee of fair laws and 'equality' before the law (for the nobility) was established in the Magna Carta in 1215. The Habeas Corpus Act of 1679 banned arrest and detention without trial. The 1689 Bill of Rights established English Parliamentary and individual rights as having precedence over royal decisions. In particular, laws must be enacted or at least approved by Parliament. The Claim of Right in Scotland set out similar principles. The English Bill of Rights required the monarch to embrace Protestantism and this was further enshrined in the 1707 Act of Union of Scotland and England. Freedom of religion was not endorsed or denied in the Bill of Rights, but Roman Catholics were excluded from the right to bear arms for their self-defence.
In 1918 all men over the age of 21 and all women over the age of 30 had the right to vote for the first time. In 1928 women gained equality with men in voting. In 1969 the voting age was reduced to 18.
Northern Ireland legislation
The 1920 Government of Ireland Act set up a devolved government in Northern Ireland to decide local laws, for example with regard to policing and education. This was suspended in 1972 on account of inter-community strife, reconvened in 1998 and suspended again in 2002. Devolved governments were set up in Scotland and Wales in 1998. The 1998 Northern Ireland Act, better known as the Good Friday Agreement, set out the basis for peace between the two main communities, Protestant and Roman Catholic, and it contains the first explicit legislation in the UK banning religious discrimination. The agreement was conditional on the reform of the Protestant Royal Ulster Constabulary, which became the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) in 2001. The PSNI has a strengthened accountability structure and ensures that half of all new recruits are Roman Catholics.
There are three sets of legislation for the UK, for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Northern Ireland. European Union legislation, since 1973, is applied separately by each legislative authority.
Because of attacks by the Irish Republican Army in Northern Ireland, the Belfast government gave the police special powers of arrest and detention in 1922, which continued, and were largely used against Roman Catholics, until the government was suspended in 1972. The British government replaced them for Northern Ireland and adopted the Prevention of Terrorism Act in 1974 extending these powers to mainland Britain. The two acts were renewed and finally combined in the Terrorism Act 2000, which came into effect in February 2001. The legislation was strengthened following the 11 September 2001 events in the USA, and again in 2006, when radical speech, publications and non-violent protest were included in the definition of terrorism. Tougher immigration and asylum legislation, and the Identity Cards Act, setting up a national identity register, were introduced as part of the same 2006 package against terrorism.
The British Nationality Acts
The British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914, the first law on nationality, stipulated that all subjects of Britain and its colonies were British subjects. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, the British Nationality Act 1948 made a distinction between British subjects and citizens of the UK and colonies. All those born in the UK and British colonies were automatically citizens. Those whose father was born in the UK or a British colony could become citizens by descent. Other British subjects, more closely connected with an independent member country of the Commonwealth, could remain British subjects and also become citizens of the independent Commonwealth country. Those who were British subjects on 1 January 1949 and who did not to take citizenship of an independent Commonwealth country, could remain British subjects for their lifetime but they could not pass this status on to their children.
The British Nationality Act 1981 set up six classes of British nationality, four of which are a colonial legacy and will last only for the lifetime of the holders. Only British citizens (those born in the UK, Isle of Man and Channel Islands, and those who have become naturalized British citizens) have the right to live and work in the UK and EU. Citizens of British Overseas Territories do not have this right, but in 1990, 1996 and 1997 special legislation allowed citizens of Hong Kong to acquire British citizenship before the handover of Hong Kong to China in 1997. From November 2006 non-European British members of the armed forces are allowed to become British citizens without the normal waiting period for naturalization. To qualify for naturalization non-British citizens must usually have five years of continual residence in the UK or three years, if married to a British citizen. They must also have sufficient knowledge of life in the UK and of the English, Welsh or Scottish Gaelic languages, and intend to continue living in the UK.
The first Immigration Act in 1905, which set up controls against undesirable aliens, was intended to reduce Jewish immigration. In the 1930s Jews fleeing from Nazi persecution in Germany had to have a British sponsor. The rights of non-European British subjects to live in the UK were restricted by immigration laws in 1962, 1968 and 1971. The 1971 Immigration Act established the right of 'patrials' (those with a grandparent born in the UK) to settle in Britain. Patrials are mostly white. All others must have work permits or established family members in the UK, but in the latter case they must prove genuine family reunification. The 1988 Immigration Act introduced the 'primary purpose' condition, under which a couple must prove that none of their primary purposes of marrying was to gain access to the UK. Managed migration policy allows the government to channel work permits for jobs where there is a shortage of recruits.
The 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act set up the National Asylum Support Service (NASS) to handle applications and assistance for asylum seekers. In 2002 the law was revised to allow automatic refusal to applicants from a list of 'safe countries' and to prevent asylum seekers from working until their refugee status was approved. Detention centres were built.
The controversial measure of "earned citizenship" proposed in the Path to Citizenship Green Paper became law in July 2009 with the Borders, Citizenship and Immigration Act. This proposal that sets out a new points based test that needs to be passed in order to gain citizenship in the UK has been criticised by Migrants Rights Network and other migrant organisations for the subjective nature of the criteria used to award and deduct points for citizenship, for the implications it has for the equality of citizenship, and for the implications it will have for migrant workers, including the experience of high levels of exploitation and discrimination and the problem of de-skilling.
The imprisonment and serious physical and mental health problems of children in detention centres is a practice widely condemned by MRG and other human rights NGOs. The new Conservative/Liberal-Democrat coalition government elected in 2010 have pledged to end child detention and the practice is currently under review.
Discrimination and human rights abuses suffered by migrants are on the increase every year. A 2010 Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) inquiry in the meat and poultry processing sector uncovered widespread mistreatment and exploitation of migrant workers, including physical and verbal abuse and a lack of proper health and safety protection. The treatment of pregnant workers was highlighted as a particular concern. The report notes that many migrant workers had little knowledge of their rights.
Race Relations Acts
Race Relations Acts were passed in 1965, 1968 and 1976, and strengthened in 2000 and 2003 to comply with EU law. They outlaw racial discrimination in employment, housing, education, planning, and the provision of goods and services. Incitement to racial hatred, harassment, physical and verbal abuse on the grounds of race are criminal offences. The Commission for Racial Equality acts as the main watchdog regarding racial discrimination.
The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 banned discrimination on the grounds of gender. The Equal Pay Act 1970 required employers to provide equal pay for equal work. These provisions were strengthened in 2003 with regard to employment, in line with EU law. The Equal Opportunities Commission acts as the main watchdog regarding sexual discrimination.
Discrimination in employment on the grounds of religion or belief was banned in 2003. The Racial and Religious Hatred Act came into effect in 2006.
The 1998 Human Rights Act enacts the Council of Europe's Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The 2006 Equality Act creates a new Commission of Equality and Human Rights which will replace the Commission for Racial Equality.
Passed on 8 April 2010, the Equality Act was one of the last measures of the outgoing Labour Government, which lost office in May 2010. The Act which covers England, Wales and Scotland (Great Britain) but not Northern Ireland represents a move towards a pan-equalities perspective which gained pace under New Labour and is supported by the new Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition Government. The 2010 act was preceded by the 2006 Single Equality Act which set up an independent single equality watchdog, the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC). The integrated approach to equality law enforced by a single Commission is reflected in the new act that covers discrimination on grounds of race and religion, gender, disability, age and sexual orientation, and adds some new ones, namely socio-economic status, pregnancy and gender reassignment. The pivotal aim of the 2010 act was to achieve simplification and harmonisation of existing equality law - it replaces previous laws on all protected strands - and to level up protection for several grounds as a comprehensive single piece of legislation.
A notable feature of the Act is the prohibition of multiple – combined – discrimination, although this is limited the combination of two grounds of discrimination only; and a claim of direct and indirect discrimination cannot be combined. The new legislation, which entered into force on 1 October 2010 and will be brought into operation in stages, might assist in closing some of the equality gaps that are still persistent in the British society. A report entitled 'How fair is Britain?' by the EHRC draws a picture of the country increasingly at ease with its diversity but where for some minority groups encountering negative stereotypes and gross violations of their human rights is an everyday experience, in particular for migrants and Gypsies and Travellers but also for settled ethnic minority groups.
- East African Asians
- Northern Ireland
- South Asians
Minority based and advocacy organisations
Tel: +44 207 033 1500
Campaign for Freedom of Information
Tel: +44 207 831 7477
Commission for Racial Equality
Tel: +44 207 939 0000
Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg/Welsh Language Society
Tel: +44 1970 624 501
Initiative on Conflict Resolution and Ethnicity (INCORE)
Tel: +44 2871 375 500
Institute for Jewish Policy Research (formerly Institute of Jewish Affairs)
Tel: +44 207 935 8266
Institute of Race Relations
Tel: +44 207 837 0041
Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants
Tel: +44 207 251 8708
[Human rights advocacy]
Tel: +44 207 403 3888
Minority Rights Group International
Tel: +44 207 422 4200
An Comunn Gàidhealach
Tel: +44 1463 231 226
Bòrd na Gàidhlig, Darach House
Tel: +44 1463 225 454
[The voice of Gaelic Learners]
Tel: +44 1463 226 710
Tel: +44 7786 134 951
Comhairle nan Leabhraichean/Gaelic Books Council
Tel: +44 1413 376 211
Comunn na Gàidhlig
Tel: +44 1463 234 138
Tel +44 1463 225 469
Elphinstone Institute (Doric Scots)
Tel: +44 1224 272 996
Fèisean nan Gàidheal
Tel: +44 1478 613 355
Pròiseact Nan Ealan/The Gaelic Arts Agency
Tel: +44 1851 704 493
Sabhal Mòr Ostaig
Tel: +44 1471 888 000
Scots Language Centre
Tel: +44 1738 440 199
Scots Language Society
Tel: +44 1764 682 315
Seirbheis nam Meadhanan Gàidhlig/Gaelic Media Service
[Broadcasting in Gaelic - contains links to Gaelic organizations]
Tel: +44 1851 705 550
Stòrlann Nàiseanta na Gàidhlig
[Provides a service of Gaelic education]
Tel: +44 1851 880 441
Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (Welsh Language Board)
Tel: +44 2920 878 000
Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (Welsh Language Society)
Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru (National Assembly for Wales)
Tel: +44 8450 105 500
Mudiad Ysgolion Meithrin (Welsh Nursery Schools)
Tel: +44 1970 639 639
Bloody Sunday Trust
Tel: +44 2871 360 880
CAIN (Conflict Archive on the Internet)
Tel: +44 2871 375 517
Church of Ireland
Colmcille Northern Ireland
Tel: +44 2890 238 293
Tel: +44 2073 597 728
Humanist Association of Northern Ireland
Methodist Church in Ireland
Tel: +44 2890 686 939
Presbyterian Church in Ireland
Tel: +44 2890 322 284
Tel: +44 2890 202 727
Ulster-Scots Agency/Tha Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch
Tel: +44 2890 231 113
Laare-Studeyrys Manninagh/Centre for Manx Studies
Tel: +44 1624 673 074
Undinys Eiraght Vannin/Manx Heritage Foundation
Tel: +44 1624 624 093
Yn Cheshaght Ghailckagh/Manx Gaelic Society
Tel: +44 2073 075 454
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
[Institute for Indian Arts and Culture in the UK]
Tel: +44 2073 813 086
British Tamil Directories
[Print and online directory of businesses and social organizations for British Tamil]
Tel: +44 2085 432 126
[Multicultural Asian community portal]
Tel: +44 8450 138 401
[Print and online directory to businesses and services for the British Muslim community]
Tel: +44 2087 994 455
East African Asians
Institute of Ismaili Studies
Tel: +44 207 881 6000
African and Caribbean Network
Tel: +44 7092 883 657
Afro-Caribbean Millennium Centre
Tel: +44 1214 556 382
Black Business Association
Tel: +44 1212 600 516
Black History Month
[Events all year round]
Tel: +44 8450 506 352
Caribbean Woman UK
Tel: +44 7960 955 135
[Caribbean and Commonwealth heritage communities in the UK]
Tel: +44 7900 811 903
Centre for Caribbean Health
[Database of Caribbean health issues]
Tel: +44 207 848 8150
[Promotion of Black and Asian writers and books]
MBMB - The French Caribbean Association
Tel: +44 7092 167 6 83
Tel: +44 207 307 5454
British Chinese Law Association
British Chinese Society
Chinese Welfare Association
Tel: +44 2890 288 277
Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding (SACU)
Tel: +44 1229 472 010
Friends, Families and Travellers
Tel: +44 1273 234 777
Irish Traveller Movement
[Republic of Ireland]
Tel: +353 1679 6577
Romany and Traveller Family History Society
The Gypsy Council
Tel: +44 1708 868 986
Traveller Law Reform Project
Tel: +44 2890 202 727
Sources and further reading
Ansari, H., Muslims in Britain, London, MRG, 2002.
Cashmore, E.E., The Rastafarians, London, MRG, 1984.
Claiborne, L. et al., Race and Law in Britain and the United States, London, MRG, 1983.
Commission for Racial Equality, Roots of the Future: Ethnic Diversity in the Making of Britain, London, CRE, 1996.
D'Souza, F. and Crisp, J., The Refugee Dilemma, London, MRG report, 1985.
Darby, J., Northern Ireland: Managing Difference, London, MRG report, 1995.
Davies, N., The Isles: A History, London, Macmillan, 1999.
European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages, Mini-Guide to the Lesser Used Languages of the EC, Baile Atha Cliath, Irish Republic, 1993.
Fryer, P., Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain, London, Pluto Press, 1987.
Joly, D., Kelly, L. and Nettleton, C., Refugees in Europe: The Hostile New Agenda, London, MRG, 1997.
Jones, T., Britain's Ethnic Minorities, London, Policy Studies Institute, 1993.
Runnymede Trust, Multi-Ethnic Britain - Facts and Trends, London, 1994.
Sivanandan, A., A Different Hunger, London, Pluto Press, 1982.
Stephens, M., Linguistic Minorities in Western Europe, Llandysul, Gomer, 1976.
The Troubles: The Background to the Question of Northern Ireland, London, Thames/Futura, 1980.
Visram, R., Ayahs, Lascars and Princes: The Story of Indians in Britain, 1700-1947, London, Pluto Press, 1986.
Welsh, F., The Four Nations: A History of the United Kingdom, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 2003.
Rampant Scotland (online directory of sites for Gaelic and Scots languages and culture): http://www.rampantscotland.com/gaelic.htm
Scots Tung (online newsletter): http://firstname.lastname@example.org/page5.html
The Glasgow Herald: http://www.theherald.co.uk
The Scotsman newspaper: http://www.scotsman.com
Cyfwe (Welsh Literature in translation): http://www.cyfwe.org
Cymru'r Byd (Welsh language radio and news): http://www.bbc.co.uk/cymru
Geiriadur ar-lein (Welsh-English/English-Welsh On-line Dictionary): http://www.geiriadur.net
Linguru (downloadable Welsh dictionary): http://www.linguru.com
Morgan, K.O., 'Consensus and conflict in modern Welsh history', in D.W. Howell and K.O. Morgan (eds), Crime, Protest and Police in Modern British Society: Essays in Memory of David J. V. Jones, Cardiff, 1999.
National Library of Wales: http://www.llgc.org.uk/gwyb/index_s.htm
Williams, G.A., 'Locating a Welsh working class: the frontier years', in D. Smith (ed.), A People and a Proletariat: Essays in the History of Modern Wales, 1780-1980. London, 1980.
Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN) (University of Ulster portal on Northern Ireland conflict from 1968 to present): http://cain.ulst.ac.uk
Hewstone, M., Cairns, E., Voci, A., Hamberger, J. and Niens, U., 'Intergroup contact, forgiveness, and experience of 'The Troubles' in Northern Ireland', Journal of Social Issues vol. 62, no. 1, 2006, pp. 99-120.
Irish Angle (Church of Ireland news and documentation): http://www.irishangle.net
McGlynn, C., Niens, U., Cairns, E., Hewstone, M., 'Moving out of conflict: the contribution of integrated schools in Northern Ireland to identity', Journal of Peace Education, 2004.
Murphy, C. and Adair, L. (eds), A Place for Peace: Glencree Centre for Reconciliation, 1974-2004, Liffey Press, 2004.
Presbyterian Herald (newspaper): http://www.presbyterianireland.org/herald
Chiverrell, R. and Thomas, G., A New History of the Isle of Man, vol. 1: The Evolution of the Natural Landscape, Liverpool University Press, 2006
GAELG (Includes online lessons in Manx): http://www.gaelg.iofm.net
Isle of Man Today (news and community portal, contains some Manx): http://www.iomonline.co.uk
The Manx Notebook, G H Johnson (1885-1887), 2001, URL (accessed April 2007): http://www.isle-of-man.com/manxnotebook/manxnb/
Ballard, R. (ed.), Desh Pardesh: The South Asian Presence in Britain, London, C. Hurst, 1994.
Kondapi, C., Indians Overseas 1838-1949, Bombay, Oxford University Press, 1951.
Kundu, A., 'The Ayodhya aftermath: Hindu versus Muslim violence in Britain', Immigrants & Minorities, vol. 13, 1994, pp. 26-47.
East African Asians
Robinson, V., 'The migration of East African Asians to the UK', in R. Cohen (ed.), The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Black Net Community: http://www.blacknet.co.uk
Blackbright News: http://www.blackbrightnews.com
ITZ Caribbean (London Caribbean community portal): http://www.itzcaribbean.com
New Nation, Ethnic Media Group Ltd: http://www.newnation.co.uk
British Born Chinese (discussion board): http://www.britishbornchinesedb.org.uk
Dimsum (community portal): http://www.dimsum.co.uk
Francis, B. and Archer, L., 'British-Chinese pupils' and parents' constructions of the value of education', British Educational Research Journal, vol. 31, no. 1, 2005, pp. 89-108.
Parker, D., Through Different Eyes: The Cultural Identities of Young Chinese People in Britain, Aldershot, Avebury, 1995.
The Winchester Confessions 1615-16 (Depositions of travellers, Gypsies, fraudsters, and makers of counterfeit documents, including a vocabulary of the Romany language, Transcribed and Annotated by Alan McGowan, Romany and Traveller Family History Society).