Georgia: Violent events in Sukhumi and Tsalenjikha between April and August 1992; persons in charge of Georgian national security and law enforcement; roles of Colonels Kalandia and Maisuradze in Sukhumi and Tsalenjikha
|Publisher||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada|
|Publication Date||16 January 2004|
|Citation / Document Symbol||GGA42245.E|
|Cite as||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Georgia: Violent events in Sukhumi and Tsalenjikha between April and August 1992; persons in charge of Georgian national security and law enforcement; roles of Colonels Kalandia and Maisuradze in Sukhumi and Tsalenjikha, 16 January 2004, GGA42245.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/403dd1f214.html [accessed 5 May 2015]|
Following the end of the Soviet Union in 1991, the first years of Georgian independence were marked by political instability and simmering ethnic and regional conflicts related to the status of the Abkhazia Autonomous Republic (Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika) (RIIA 1998, 15). In January 1992, Georgia's nationalist President Zviad Gamsakhurdia was overthrown by an opposition military council and forced to flee into exile (ibid.). Soon after, pro-Gamsakhurdia forces, acting from strongholds in the western Georgia region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti began actions against the new regime in Tbilisi (Third World Quarterly 1997, 514). In July 1992, the Abkhaz Supreme Soviet (parliament) reinstated its 1925 Soviet constitution implying equal standing between Abkhazia and Georgia (RIIA 1998, 15; Coppieters 2000, 24). Rebellious pro-Gamsakhurdia factions and the Abkhaz bid for independence prompted the Georgian central authority in Tbilisi to respond with force and helped instigate a civil war that lasted until September 1993 (RIIA 1998, 14-15; Suny 1994, 329-331; OSI 1995, 14).
Events in Tsalenjikha, April to August 1992
Tsalenjikha (Tsalendzhika) is a town in the Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti (Samegrelo, Mingrelia) region of western Georgia (Law 12 Dec. 2002; ibid. 22 May 2002; The World Factbook 2003 1 Aug. 2003). Lying 21 miles from the regional administrative centre of Zugdidi, the town of Tsalenjikha has a population of 11,000 (NDI n.d.). In March 1992, supporters of former President Gamsakhurdia reportedly attacked the local market and picketed businesses in Tsalenjikha (Radio Mayak 4 Mar. 1992). Later, these forces took control of the town as well as the nearby villages of Kobi, Abasha and Senaki (AFP 30 Mar. 1992). A late June broadcast by Georgian Radio reported that 70 to 100 persons operating in six to eight bandit groups acting from bases in villages near Tsalenjikha were "systematically robbing the population," stealing automobiles and kidnapping people (23 June 1992). According to the report, local law enforcement was unable to apprehend the perpetrators who were described as "well armed and fairly mobile" (Georgian Radio 23 June 1992).
On 6 July 1992, a reported 300 Gamsakhurdian supporters attacked a unit of the Georgian Mkhedrioni paramilitary forces near Tsalenjikha (Radio Mayak 6 July 1992; BBC Monitoring Report 7 July 1992). The Mkhedrioni, or "Horsemen" were under the command of Jaba Ioseliani (Dzhaba Iosseliani) (AFP 3 Sept. 1995) and were the subject of several earlier Responses published by the Research Directorate including, most recently, GGA31722.E of 20 April 1999 and GGA25044.E of 25 September 1996. Georgian officials claimed the attack caused the deaths of 12 people and injuries to 60 others (BBC Monitoring Report 10 July 1992). Although the attackers successfully corralled Ioseliani and a unit of Mkhedrioni in a boarding school, his counterattack, supported by another Mkhedrioni unit as well as Georgian National Guard and Ministry of the Interior (GMVD) forces from Poti, Khobi and Kutaisi, broke the siege (Radio Mayak 6 July 1992). The Associated Press stated that there was "at least one person dead and scores wounded" in the counterattack (6 July 1992). The following day, Mkhedrioni and Georgian National Guard (GNG) units captured Zugdidi and caused heavy casualties to pro-Gamsukhurdia forces (BBC Monitoring Report 10 July 1992). The Research Directorate found no further information concerning violence in or around Tsalenjikha within the time period in question.
Events in Sukhumi, April to August 1992
Sukhumi (Soukhoumi, Sokhumi) is the administrative centre of the autonomous Abkhazian region (Law 12 Dec, 2002; ibid. 22 May 2002; The World Factbook 2003 1 Aug. 2003). On 13 August 1992, the GNG entered Abkhazia to secure rail and communication links as well as hunt for several security officials that had been taken as hostages (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 1992). The following day, the GNG clashed with Abkhaz Ministry of the Interior (AMVD) forces in Sukhumi (ibid. 17 Aug. 1992; Billingsley 1998, 147) resulting in 19 dead and 39 seriously wounded (Russia's Radio 16 Aug. 1992). Moscow-based Russia's Radio also reported that Georgian forces detained approximately 200 people on suspicion of participating in "bandit formations" (16 Aug. 1992).
On 18 August 1992, the GNG stormed the Abkhaz parliament, forcing parliamentarians to flee to the neighbouring Abkhaz city of Gudauta (RFE/RL 19 Aug. 1992; RIIA 1998, 15). That day, Georgian forces claimed control over the city, appointed a ruling military council (Toronto Star 18 Aug. 1992) and imposed a curfew enforced by the GNG to control looting (ITAR-TASS 18 Aug. 1992; Izvestia 18 Aug. 1992; AP 18 Aug. 1992). Along with the curfew, Georgian authorities banned demonstrations and were granted the right to demand identification papers, search houses and detain people (ibid.). Russia's Radio reported that 50 such detentions took place on 20 August 1992 (21 Aug. 1992). Georgian authorities later tightened their control over Sukhumi, and reports refer to an official order that looters be shot (ITAR-TASS 20 Aug. 1992; AP 20 Aug. 1992). The Research Directorate found no specific reports of looters being shot among the sources consulted; however, a 21 August 1992 report charged that the crackdown on lawlessness resulted in "'repressions ... being committed and ... citizens ... being shot'" (Ostankino TV 21 Aug. 1992).
On 20 August 1992, GNG units began withdrawing from Sukhumi and were replaced by GMVD police charged with enforcing the Sukhumi curfew (AP 20 Aug. 1992; ITAR-TASS 20 Aug. 1992; RFE/RL 24 Aug. 1992). According to an analysis by regional military specialist Dodge Billingsley, the situation around Sukhumi stalemated in late August 1992 as the conflict shifted to the northern city of Gagra (Billingsley 1998, 147). Between 20 and 22 August 1992, Abkhazia was described as "comparatively calm" (ITAR-TASS 20 Aug. 1992) while Sukhumi began to stabilize (ibid. 22 Aug. 1992). Several reports refer to the death toll in Sukhumi as being at least 50 persons by the morning of 18 August 1992 (Izvestia 18 Aug. 1992; ITAR-TASS 18 Aug. 1992; Toronto Star 18 Aug. 1992; RFE/RL 18 Aug. 1992) and, according to one source more than 70 people were killed in the month of August 1992 (CNISJ 2 Apr. 1993, 6).
Comments on Human Rights During the Civil War
Several reports accuse both Georgians and Abkhazians of committing human rights violations and undertaking ethnic cleansing and/or extrajudicial killings during the period of conflict (Accord Sept. 1999a; Anchabadze 1998, 141-142; CNISJ 2 Apr. 1993). For example, the Research Directorate found eyewitness accounts of the extrajudicial killing of a man by Georgian soldiers after they had beaten him and two of his companions in Sukhumi on 15 August 1992 (The Herald 15 Aug. 1992) and an Abkhazian source claimed that Georgian forces were persecuting the Abkhaz intelligentsia (Russia's Radio 22 Aug. 1992). Regional historian Jurij Anchabadze blamed Georgian soldiers for "outrages and persecutions" against civilians beginning 14 August 1992 and cited the existence of Georgian punishment squads that were targeting refugees (Anchabadze 1998, 141-142).
The Caucasus Network, an International Soviet Jewry organization (CNISJ), observed in April 1993 that "[u]ntold numbers" of civilian casualties resulted from military action in the civil war (2 Apr. 1993, 1). The report continued by noting that "human rights missions to Abkhazia have charged Georgians with committing 'gross and systematic violations of human rights'," including the beating, rape, torture and murder of non-Georgians and the looting of their property (CNISJ 2 Apr. 1993, 1). When referring to the Abkhaz environment, the CNISJ described it as "'gruesome'" and "'frightful'" in part because of the threat from rampant theft, looting and murder (ibid.).
Georgian State and National Security Authorities in 1992
According to Bruno Coppieters, a specialist on the Caucasus region and associate professor of political science at Vrije Universiteit in Brussels (CIES n.d.), no one political authority was strong enough to impose its will on the territory of Georgia and Abkhazia when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991 (Accord Sept. 1999b). Various military, paramilitary, security and irregular forces were active in Georgia and Abkhazia between April and August 1992, including the aforementioned GNG (RFE/RL 14 Aug. 2003; BBC Monitoring Report 10 July 1992), the GMVD (Radio Mayak 6 July 1992), the Mkhedrioni paramilitary (ibid.; BBC Monitoring Report 7 July 1992), the 1,500-member Abkhazian National Guard (ANG) (RFE/RL 20 Aug. 1992), the AMVD (ibid. 17 Aug. 1992; CIPDD Jan.-Feb. 1993), the pro-Gamsakhurdia Zviadisti (AP 6 July 1992; AFP 3 Sept. 1995) and some 500 irregular military volunteers allied with Abkhazia (RFE/RL 25 Aug. 1992; CIPDD Jan.-Feb. 1993). Some of the latter were subordinate to a regional organization called the Confederation of Caucasus Mountain Peoples (RFE/RL 25 Aug. 1992; CIPDD Jan.-Feb. 1993), which unites 16 different Caucasian peoples, including Abkhaz, Chechen and Ingush, and encourages mutual assistance among ethnicities (JIR Feb. 1997, 65-66).
Furthermore, two sources indicate that there is some question of whether Georgian forces were under Tbilisi's command and control at all times during the conflict (Accord Sept. 1999c; Coppieters 2000, 24). Coppieters indicated that "Georgian warlords decided to march on Sukhumi" although they had not received such orders from Tbilisi (ibid.). The Chairman of the Caucasian Institute for Peace, Democracy and Development, Ghia Nodia, called the Georgian troops "unruly militias" and blamed Kitovani for defying political authority with his actions in Abkhazia (Accord Sept. 1999c).
Given the disparate forces at play in Georgia during the period in question, specific information outlining the hierarchical structure of the national security organization that linked the central authority in Tbilisi to the local law enforcement in the cities of Tsalenjikha and Soukhoumi could not be found by the Research Directorate. The following list, however, identifies some of the individuals named in the reports concerning the period in question:
Senior Georgian (Tbilisi) Political Leadership
Gventsadze, Roman - Internal Affairs Minister (Georgian Radio 16 June 1992) and member of the ruling military council in early 1992 (Postfactum 22 Feb. 1992)
Nadareishvili, Tamaz - First Deputy Speaker of the Abkhazian parliament then leader of the pro-Georgian military council installed after Georgia's successful attack on Sukhumi in August 1992 (ITAR-TASS 19 Aug. 1992)
Maisuradze, Anzor - State Security Minister and member of the ruling military council in early 1992 (Postfactum 22 Feb. 1992)
Razmadze, Vakhtang - General Procurator and member of the ruling military council in early 1992 (ibid.)
Salaridze, David - National Security Advisor (AP 18 Aug. 1992)
Shevardnadze, Eduard - President of Georgia after January 1992 (RIIA 1998, 15; AFP 3 Sept. 1995; Suny 1994, 329)
Sharashenidze, Levan - chief military advisor (Georgian Radio 16 June 1992) and member of the ruling military council in early 1992 (Postfactum 22 Feb. 1992)
Sigua, Tengiz - Prime Minister (RFE/RL 17 Aug. 1992; Soviet Analyst 1993)
Georgian Military Commanders
Akhalaya, Soso - one of three battalion commanders of the Georgian National Guard in Abkhazia in June 1992 under Boris Kakubava (Nezavisimaya Gazeta 9 June 1992)
Gulua, Georgy - pro-Georgian commandant general of the Sukhumi police detachment appointed on 20 August 1992 (Ostankino TV 20 Aug. 1992; ITAR-TASS 22 Aug. 1992)
Ioseliani, Jaba - leader of the Mkhedrioni (Horsemen) paramilitary group (OSI 1995, 18; AFP 3 Sept. 1995) and member of the ruling military council in early 1992 (Postfactum 22 Feb. 1992)
Karkarashvili, Colonel Giorgi - commander of GNG units in Abkhazia in August 1992 (RFE/RL 26 Aug. 1992; Soviet Analyst 1993) and member of the ruling military council in early 1992 (Postfactum 22 Feb. 1992)
Kakubava, Boris - former Mkhedrioni leader and commander of GNG battalions in Abkhazia in June 1992 (Nezavisimaya Gazeta 9 June 1992)
Kitovani, Tengiz - head of the GNG and later defence minister: (RIIA 1998, 15; AFP 3 Sept. 1995; Accord Sept. 1999c; JIR Feb. 1997, 66) and member of the ruling military council in early 1992 (Postfactum 22 Feb. 1992)
Called "Zviadisti" (AP 6 July 1992) loyal to former Georgian Prime Minister Zviad Gamsakhurdia (Third World Quarterly 1997, 514)
Ethnic Abkhazian Political Leadership
Ardzinba, Vladislav - Abkhaz parliamentary leader (Suny 1994, 329; RFE/RL 18 Aug. 1992; CIPDD Jan-Feb. 1993)
Ankvab, Aleksandr - Minister of the Interior (RFE/RL 18 Aug. 1992)
Lominadze, Givi - Internal Affairs Minister (Ostankino TV 25 June 1992)
Nadareishvili, Tamaz - First Deputy Chairman (Georgian Radio 16 June 1992)
Ethnic Abkhazian Military Commanders
Kakalia, Viktor - AMVD commander (ibid.; RFE/RL 11 Sept. 1992)
Volunteer Forces in Abkhazia in 1992
Baseyev, Shamil - ethnic Chechen field commander (JIR Feb. 1997, 66; Billingsley 1998, 155)
Information concerning the roles of Colonels Kalandia or Maisuradze in the aforementioned events in Sukhumi and Tsalenjikha was not found among the sources consulted. The Research Directorate was unable to find mention of a Colonel named Kalandia; however, two colonels with the last name of Maisuradze were mentioned in reports (Georgian Radio 11 May 1992; ITAR-TASS 17 Sept. 1992). A Georgian air force Colonel Dzhimi (Dzimi, Djimmi, Jim) Maisuradze was identified as the commander of a Georgian helicopter that fired on a Russian passenger hydrofoil carrying tourists and refugees to Sochi from Batumi on 27 August 1992 (ibid.; ibid. 19 Sept. 1992). One person died and eleven were wounded in the attack (ibid.). On 27 December 1992, ITAR-TASS reported that Maisuradze was killed when his helicopter was shot down near the village of Vladimirovka in Ochamchir district of Abkhazia (ibid. 27 Dec. 1992). A 1999 article on the Georgian air force also referred to Maisuradze's combat death in Abkhazia (CIPDD Sept. 1999). A second individual, Anzor Maisuradze, was reportedly promoted to the rank of major general and appointed as Georgian deputy defence minister and chief of operations on 8 May 1992 (Georgian Radio 11 May 1992). No further information on Anzor Maisuradze was found among the sources consulted.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Accord [London]. September 1999a. No. 7. Liana Kvarchelia. "An Abkhaz Perspective."
_____. September 1999b. No. 7. Bruno Coppieters. "The Roots of the Conflict."
_____. September 1999c. No. 7. Ghia Nodia. "Georgian Perspectives."
Agence France Presse (AFP). 3 September 1995. "Key Players in Georgian Politics." (NEXIS)
_____. 30 March 1992. "State Council Gives Pro-Gamsakurdia Forces Ultimatum." (Dialog)
Anchabadze, Jurij. 1998. "History: The Modern Period." The Abkhazians: A Handbook. Edited by George Hewitt. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Associated Press (AP). 20 August 1992. "Police Replace Troops in Abkhazian Capital; Fighting Continues." (NEXIS)
_____. 18 August 1992. Sergei Shargorodsky. "Georgian Troops Take Over Rebellious Region." (NEXIS)
_____. 6 July 1992. Thomas Ginsberg. "Georgian Forces Rescue Leader from Opposition." (Dialog)
BBC Monitoring Report [London]. 10 July 1992. "Georgian Government Forces Enter Zugdidi." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1429/i/NEXIS)
_____. 7 July 1992. "Sabotage and Attacks by Gamsakhurdia Supporters in Western Georgia." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1426/i/NEXIS)
Billingsley, Dodge. 1998. "Military Aspects of the War: The Turning Point." The Abkhazians: A Handbook. Edited by George Hewitt. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Caucasus Institute for Peace, Democracy and Development (CIPDD), Tbilisi. September 1999. Centre for Civil-Military Relations and Security Studies. The Army and Society in Georgia. Teimuraz Chachanidze. "Air Force of Georgia."
_____. January-February 1993. The Georgian Chronicle. "Conflict in Abkhazia."
Caucasus Network, an International Soviet Jewry Organization (CNISJ). 2 April 1993. Helene Kenvin. "Civil War, Ethnic Strife, and the Disintegration of Jewish Life in Georgia. January, 1992 Through March, 1993."
Coppieters, Bruno. 2000. "Western Security Policies and the Georgian-Abkhazian Conflict." Federal Practice: Exploring Alternatives for Georgia and Abkhazia. Edited by Bruno Coppieters et al. Brussels: Vrije Universiteit Brussel Press.
Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES). n.d. "Fulbright New Century Scholars Program: Bruno Coppieters."
Georgian Radio [Tbilisi, in Georgian]. 23 June 1992. "Armed Bands Causing Havoc in Western Georgia." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1416/C2/1 25 June 1992/NEXIS
_____. 16 June 1992. "Some Progress at Talks in Sukhumi." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1410/B/1 18 June 1992/NEXIS)
_____. 11 May 1992. "Kitovani Replaces Sharashenidze as Defence Minister." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1379/B/1 13 May 1992/NEXIS)
The Herald [Glasgow]. 15 August 1992. Oleg Shchedrov. "Civil War Fears Grow as Troops Clash." (NEXIS)
ITAR-TASS [Moscow]. 27 December 1992. Albert Kochetkov. "Military Helicopter Shot Down in Ochamchir District." (NEXIS)
_____. 19 September 1992. "Press Review." (NEXIS)
_____. 17 September 1992. "Russian Hydrofoil Was Rocketed on Georgian Orders." (NEXIS)'
_____. 22 August 1992. Tengiz Pachkoriya. "Situation Stabilizing in Sukhumi." (NEXIS)
_____. 20 August 1992. Viktor Sitnikov. "Curfew Regulations To Be Tightened in Sukhumi." (NEXIS)
_____. 19 August 1992. Albert Kochetkov. "Guerrilla War Begins in Abkhazia." (NEXIS)
_____. 18 August 1992. Viktor Sitnikov. "Curfew Clamped Down on Sukhumi." (NEXIS)
Izvestia [Moscow]. 18 August 1992. Besik Urigashvili. "People are Dying in Sukhumi and Curfew Is Imposed." (Russian Press Digest/NEXIS)
Jane's Intelligence Review (JIR) [Surrey]. February 1997. Vol. 9, No. 2. Dodge Billingsley. "Confederates of the Caucasus."
Law, Gwillim. 12 December 2002. "Regions of Georgia." Administrative Divisions of Countries ("Statoids").
_____. 22 May 2002. "Districts of Georgia." Administrative Divisions of Countries ("Statoids").
National Democratic Institute (NDI). n.d "Local Councils in Georgia: Samegrelo-Tsalenjikha."
Nezavisimaya Gazeta [Moscow, in Russian]. 9 June 1992. "Georgian Guard Units Formed in Abkhazia; Protest Rally in Sukhumi." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1405/B/1 12 June 1992/NEXIS)
Open Society Institute (OSI). 1995. Forced Migration: Repatriation in Georgia. New York: OSI.
Ostankino Channel 1 TV [Moscow, in Russian]. 21 August 1992. "Georgian Troops Accused of Persecutions." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1467/C2/1 24 Aug. 1992/NEXIS)
_____. 20 August 1992. "Update on Situation in Abkhazia." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1466/C2/1 22 Aug. 1992/NEXIS)
_____. 25 June 1992. "Abkhazian Leader Accuses Georgia of Disrespect." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1418/B/1 27 June 1992/NEXIS)
Postfactum [Tbilisi]. 22 February 1992. "Military Council Puts Armed Groups Under One Command, Restores 1921 Constitution." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1212/B/1 25 Feb. 1992/NEXIS)
Radio-1 [Moscow, in Russian]. 20 August 1992. "Update on Situation in Abkhazia." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1466/C2/1 22 Aug. 1992/NEXIS)
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). 11 September 1992. Newsline. No. 175. Liz Fuller. "Talks on Implementation of Abkhaz Cease-Fire Hits Obstacle."
_____. 27 August 1992. Newsline. No. 164. Liz Fuller. "More Fighting in Abkhazia."
_____. 26 August 1992. Newsline. No. 163. Liz Fuller. "Abkhaz Parliament Chairman Faced with New Ultimatum."
_____. 25 August 1992. Newsline. No. 162. Liz Fuller. "Shevardnadze on Abkhazia, Elections."
_____. 24 August 1992. Newsline. No. 161. Liz Fuller. "Georgian State Council Discusses Abkhaz Deadlock."
_____. 20 August 1992. Newsline. No. 159. Liz Fuller. "Abkhaz Vow to Resist Georgian 'Occupation'."
_____. 19 August 1992. Newsline. No. 158. Liz Fuller. "Georgian Troops Storm Abkhaz Parliament."
_____. 18 August 1992. Newsline. No. 157. Liz Fuller. "Georgia Reasserts Control in Abkhazia."
_____. 17 August 1992. Newsline. No. 156. Liz Fuller. "Georgian National Guard Clashes with Abkhaz Forces: Some Hostages."
_____. 14 August 1992. Newsline. No. 155. Liz Fuller. "Georgian National Guard Launches Hunt for Hostages."
Radio Mayak [Moscow, in Russian]. 6 July 1992. Vladimir Melnikov. "Ioseliani Keeps His Cool as Mkhedrioni Fight Off Gamsakhurdia Supporters." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1427/B/1 8 July 1992/NEXIS)
_____. 4 March 1992. "Gamsakhurdia Supporters Picket Enterprises in Tsalendzhikha." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1322/B/1 6 Mar. 1992/NEXIS)
Royal Institute for International Affairs (RIIA). 1998. Dov Lynch. The Conflict in Abkhazia: Dilemmas in Russian 'Peacekeeping' Policy. RIIA Discussion Paper, No. 77. London: RIIA
Russia's Radio [Moscow, in Russian]. 22 August 1992. "Georgian Troops Accused of Persecution." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1467/C2/1 24 Aug. 1992/NEXIS)
_____. 21 August 1992. "Update on Situation in Abkhazia." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1466/C2/1 22 Aug. 1992/NEXIS)
_____. 16 August 1992. "Cease-Fire Agreed in Abkhazia, Violations Reported." (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts SU/1461/C1/1 17 Aug. 1992/NEXIS)
Soviet Analyst [London]. 1993. Vol. 21, No. 9-10. Zviad Gamsakhurdia. "Zviad Gamsakhurdia, The Nomenklatura Revanche in Georgia." (Shavlego)
Suny, Ronald Grigor. 1994. The Making of the Georgian Nation. 2nd Ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Third World Quarterly [London]. 1997. Vol. 18, No. 3. S. Neil MacFarlane. "On the Front Lines in the Near Abroad: The CIS and the OSCE in Georgia's Civil Wars."
Toronto Star. 18 August 1992. "Georgian Tanks Roll Through Rebel Area." (NEXIS)
The World Factbook 2003. 1 August 2003. "Georgia." Washington: Central Intelligence Agency.