Tunisia: Situation of women who have had a child out of wedlock, including their treatment by family members and society; state protection and available services (2011-November 2014)
|Publisher||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Publication Date||9 December 2014|
|Citation / Document Symbol||TUN104988.FE|
|Related Document(s)||Tunisie : information sur la situation des femmes ayant eu un enfant hors mariage, y compris le traitement qui leur est réservé par leur famille et par la société; protection offerte par l'État et services disponibles (2011-novembre 2014)|
|Cite as||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Tunisia: Situation of women who have had a child out of wedlock, including their treatment by family members and society; state protection and available services (2011-November 2014), 9 December 2014, TUN104988.FE, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/549ab8b94.html [accessed 21 November 2017]|
1. Background and Political Situation
Tunisia ratified the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women in 1985, with reservations (Tunisia and EU June 2014, 2; EU 2012, 7) to articles dealing, in particular, with nationality of children and with equality in marriage and family life (ibid.). Tunisia withdrew its reservations in April 2014 (Tunisia and EU June 2014, 2; Human Rights Watch 30 Apr. 2014). According to the Freedom House annual report published in 2014, the 1956 Personal Status Code (Code du statut personnel) has remained in force, and grants women equal rights in divorce; it also grants Tunisian citizenship to children born to Tunisian mothers and foreign fathers (2014).
According to sources, the January 2014 Constitution of Tunisia brought improvements to women's rights (Human Rights Watch Jan. 2014; Tunisia and EU June 2014, 2), through the addition of provisions related to discrimination, equality of opportunities in positions of responsibility and gender-based violence (ibid.). Article 46 of the new constitution states the following:
The state commits to protect women's established rights and works to strengthen and develop those rights.
The state guarantees the equality of opportunities between women and men to have access to all levels of responsibility in all domains.
The state works to attain parity between women and men in elected Assemblies.
The state shall take all necessary measures in order to eradicate violence against women (Tunisia 2014).
However, Human Rights Watch notes that the new constitution [Human Rights Watch English version] "fails to fully embody the principle of equality between the sexes as it refers to equal opportunity in 'assuming responsibilities,'" (Jan. 2014).
According to the United Nations (UN) Report of the Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice, the transition period following the [UN English version] "Jasmine Revolution" [December 2010-2011 (BBC 25 Nov. 2014)], an uprising inspiring the birth of the "Arab Spring," was characterized by the "polarization of" society on various subjects, including women's rights (UN 30 May 2013, para. 5, 13, 19). A report from the European Parliament on gender equality policy in Tunisia states that there is a "struggle going on between secular, Islamist and old regime forces" in Tunisia regarding women's rights (EU 2012, 3). During a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, a professor of history and women's studies at the Université de La Manouba, near Tunis, stated that, despite the [translation] "modern" laws on women's rights, "patriarchal attitudes" persist in Tunisia (21 Oct. 2014). Sources report that in November 2011, a woman elected to the Constituent Assembly of Tunisia and a member of Ennahda  publicly criticized single mothers (Al Arabiya News 13 Nov. 2011; Magharebia 18 Nov. 2011). She stated that they were a "disgrace" to Tunisian society (ibid.; UN 30 May 2013, para. 17). The Ennahda party led the 23 October 2011 elections; they formed a transition government which was to be replaced one year later through the legislative elections, and which was to draft a new constitution (RFI 22 Nov. 2011; Le Monde 27 Oct. 2011). The legislative elections took place at the end of October 2014 and were won by the Nidaa Tounes party, described by the media as a "secular" party (The Guardian 29 Oct. 2014; Al Arabiya News et al. 27 Oct. 2014).
1.1 Childbirths, Abortions and Births Out of Wedlock
A report from a Swedish and Swiss government mission to Tunisia states that childbirth is free of charge in Tunisia (Sweden and Switzerland 24 Jan. 2012, 6). According to Profil genre de la Tunisie 2014, a report prepared by the Government of Tunisia and the European Union (EU), nearly 99 percent of childbirths were practiced by qualified individuals in 2011 and 2012 (Tunisia and EU June 2014, 3). The US Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013 notes that the government provides health care for women, but that some rural women do not have access to these services, including for childbirth (U.S. 27 Feb. 2014, 17-18).
Abortion in Tunisia has been legal [since 1973 (UN 30 May 2013, para. 8.)], and is funded by the government (EU 2012, 10; Postdoctoral Researcher 29 Oct. 2014) and anonymous (ibid.). However, according to a report by the European Parliament on gender-related issues in Tunisia, published in 2012, it is "taboo" for single women to have abortions (EU 2012, 10). According to sources, it is difficult for Tunisian women to seek a legal abortion (ibid.; UN 30 May 2013, para. 67); single women in particular, but also married women face this situation (ibid.). According to the UN Working Group on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, state-run abortion clinics have been subjected to budgetary constraints in recent years, forcing them to reduce their services (ibid.). Illegal abortions continue to be practiced, especially in the case of extramarital pregnancy (ibid.; EU 2012, 10). Illegal abortions particularly occur in rural areas (ibid.; Postdoctoral Researcher 29 Oct. 2014).
According to Article 214 of the Penal Code of Tunisia, an article amended in 1973,
[t]he artificial interruption of pregnancy shall be permitted when it occurs in the first three months in a hospital, health care establishment or authorized clinic, by a physician legally practising their profession.
After the three months, the interruption of pregnancy may be performed when there is a risk that the health or mental balance of the mother will be compromised by the continuation of the pregnancy or a risk that the unborn child will suffer from a serious disease or infirmity. In this case, it must be performed in an establishment approved for this purpose (Tunisia 1913).
According to the Profil genre de la Tunisie 2014 report, there are about 1,600 childbirths out of wedlock each year in Tunisia (Tunisia and EU June 2014, 8). According to a report entitled Country Profile of Tunisia: A Review of the Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, written by three organizations, including Save the Children Sweden  and Amal for the Family and the Child (Amal pour la famille et l'enfant, Amal) , an interview with a representative of the Ministry of Social Affairs revealed that 1,146 births out of wedlock were registered in 2010 (Save the Children Sweden et al. , 31). Sources state that single mothers often live in poverty, generally live in rural regions (Professor of history 21 Oct. 2014; Save the Children Sweden et al. , 31) and are often illiterate (ibid.).
2. Treatment by Society and Family Members
According to sources, single mothers are stigmatized in Tunisia (UN 16 June 2010, para. 43; Postdoctoral Researcher 29 Oct. 2014). In correspondence sent to the Research Directorate, a postdoctoral researcher in legal anthropology at the Institute for the Study of Islam and Muslim Societies (Institut d'études de l'Islam et des sociétés du monde musulman), at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (École des hautes études en sciences socials) in Paris , states that this is true for conservative factions of Tunisian society (ibid.). The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child gives further details on the potential consequences of this stigmatization:
[UN English version]
[D]iscrimination against children born out of wedlock [and] discrimination against single mothers owing to negative social attitudes [...] has a negative impact on children as demonstrated, inter alia, by the high rate of abandonment and the existence of some cases of infanticide of children born out of wedlock (UN 16 June 2010, para. 25).
According to two sources, some individuals believe that when a woman in their family becomes a single mother, they suffer disgrace (Sbouaï 6 Apr. 2012; Professor of history 21 Oct. 2014). Similarly, the Postdoctoral Researcher stated that single mothers bring shame to their family, and that most of them come from a social background where pregnancy out of wedlock is "extremely taboo" (29 Oct. 2014).
Single mothers are described as [translation] "vulnerable" (Tunisia and EU June 2014, 8; Professor of history 21 Oct. 2014; Sweden and Switzerland 24 Jan. 2012, 7). The Professor of history explained that, in Tunisia, [translation] "social protection" comes from the family (Professor of history 21 Oct. 2014). According to her and according to the report by Sweden and Switzerland, Tunisian women who become pregnant out of wedlock run the risk of being rejected by their family (ibid.; Sweden and Switzerland 24 Jan. 2012, 7).
The Postdoctoral Researcher pointed out however that the treatment of single mothers by their family depends on the mother's social class and the personality of her individual family members (Postdoctoral Researcher 29 Oct. 2014). According to her, sometimes the single mother is helped by her mother, and the child is adopted by the family, as though it came from elsewhere (ibid.). She added that the "choice" to have a child out of wedlock is "very rare" and is reserved for "the intellectual Westernized elite" in the capital (ibid.). Single mothers who remain with their family or who marry while they are single mothers are, in her opinion "lucky"; she states that, on the other hand, many women who remain with their family face "constant bullying" for their "mistake" (ibid.).
The Postdoctoral Researcher summarized the "several options" that single mothers have upon the birth of their child:
Keep their child and return to their family;
Keep their child and get married;
Remain in a shelter for as long as possible and then live in an apartment with their child if they have the financial means, or live in the street with the child;
Abandon the child and give it up for adoption (ibid.).
2.1 Rural Exodus
According to an article by Tunisian journalist Sana Sbouaï published on 6 April 2012 on the Nawaat.org  website, [translation] "many young girls" who are single mothers leave their hometown to melt away into anonymity in a big city. Similarly, the Postdoctoral Researcher states that most women who become pregnant out of wedlock carry out their pregnancy away from their family, adding that the women are "obliged" to relocate to seek help from associations who help single mothers and that the big cities allow them to live in anonymity (29 Oct. 2014). The Professor of history also pointed out that single mothers [translation] "often" move to Tunis to seek help from Amal (21 Oct. 2014).
2.2 Abandonment or Placement of the Child
According to the Professor of history, babies are [translation] "often" abandoned by single mothers (21 Oct. 2014). Similarly, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child emphasizes the "high rate" of children born out of wedlock who are placed in institutions (UN 16 June 2010, para. 43). For example, in 2010, among the 1,146 births out of wedlock registered by the Ministry of Social Affairs in Tunisia, 595 children were placed temporarily or abandoned (Save the Children Sweden et al. , 31). The National Institute for Child Protection (Institut national de la protection de l'enfance, INPE), in La Manouba [in western Tunis], is a [Tunisia n.d.a. English version] "public institution under the authority of the Ministry of Social Affairs" that provides support to children who under six years of age who are without family support (Tunisia n.d.a). The reception capacity at the INPE is 140 beds (ibid.). According to the INPE website, associations from various regions of the country work in partnership with the Institute to provide support to abandoned children (ibid. n.d.b). The association Voice of the Child (Voix de l'enfant), the Association of Friends of INPE (Association des amis de l'INPE) and Amal provide assistance to children born out of wedlock in Tunisia (Save the Children Sweden et al. , 29). The INPE states that [Tunisia n.d.a. English version] "the mother can deposit her child at the Institute temporarily or permanently, under a resolution from the concerned Primary Court judge" (Tunisia n.d.b).
Another article by the journalist Sana Sbouaï, which includes interviews that the Association Beity  conducted with 30 women without shelter in Tunis, states that half of them were mothers and that the majority were illiterate or had received very little education (Sbouaï 4 Oct. 2012). According to the same source, some of these women find themselves on the street because they are escaping the violence inflicted upon them by their spouse or family; when they find themselves alone, with or without children, since most of them depend financially on their spouse, they have no money (ibid.). The Professor of history stated that single mothers have difficulty getting a job and finding resources to raise their child (21 Oct. 2014). According to the Postdoctoral Researcher, "[single mothers] who are not living with their families might rent a small apartment in a lower class neighbourhood. However, their financial situation is generally deplorable. [...] Many [of them] live with their child in the streets as beggars" (29 Oct. 2014).
3. Identity Rights and Patronymic Family Name
According to the Country Profile of Tunisia report, the Tunisian government has taken measures to improve the conditions for the legal and material care of children born out of wedlock (Save the Children Sweden et al. , 31). Law No. 98-75 of 28 October 1998 regarding the allocation of a patronymic family name to abandoned children and those of unknown parentage, amended by Law No. 2003-51 of 7 July 2003, allows abandoned children and those of unknown parentage to have a patronymic family name and provides that the mother must give her child her patronymic family name (ibid., 27, 31). The Postdoctoral Researcher explained that before the introduction of the 1998 law, a child born outside wedlock had no family name (Postdoctoral Researcher 29 Oct. 2014). Without a family name, a person could not obtain the national identity card, which was required to obtain employment (ibid.). Law No. 2003-51 of 7 July 2003, amending and completing Law No. 98-75 of 28 October 1998 regarding allocating a patronymic family name to abandoned children and those of unknown parentage, is attached to this Response. The law states the following:
Article one (new) - A mother having custody of her minor child whose descent is unknown shall attribute to the child a forename and her patronymic name or shall seek authorization to do so in accordance with the provisions regulating civil status [...] (Tunisia 2003, Art. 1).
According to Article 3 of that same law,
Article 3 bis: The person concerned, the father, the mother or the Office of the Public Prosecutor may apply to the competent court of first instance for attribution of the patronymic name to the child where it is proven by admission, testimony or genetic fingerprinting that such person is the father of the child.
The person concerned, the father, the mother or the Office of the Public Prosecutor may also apply to the competent court of first instance to request that the mother be subjected to genetic testing to prove that she is the mother of the child whose descent is unknown.
Should she refuse to subject herself to the order for genetic testing, the court decides on the matter based on the numerous, consistent, serious and precise presumptions available.
The child whose paternity is established, shall be entitled to child maintenance and a right of say in matters such as guardianship and custody where the child has not attained legal majority or after he has done so in cases prescribed by law.
The father and mother's responsibility lies in the child and the third parties, during the entire legal period, with respect to the rules of responsibility and this, in accordance with the law (ibid., Art. 3 bis).
According to Article 26 of Law No. 1957-3 of 1 August 1957 (4 moharem 1377), regulating civil status,
[c]ustodians of civil registers must not, in copies, reproduce any references to "unknown father or mother" or "unnamed" or any similar reference.
These references must also not be reproduced on the registers, in the vital records or in transcripts (ibid. 1957, Art. 26).
According to sources, after the birth of the baby, the authorities visit the single mother in the hospital to question her about the identity of the father and to determine his whereabouts (Postdoctoral Researcher 29 Oct. 2014; Sbouaï 6 Apr. 2012). The article by the journalist Sana Sbouaï on single mothers indicates that this [translation] "'profiling' is a mandatory step" (ibid.). The Postdoctoral Researcher explained that the state is responsible for ensuring that the child is attributed the father's patronymic name (Postdoctoral Researcher 29 Oct. 2014). She added that the woman is "practically obliged" to give the identity of the father to the police, even in the "case of rape" (ibid.).
According to the Professor of history, the genetic tests serving to identify the father are conducted at the request of the mother or the court, if the father refuses to acknowledge the child (21 Oct. 2014). The Postdoctoral Researcher stated that, if the test is conclusive, the name of the father will be registered on the birth certificate and that the mother may request child maintenance for her child (Postdoctoral Researcher 29 Oct. 2014). If the genetic test does not confirm the paternity of the presumed father or the mother does not know the identity of the father, the mother may not receive child maintenance (ibid.). According to the Postdoctoral Researcher, if the court orders the father to pay child maintenance to the mother and he does not do so, the mother may receive financial support from the government (ibid.). The Postdoctoral Researcher stated that the majority of fathers in this situation refrain from paying it (ibid.). Further information on child maintenance could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
The journalist Sana Sbouaï is of the opinion that the procedure to identify the father is also used by the authorities to identify prostitutes (6 Apr. 2012). Furthermore, the Postdoctoral Researcher explained that, if the woman states that she does not know the father's identity and that she cannot show an identity card proving that the state has given her the right to work as a prostitute , she risks being arrested for prostitution (29 Oct. 2014). Further information on allegations of prostitution against single mothers could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child notes that the law does not clearly provide for the rights of adopted children and children born out of wedlock to succession or inheritance (UN 16 June 2010, para. 27). According to UNICEF, children born out of wedlock [translation] "do not have the right to inheritance [from the father] since the patronymic name proven through genetic testing does not amount to a direct line of descent" (ibid. , 114).
According to sources, there are no family-related benefits from the government for single mothers (Postdoctoral Researcher 29 Oct. 2014; Professor of history 21 Oct. 2014), but they may receive the same support services as any other person living in poverty (ibid.). The Tunisian Ministry of Social Affairs website states that one of the conditions required for a needy family to obtain permanent assistance is that the annual income be less than 382 Tunisian dinars (TND) (about C$236 ) in an urban environment or 191 TND (about C$118) in rural environments (Tunisia n.d.c).
According to the Country Profile of Tunisia report, which considers an interview with a representative of the Ministry of Social Affairs in 2012, the situation of single mothers is still "precarious," despite improvements, because of the "inadequate" care system (Save the Children Sweden et al. , 31). In addition, the Professor of history pointed out that the demand for services for single mothers surpasses the capacity of the organizations (Professor of history 21 Oct. 2014).
4.1 Association Amal for the Family and the Child (Association Amal pour la famille et l'enfant, Amal)
Amal is an organization in Tunis that provides assistance to single mothers who keep their baby (ibid.; Sbouaï 6 Apr. 2012). According to the article by the journalist Sana Sbouaï on single mothers, it is the only Tunisian organization that helps single mothers; those who use its services [translation] "have been rejected by their family, lover, friends and all of society" (ibid.). In Country Profile of Tunisia, Amal describes itself as a temporary shelter for single mothers, which provides legal, psychological and administrative support, as well as human rights awareness (Save the Children Sweden et al. , 9). Amal seeks to integrate single mothers into society and help them become autonomous, by offering them training and psychological support (Tunivisions 30 Sept. 2011; Sbouaï 6 Apr. 2012). According to the journalist Sana Sbouaï, the Amal residence has 17 rooms, each with a bed for the mother and a bed for the child (ibid.).
4.2 Association Beity
Association Beity is an organization that provides support to women without shelter (ibid. 4 Oct. 2012; Professor of history 21 Oct. 2014). According to the Postdoctoral Researcher, Association Beity also helps them find accommodations and employment; it has centres in Gafsa, Tunis and Sfax-the Sfax centre houses single mother during pregnancy and up to two years after the child is born (29 Oct. 2014).
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
 Ennahda is described by media as an "Islamist" political party (The Guardian 29 Oct. 2014; Al Arabiya News et al. 27 Oct. 2014).
 Save the Children Sweden is an independent NGO that deals with the rights of children in Sweden and in eight regions of the world, and that is a member of the Save the Children International network (Save the Children Sweden et al. , 9).
 See section 4.1 for a description of the organization.
 The Postdoctoral Researcher specializes in formal and informal norms of morality in contemporary Tunisian society and the situation of women since the 2011 revolution (Postdoctoral Researcher 29 Oct. 2014). In 2009, she conducted fieldwork on family law in Tunisia, including on the situation of single mothers (ibid.).
 Founded in 2004, Nawaat.org is an [translation] "independent collective blog run by Tunisians" (Nawaat.org n.d.). The website won three [translation] "major" awards for its work before, and during the Tunisian revolution, including an award from Reporters sans frontières (ibid.).
 See section 4.2 for a description of the organization.
 According to Country Reports 2009, the penal code prohibits prostitution with penalties of up to two years' imprisonment; however, there are government-sanctioned brothels and there are no penalties for visiting these brothels (U.S. 11 Mar. 2010, Sect. 6). Other sources state that prostitution is permitted in licensed brothels (CNN 12 Mar. 2014; AFP 12 Mar. 2014).
Agence France-Presse (AFP). 12 March 2014. "Tunisian Prostitutes Demand Going Back to Work." [Accessed 5 Nov. 2014]
Al Arabiya News. 13 November 2011. Amal Al-Hilali. "Ennahda Members Make Conflicting Statements About Women's Rights in Tunisia." [Accessed 17 Oct. 2014]
Al Arabiya News, Agence France-Presse (AFP) and Reuters. 27 October 2014. "Islamists Concede Defeat in Tunisia's Historic Vote." [Accessed 12 Nov. 2014]
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 25 November 2014. "Tunisia Profile." [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]
Cable News Network (CNN). 12 March 2014. Ammar Benaziz, Laura Smith-Spark and Saad Abedine. "Tunisia Sex Workers Call for Brothel to Reopen in Resort of Sousse." [Accessed 5 Nov. 2014]
European Union (EU). 2012. European Parliament, Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs (Policy Department C). Gender Equality Policy in Tunisia: Briefing Note. [Accessed 10 Oct. 2014]
Freedom House. 2014. "Tunisia." Freedom in the World 2014. [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]
The Guardian. 29 October 2014. Monica Marks. "The Tunisian Election Result Isn't Simply a Victory for Secularism over Islamism." [Accessed 12 Nov. 2014]
Human Rights Watch. 30 April 2014. "Tunisie : Un geste historique relatif aux droits des femmes." [Accessed 18 Nov. 2014]
_____. January 2014. "Tunisie." World Report 2014: Events of 2013. [Accessed 18 Oct. 2014]
Magharebia. 18 November 2011. Houda Trabelsi. "Ennahda Female Candidate Slams Single Mothers." [Accessed 17 Oct. 2014]
Le Monde. 27 October 2011. "Ennahda veut un nouveau gouvernement provisoire dans dix jours." (Factiva)
Nawaat.org. N.d. "About Nawaat." [Accessed 17 Oct. 2014]
Postdoctoral Researcher, École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris. 29 October 2014. Correspondence with the Research Directorate.
Professor of history and women's studies, Université de La Manouba, Tunis. 21 October 2014. Telephone interview with the Research Directorate.
Radio France internationale (RFI). 22 November 2011. Ursula Soares. "La Tunisie inaugure son assemblée constituante." [Accessed 19 Nov. 2014]
Save the Children Sweden, Amal pour la famille et l'enfant (Amal), International Bureau for Children's Rights. . Country Profile of Tunisia: A Review of the Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. [Accessed 10 Oct. 2014]
Sbouaï, Sana. 4 October 2012. "Tunisie: Quand les femmes se retrouvent à la rue." Nawaat.org. [Accessed 29 Oct. 2014]
_____. 6 April 2012. "Enquête: Être mère célibataire en Tunisie." Nawaat.org. [Accessed 29 Oct. 2014]
Sweden and Switzerland. 24 January 2012. Swedish Migration Board and Office fédéral des migrations. Report from a Swedish-Swiss Fact-finding Mission to Tunisia from 6-10 June 2011. [Accessed 10 Oct. 2014]
Tunisia. 2014. Constitution de la République tunisienne. [Accessed 9 Nov. 2014]
_____. 2003. Loi no 2003-51 du 7 juillet 2003, modifiant et complétant la loi no 98-75 du 28 octobre 1998 relative à l'attribution d'un nom patronymique aux enfants abandonnés ou de filiation inconnue. [Accessed 26 Nov. 2014]
_____. 1957 (amended in 1986). Loi no 57-3 du 1er août 1957 (4 moharem 1377), réglementant l'état civil. [Accessed 26 Nov. 2014]
_____. 1913 (amended in 1973). "Article 2014." Code pénal. [Accessed 9 Dec. 2014]
_____. N.d.a. Ministère des Affaires sociales, Institut national de protection de l'enfance (INPE). "Présentation." [Accessed 13 Nov. 2014]
_____. N.d.b. Ministère des Affaires sociales, Institut national de protection de l'enfance (INPE). "Questions et réponses." [Accessed 12 Nov. 2014]
_____. N.d.c. Ministère des Affaires sociales. "Guide des services sociaux." [Accessed 13 Nov. 2014]
Tunisia and European Union (EU). June 2014. Profil genre de la Tunisie 2014. (short version) [Accessed 10 Oct. 2014]
Tunivisions. 30 September 2011. Jihene Boukottaya. "Malek Kefif, AMAL pour la famille et l'enfant." [Accessed 29 Oct. 2014]
United Nations (UN). 30 May 2013. Human Rights Council. Rapport du Groupe de travail sur l'élimination de la discrimination à l'égard des femmes dans la législation et dans la pratique. Additif : mission en Tunisie. (A/HRC/23/50/Add.2) [Accessed 19 Nov. 2014]
_____. . United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Analyse de la situation des enfants en Tunisie 2012. [Accessed 10 Oct. 2014]
_____. 16 June 2010. Committee on the Rights of the Child. Examen des rapports soumis par les États parties en application de l'article 44 de la Convention. Observations finales du Comité des droits de l'enfant : Tunisie. (CRC/C/TUN/CO/3) [Accessed 19 Nov. 2014]
United States (U.S.). 27 February 2014. Department of State. "Tunisia." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013. [Accessed 10 Oct. 2014]
_____. 11 March 2010. Department of State. "Tunisia." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2009. [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]
Additional Sources Consulted
Oral sources: The following people and organizations were unable to provide information within the time constraints for this Response: Association des amis de l'Institut national de protection de l'enfance en Tunisie; Human Rights Watch; Professor of law, Faculty of Legal Sciences, Université de Carthage; Professor of social sciences, Université de Tunis; Professor of sociology, University of Texas, Austin.
Attempts to contact representatives of the following organizations were unsuccessful within the time constraints for this Response: Amal pour la famille et l'enfant; Association Beity; Association des femmes tunisiennes pour la recherche sur le développement; Association la voix de l'enfant de Nabeul; Ligue tunisienne pour la défense des droits de l'homme; Organisation internationale pour les migrations; UNICEF Tunisia.
Internet sites, including: Al Bawaba; Al Jazeera; Al-Monitor; ecoi.net; L'Économiste maghrébin; Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network; L'Expert journal; Freedom House; Jeune Afrique; Juriste Tunisie; Ligue tunisienne pour la défense des droits de l'homme; Le Monde diplomatique; La Presse de Tunisie; Tunisia Daily; Tunis Daily News; Tunisia - Centre de recherches, d'études, de documentation et d'information sur la femme, femme.gov.tn (only available in Arabic), Institut national de protection de l'enfance, ministère des Affaires sociales, Office national de la famille et de la population; Tunis Times; United Nations - Refworld, ReliefWeb, Integrated Regional Information Networks; Zawya.com.
Tunisia. 2003. Loi no 2003-51 du 7 juillet 2003, modifiant et complétant la loi no 98-75 du 28 October 1998 relative à l'attribution d'un nom patronymique aux enfants abandonnés ou de filiation inconnue. [Accessed 26 Nov. 2014]