Last Updated: Monday, 16 October 2017, 14:54 GMT

Kenya: Information on MWAKENYA and its involvement in terrorist activities and arms shipments from Belgium

Publisher Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Author Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada
Publication Date 1 November 1994
Citation / Document Symbol KEN17985.E
Cite as Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Kenya: Information on MWAKENYA and its involvement in terrorist activities and arms shipments from Belgium, 1 November 1994, KEN17985.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6ab3548.html [accessed 17 October 2017]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

 

A Kenyan scholar with expertise in African politics now resident in Ottawa, stated that MWAKENYA has been silenced in Kenya and now operates in exile mainly from London, England (10 Nov. 1994). MWAKENYA, he stated, is composed of intellectuals. For example, its spokesperson is a well known Kenyan intellectual and writer, Ngugi wa Thiongo (11 Nov. 1994). He stated that apart from an isolated incident in 1991, when MWAKENYA's supporters planted land-mines a railway, MWAKENYA advocates democracy and economic freedom and not terrorism as a means of achieving peace in Kenya (ibid.). He added that in terms of political change, MWAKENYA does not have a future as a leading party because of its socialist ideology, but the economic situation in Kenya is improving and western powers are trying to reduce the number of refugees in order to create a favourable climate for foreign investment (ibid).

MWAKENYA's ideological position is spelled out in one of its own documents, The Draft Minimum Programme of MWAKENYA, which published in Nairobi in September 1987:

MWAKENYA is a democratic party of the workers, peasants, progressive intelligensia and all the patriotic Kenyans fighting for the interests of the oppressed, exploited and humiliated majority of the people in all the nationalities of Kenya. MWAKENYA is totally opposed to the ruling neocolonial regime in Kenya now reduced to a clique of corrupt, dictatorial, repressive and traitorous minority of wealthy thieves and robbers sheltering under the KANU flag (ibid, 1).

MWAKENYA accuses the Moi regime of carrying out terrorist activities against Kenyans. "[Moi] has instigated regional civil wars, using his armed forces against Kenyans. In short he has initiated the most short sighted and vicious state terrorism in the land of Kimathi and Mau Mau" (MWAKENYA Apr. 1994).

In a special issue, MWAKENYA states the following:

MWAKENYA, a movement which for more than fifteen years now has been waging the struggle against repression ... considers its patriotic duty to call upon its members and all democratic, progressive and patriotic Kenyans to do the following for the time being.

1. Defy the Moi-KANU regime by all means necessary. Defy all all repressive laws which deny us Kenyans our fundamental rights.

2. Organize and fight for our rights without seeking permission from the regime. Students, teachers, workers, peasants, professional groups, women and religious organizations and groups should form whatever unions or associations that they consider necessary to promote their respective interests. MWAKENYA salutes all those who have already taken defiant actions by calling strikes etc, like the Islamic Party of Kenya (IPK), matatu operators, teachers, university lecturers and students, workers and peasants (1 May 1994, 5).

                For detailed information on MWAKENYA, please refer to the attached documents.

Information on MWAKENYA's involvement in terrorist activities and in arms shipments from Belgium could not be found among the sources currently available to the DIRB.

This response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the DIRB within time constraints. This response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find attached the list of sources consulted in researching this information request.

References

Kenyan scholar specializing in African politics, Ottawa. 10 November 1994. Telephone interview.

MZALENDO MWAKENYA. 1 May 1994. Special Issue. "It Is Better to Die on Our Feet Than to Live on Our Knees!"

United Movement for Democracy in Kenya. "The Statement of Mwakenya at the 7th Pan-African Congress. 3rd-8th April 1994." Kampala, Uganda.

MWAKENYA. Nairobi. September 1987. The Draft Minimum Programme of MWAKENYA.

Attachments

MWAKENYA. 1 May 1994. Special Issue. "It Is Better to Die on Our Feet Than to Live on Our Knees!," p. 5.

United Movement for Democracy in Kenya. "The Statement of Mwakenya at the 7th Pan-African Congress. 3rd-8th April 1994." Kampala, Uganda.

MWAKENYA. Nairobi. September 1987. The Draft Minimum Programme of MWAKENYA.

The MWAKENYA Stand on The Current Situation in Kenya [n.p]. 1992.

Union of Patriots for the Liberation of Kenya. Nairobi. September 1987. "The Draft Minimum Programme of MWAKENYA."

. Nairobi. 1991. "MWAKENYA's Democracy Plank."

. Nairobi. September 1987. "Kenya: Register of Resitance 1986."

Sources Consulted

Human Rights in Africa. 1990.

Africa Confidential [London]. Weekly.

Africa Events [London]. Monthly.

Africa Research Bulletin: Political Series [London]. Monthly.

L'Afrique contemporaine [Paris]. Quarterly.

Africa South of the Sahara. Yearly.

Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) Reports. Daily.

Indian Ocean Newsletter [Paris]. Weekly.

New African [London]. Monthly.

News from Africa Watch [New York]. Monthly.

West Africa [London]. Weekly.

Copyright notice: This document is published with the permission of the copyright holder and producer Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB). The original version of this document may be found on the offical website of the IRB at http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/. Documents earlier than 2003 may be found only on Refworld.

Search Refworld

Countries