Last Updated: Tuesday, 23 January 2018, 09:04 GMT

2013 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Brunei

Publisher United States Department of State
Publication Date 27 February 2014
Cite as United States Department of State, 2013 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Brunei, 27 February 2014, available at: [accessed 23 January 2018]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.


Brunei Darussalam has been ruled by the same family for more than 600 years. Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah governed under long-standing emergency powers that placed few limits on his authority. The Legislative Council (LegCo), made up of appointed, indirectly elected, and ex officio members, met during the year and exercised a limited role in recommending and approving legislation. Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah maintained effective control over the security forces. Security forces did not commit human rights abuses.

Restrictions on religious freedom; exploitation of foreign workers; and limitations on freedom of speech, press, assembly, and association were the most prevalent human rights problems.

The following human rights problems were also reported: inability of citizens to change their government, trafficking in persons, and discrimination against women.

There were no known reports of human rights abuses by government officials during the year.

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life

There were no reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings.

b. Disappearance

There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances.

c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

There were no reports of torture or rape and sexual abuse by government agents during the year. Caning is mandatory for 12 criminal offenses. Between January and December, authorities caned 41 persons. Canings were carried out in the presence of a doctor, who had the authority to interrupt the punishment for medical reasons. The government applied laws carrying a sentence of caning impartially to all groups in the country, without displaying favoritism.

Prison and Detention Center Conditions

Prison and detention center conditions generally met international standards. There were no reports that human rights monitors requested prison visits during the year. There were no indications that the country would not accept such a visit if requested.

Physical Conditions: As of December there were 530 inmates in prison facilities. Jerudong Prison held 250 inmates and Maraburong Prison held 233 inmates. There were 47 female inmates held at a separate facility in the Jerudong Prison compound. There were 46 inmates awaiting trial at the end of the year. The most common crimes for which people were imprisoned or arrested were related to drugs or theft. Prison conditions did not vary by inmate gender. Prisoners had access to potable water. Prison authorities permitted family members to visit prisoners and bring food. Juveniles were not subject to imprisonment; however, courts sent juvenile offenders to detention centers and rehabilitation homes. The maximum sentence for a juvenile offender is six months in a detention center, where they are held separately from adult inmates.

The government reported one death of an inmate in prison.

Administration: The government amended the Children and Young Person's Order so that juvenile offenders can be sentenced to probation and ordered to perform community service instead of serving time in a detention or rehabilitation center. In 2012 the courts sentenced 12 adult offenders convicted of nonviolent crimes to alternative sentences in lieu of imprisonment and fines. Inmates were permitted to practice their religions. A government-appointed committee composed of retired government officials monitored prison conditions and investigated complaints of inhuman conditions. Recordkeeping on prisoners appeared to be adequate, and prisoners and detainees had access to visitors.

The prison has an ombudsmen system in place. "Visiting justices," including prominent businessmen, community leaders, and representatives of public institutions, visited prisons once a month.

Independent Monitoring: During the year there were no reports that human rights monitors requested prison visits. Foreign diplomats had consular access to detained nationals, but not to cells or facilities inside the prison.

d. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention

The law prohibits arbitrary arrest and detention, and the government generally observed these prohibitions; however, they could be superseded through the invocation of emergency powers.

Role of the Police and Security Apparatus

The police force and Internal Security Department (ISD), which fall under the direct control of the Prime Minister's Office, have primary responsibility for enforcing laws and maintaining order. The Departments of Labor and Immigration in the Ministry of Home Affairs also hold limited law enforcement powers for labor and immigration offenses. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the police force, the ISD, and the Labor and Immigration Departments. The government has effective mechanisms to investigate and punish abuse and corruption. There were no reports of impunity involving the security forces during the year.

Arrest Procedures and Treatment of Detainees

A magistrate must endorse a warrant for arrest, except when police are unable to obtain an endorsement in time to prevent the flight of a suspect. Police officers have broad powers to make arrests without warrants of persons caught in the act of committing a crime. After arrest, police may detain a suspect up to 48 hours for investigation before bringing the individual before a magistrate. Police stations maintain a policy of no access to detained individuals during that time. There were no reports that persons were detained without a hearing. Detainees reportedly were informed promptly of the charges against them. Information on detainees was made public only after the 48-hour investigative period. Detainees are subject to additional detention after the initial 48 hours based upon a request by police but only upon approval of a magistrate. The criminal procedure code allows for bail except in cases designated as "discretionary" by law. Detainees generally had prompt access after the 48-hour investigation period to lawyers and family visitations; however, police may deny access in exceptional cases, such as probable cause to suspect witness tampering. There is no legal provision to provide affordable legal counsel for poor defendants, except in capital cases. In noncapital cases, indigent defendants may act as their own lawyers in court.

The Internal Security Act (ISA) permits the government to detain suspects without trial for renewable two-year periods. The government convenes an independent advisory board consisting of executive and judicial branch officials to review individual ISA detentions and recommend whether they should be renewed for an additional two years. There were no detainees held under the ISA during the year.

e. Denial of Fair Public Trial

The law does not provide specifically for an independent judiciary, but there were no known instances of government interference with the judiciary. All higher court judges are appointed by the sultan and serve at his pleasure.

Trial Procedures

Secular law, based on English common law, provides all citizens with the right to a fair and efficient judicial process, and the judiciary generally enforced this right.

Defendants in criminal proceedings are presumed innocent. Most criminal cases are conducted in public trials by a judge or panel of judges. Defendants do not enjoy the right to trial by jury. Procedural safeguards include the right to have a defense counsel and an interpreter, confront accusers, cross-examine witnesses, call witnesses, present evidence, and avoid self-incrimination. There were no reports that defendants were not allowed adequate time or facilities to prepare their defense. Lawyers have access to the accused once charges are filed through the trial process, but not during initial questioning. Defendants and their attorneys have access to government-held evidence relevant to their cases. Defendants have a right of appeal.

Individuals detained under the ISA do not have the right to legal counsel nor are they presumed innocent. There were no ISA detainees during the year.

Sharia courts have long had jurisdiction over civil matters in which at least one party is Muslim. In October the Syariah (sharia) Penal Code Order was published with provisions that impact the legal structure for many types of civil and criminal cases for both Muslims and non-Muslims, but the effect of the law will not be clear until it is implemented, which was scheduled to begin in phases starting in April 2014.

Political Prisoners and Detainees

There were no reports of political prisoners or detainees.

Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies

There is no specific provision of law to bring a civil suit for human rights violations. In customary practice individuals may present written complaints about rights violations to the sultan directly for review. Such complaints most often were handled privately, and there were no reports of civil remedies handled in this manner during the year.

f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence

The law permits government intrusion into the privacy of individual persons, families, and homes. The government monitored private e-mail, cell phone messaging, and internet chat room exchanges suspected of being subversive. An informant system was used as part of the government's internal security apparatus to monitor suspected dissidents.

Sharia permits enforcement of khalwat, a prohibition on the close proximity of a Muslim and a member of the opposite sex other than a spouse or close relative. The government reported 123 khalwat cases from January to August. There were 24 non-Brunei citizens arrested for khalwat. While sharia courts do not prosecute non-Muslims for khalwat, non-Muslims can be arrested for the offense.

There was no change in the status of the Brunei People's Party, which has been banned since 1962.

Section 2. Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:

a. Freedom of Speech and Press

Under the emergency powers and the Sedition Act, the government significantly restricted freedoms of speech and press.

Freedom of Speech: Members of the LegCo are allowed to "speak their opinions freely," but they are prohibited from using language or exhibiting behavior deemed "irresponsible, derogatory, scandalous, or injurious." Under the Sedition Act, it is an offense to challenge the royal family's authority. The act also makes it an offense to challenge "the standing or prominence of the national philosophy, the Malay Islamic Monarchy concept." The all-pervasive ideology that underscores the Sedition Act is that Islam is the state religion and that monarchical rule is the sole governance to uphold the rights and privileges of the Brunei Malay race.

In June Pg Hj Abdul Rahman Pg Hj Omar publicly repented writing letters to the editor of the Borneo Bulletin newspaper in which he expressed the idea, based on internet research, that the Koran calls for adulterers to be punished by flogging rather than by stoning (the punishment stipulated in the Syariah Penal Code Order) and suggested a contradiction between the Koran and later Islamic writings. Press coverage stated his declaration of repentance, made in the presence of sharia court judges, came after he had "been given an explanation by the religious authority in this country, with the cooperation of the Internal Security Department." The nature of Internal Security Department cooperation was not specified. Prominent coverage in all local media noted he could have been charged under the law but religious authorities focused on education.

Press Freedoms: The Sedition Act requires local newspapers to obtain operating licenses and prior government approval of foreign editorial staff, journalists, and printers. The law also gives the government the right to bar distribution of foreign publications and requires distributors of foreign publications to obtain a government permit. The law allows the government to close a newspaper without giving prior notice or showing cause.

Foreign newspapers were routinely available, although the government must approve their distribution. Internet versions of foreign media were routinely available.

The government owned the only television station. Three Malaysian television stations were also available, along with two satellite television services. Some content was subject to censorship based on theme, but such censorship was not consistent. Much of the censored content was Malaysian in origin.

Censorship or Content Restrictions: The Sedition Act provides for prosecution of newspaper publishers, proprietors, or editors who publish anything allegedly having a seditious intent. The government can suspend publication for up to one year and prohibit publishers, printers, or editors from publishing, writing, or editing any other newspaper. The government can also seize printing equipment. Persons convicted under the act face fines of up to Brunei dollars (BN$) 5,000 ($4,000) and jail terms of up to three years. Journalists deemed to have published or written "false and malicious" reports could be subjected to fines or prison sentences.

The country's major newspapers practiced self-censorship.

Internet Freedom

Social media websites were widely accessible. The government monitored private e-mail and internet chat room exchanges believed to be subversive. The Ministry of Communications and the Prime Minister's Office enforced the Broadcasting Act, which requires internet service providers and internet cafe operators to register with the Director of Broadcasting in the Prime Minister's Office. The Attorney General's Chambers and Authority for Info-Communications Technology Industry advised internet service and content providers to monitor for content contrary to public interest, national harmony, and social morals. The government blocked websites with sexually explicit material, and internet companies may self-censor content and reserve the right to cut off internet access without prior notice. There was anecdotal information that fear of government surveillance reduced the number of visitors to internet forums. A majority of the population had access to the internet, and the country had one of the highest percentage rates of Facebook usage in the world. The combination of low bandwidth and high volume usage resulted in access problems.

Academic Freedom and Cultural Events

There were no government restrictions on academic freedom; however, some researchers chose to publish from overseas under a pseudonym when they perceived that subject matter would not be well received.

In January professor and activist Muang Zarni resigned from his post as associate professor with the Institute of Asian Studies at Universiti Brunei Darussalam, claiming academic censorship. He posted his letter of resignation on his blog, publicly accusing the university of preventing him from researching or speaking publicly on issues relating to Burma and the Rohingyas, the South China Sea, and more. He described the university as imposing institutional censorship and cited additional examples in his letter. The university did not publish any statements to confirm or refute statements made by Zarni, nor did local media report on his resignation.

A censorship board made up of officials from the Prime Minister's Office and the Ministries of Home Affairs and Religious Affairs determines the suitability of concerts, movies, cultural shows, and other public performances. Religious authorities review publications to ensure compliance with social norms.

b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association

Freedom of Assembly

Under the emergency powers, the government significantly restricted the right to assemble. According to the Societies Order, public gatherings of 10 or more persons require a government permit, and police have the authority to stop an unofficial assembly of five or more persons deemed likely to cause a disturbance of the peace. Government permits require the approval of a minister, but the government routinely issued permits for annual events.

Freedom of Association

The law does not provide for freedom of association. It requires formal groups, including religious, social, and cultural organizations, to register with the Registrar of Societies and provide regular reports on membership and finances. The government continued to restrict the activities of international service organizations such as Rotary, Kiwanis, and the Lions, which developed out of the established business community. Regulations promulgated by the Ministry of Religious Affairs and the State Mufti's Office prohibited Muslims from joining these organizations. There were no reports of demonstrations, attempted demonstrations, or use of force to prevent demonstrations.

The National Development Party maintained that government restrictions limited the party's growth.

c. Freedom of Religion

See the Department of State's International Religious Freedom Report.

d. Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of Refugees, and Stateless Persons

The law provides for freedom of internal movement, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation, and the government generally respected these rights.

Foreign Travel: Government employees, both citizens and foreigners working on a contractual basis, must apply for approval to go abroad. The government's 2009 guidelines state that no government official may travel alone and that nonrelated male and female officers may not travel together, and the sultan called for this guideline to be enforced.

Exile: By law the sultan may forcibly exile, permanently or temporarily, any person deemed a threat to the safety, peace, or welfare of the country. There have been no cases of banishment since the country became fully independent in 1984.

Protection of Refugees

Access to Asylum: The law does not provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has not established a system for providing protection to refugees. The government did not provide protection against the expulsion or return of refugees to countries where their lives or freedom would be threatened on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. As in past years, however, there were no such expulsions or returns during the year.

Stateless Persons

Citizenship is derived through one's parents rather than through birth within the country's territory. The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees reported 21,009 stateless persons in the country as of January. The Department of Economic Development and Planning reported 13,166 stateless persons in the country in 2011, the most recent statistic available. A significant number of stateless persons were of Chinese or aboriginal descent. Chinese were the largest non-Malay minority group. All citizenship applicants must pass a test demonstrating sufficient knowledge of Malay culture and language.

Stateless persons can obtain citizenship through an application process if they are permanent residents who have contributed to the country's economic growth, spouses married to citizens for two years, women married to permanent residents for five years, or children of permanent resident fathers after the age of two years and six months. Citizenship is also granted to permanent residents born abroad if they have reached 18 years of age, hold an entry permit, and have continuously resided in the country for at least 20 years. The same citizenship requirements apply to permanent residents born in Brunei Darussalam, but these individuals are required to have held an entry permit for more than 12 years and to have lived continuously in the country for at least two years.

Children of citizen mothers are subject to a separate application process to confirm citizenship because transmission of citizenship can be automatically assumed only for children of citizen fathers. A citizen mother must apply for citizenship for her child if the father is not present. The government then grants the child a certificate of identity, the same as for stateless permanent residents. Government policy mandates that a child born in the country to stateless parents must apply for a special pass. Births to members of the Dusun and Iban indigenous groups living in rural areas often were not registered, making it difficult for such persons to obtain citizenship.

The government differentiated between stateless permanent residents (PRs) and stateless persons without status of any kind (stateless). A PR is defined as a ''person to whom a Residence Permit has been issued under subsection (1) of Section 67 of the Immigration Enactment 1956 ( Enactment No 23 of 1956) or to whom an Entry Permit has been issued under subsection (2) of Section 10 of the Immigration Act (Chapter 17).'' The government viewed PRs as "registered" members of society who do not receive the same standard of benefits as citizens but have access to limited forms of these amenities. PRs do not have the right to own land and are not entitled to full subsidized health care or higher education. The Land Code Strata Act allows permanent residents to own units of multistory property for a maximum of 99 years. In lieu of passports, the government issued certificates of identity to allow these persons international travel and re-entry; foreign visas may be entered in the certificates.

The stateless without PR status received no benefits from the government and held no form of identification, which made them ineligible for any of the government-provided amenities such as health care, education, and, to a large extent, employment. The government could not under any circumstances employ the stateless due to their lack of papers, and the private sector employed the stateless at its own risk. Government policies left the stateless in an employment status similar to foreign laborers without a work permit. Government agencies offered welfare services to stateless parents unable to gain access to basic needs. The Ministry of Home Affairs also pushed to expedite the permanent resident registration of the country's stateless if they met all necessary requirements. The strict procedure in assessing the applications, however, continued to create obstacles for the stateless.

From January 1 to September 1, 386 persons obtained citizenship after an average waiting period of 1.5 to 2 years, according to the government. Of those, 186 persons were previously stateless.

Section 3. Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government

Citizens do not have the right to change their government peacefully. Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah rules through hereditary birthright. While the country is a constitutional sultanate, in 1962 the then ruler invoked an article of the constitution that allowed him to assume emergency powers. Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah continued the practice, which places few limits on his power.

Elections and Political Participation

Recent Elections: Political authority and control rested entirely with the sultan. A LegCo of primarily appointed members and little independent power provides a forum for public discussion of proposed government programs, as well as administrative deficiencies. It convenes once a year for approximately two weeks, after which it is dissolved. The ninth LegCo session was held in March. Council members may be disqualified from service on the basis of various offenses, including disloyalty to the head of state.

Persons age 18 years and above may vote by secret ballot in village consultative council elections, which are based on a traditional system of village chiefs. Candidates must be Muslim, approved by the government, and citizens or permanent residents for more than 15 years. The councils communicate constituent wishes through a variety of channels, including periodic meetings chaired by the minister of home affairs. The government also meets with mukim (collections of villages) representatives to allow for airing of local grievances and concerns.

Political Parties: The National Development Party is the country's only registered political party. The party pledged to support the sultan and the government. The party criticized administrative deficiencies, its few activities received limited publicity, and restrictions hindered its membership.

Participation of Women and Minorities: In 2009 the sultan appointed the first female cabinet member, Datin Hayati, as attorney general. One other woman held ministerial rank: the sultan's sister, Princess Masna, ambassador-at-large in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade since 1995. There was one female deputy minister, Deputy Minister for Culture Youth and Sports Datin Adina, appointed in 2010. There were five female permanent secretaries as well as four deputy permanent secretaries. There were two women appointed to the LegCo and three female ambassadors.

The government reported that ethnic Chinese held one cabinet-level post and two LegCo positions.

Section 4. Corruption and Lack of Transparency in Government

The law provides criminal penalties for corruption by officials, and the government generally implemented these laws effectively; however, officials sometimes engaged in corrupt practices.

Corruption: In April the trial began of a surveyor general from the Ministry of Development, charged with graft and accepting bribes in 2012. The case continued as of September.

The country has an Anti-Corruption Bureau, which was established in 1982 and has investigated 2,469 cases, according to press reports. From those investigations, authorities brought 284 individuals to court to face criminal charges, with 231 of them convicted for offences ranging from bribery, criminal breach of trust, submitting false financial claims, cheating, and receiving sexual gratification in exchange for favors. The agency appeared to be appropriately resourced.

Whistleblower Protection: Under the Prevention of Corruption Act, persons who volunteer information about incidences of corruption are guaranteed protection and anonymity. Informants cannot be exposed in court except under Section 30 of the Prevention of Corruption Act, which states that an informant's identity may be disclosed only after a full inquiry into a case when the court believes that the informer had intentionally made a false statement.

Financial Disclosure: Government officials were not subject to financial disclosure reports.

Public Access to Information: The law provides for public access to government information. During the year the LegCo approved, and the government published, a summary of the budget for the fiscal year. However, the government continued to restrict and classify as confidential some information on the financial dealings of the government and the royal family. The law provides that no court can compel any person to give evidence relating to unpublished government records unless the relevant ministry's permanent secretary gives consent.

Section 5. Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights

No civil society organizations dealt directly with human rights. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) seeking to operate in the country is required to apply for permission under the Companies Act and provide a list of members. The government may suspend the activities of a registered NGO if it deems such an act in the public interest. In the past the Consumers' Association of Brunei attempted to address human rights, but the government impeded these attempts. The association remained active in building relationships with other NGOs in the region dealing with consumer protection issues. There were NGOs that dealt with issues such as assisting victims of domestic violence.

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

The law does not contain specific provisions prohibiting discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, sexual orientation, gender identity, or social status.


Rape and Domestic Violence: The law stipulates imprisonment of up to 30 years and caning with no fewer than 12 strokes for rape. The law does not criminalize spousal rape. It explicitly states that sexual intercourse by a man with his wife is not rape, as long as she is not under age 13 (see section 6, Children). Protections against sexual assault by a spouse are provided under the amended Islamic Family Law Order 2010 and Married Women Act Order 2010, and the penalty for breaching a protection order is a fine not exceeding BN$2,000 ($1,600) or imprisonment not exceeding six months. Through September, 23 rapes were reported and 40 arrests were made, of which nine were under investigation, 12 under prosecution, and two convicted. Four of the accused were government civil servants. There were no reports of rape or sexual abuse during an arrest or detention.

There is no specific domestic violence law, but arrests were made in domestic violence cases under the Women and Girls Protection Act. The police investigated domestic violence only in response to a report by a victim. The police were generally responsive in the investigation of such cases. There were 57 cases of domestic abuse reported through September, of which 40 remained under investigation, 12 remained under prosecution, and five were dismissed. The criminal penalty for a minor domestic assault is one to two weeks in jail and a fine. An assault resulting in serious injury is punishable by caning and a longer prison sentence.

A special unit staffed by female officers existed within the police department to investigate domestic abuse and child abuse complaints. A hotline was available for persons to report domestic violence. The Department of Community Development in the Ministry of Culture, Youth, and Sports provided counseling for women and their spouses. Based on individual circumstances, some female and minor victims were placed in protective custody at a government-sponsored shelter while waiting for their cases to be brought to court.

Islamic courts staffed by male and female officials offered counseling to married couples in domestic violence cases. Officials did not encourage wives to reconcile with flagrantly abusive spouses, and Islamic courts recognized assault as grounds for divorce.

Sexual Harassment: The law prohibits sexual harassment and stipulates that whoever assaults or uses criminal force, intending thereby to outrage or knowing it is likely to outrage the modesty of a person, shall be punished with imprisonment for as many as five years and caning. The government reported 17 cases of sexual harassment through September, resulting in 19 arrests, of which 14 remained under investigation, two were under prosecution, and one led to a conviction.

Reproductive Rights: Couples and individuals have the right to decide the number, spacing, and timing of their children and have access to modern contraceptive devices and methods through the government and private clinics. Citizens enjoy free medical and health care, prenatal care, and essential obstetric and postpartum care. Women had equal access to diagnostic and treatment facilities for sexually transmitted diseases.

Discrimination: In accordance with the government's interpretation of the Koran's precepts, Muslim women have rights similar to those of Muslim men in areas such as divorce and child custody. Islamic law requires that males receive twice the inheritance of women. Civil law permits female citizens to own property and other assets, including business properties. Male spouses of female citizens could not apply for permanent resident status until they had resided in the country for at least 20 years immediately preceding their application. Female spouses of male citizens on the other hand could apply for permanent resident status after only two years of marriage. Female citizens may pass their nationality to their children, but only through an application process.

Women with permanent positions in the government could apply for travel allowances for their children; however, they could not do so for their husbands working in the private sector. With this exception, they received the same allowance privileges as their male counterparts. According to government statistics, women made up 57 percent of the civil service force and held 28 percent of senior management posts. Women were not discriminated against in access to employment and business. Some professions such as meteorology are designated as women's professions, and men noted discrimination during hiring. There is no law requiring equal pay for equal work.

The country continued to have women in positions of senior leadership up to the minister level. In the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, as well as in other government agencies, women constituted the majority of the workforce. In the private sector, women held senior positions at major companies in most sectors.


Birth Registration: Citizenship is derived through one's father rather than through birth within the country's territory. Female citizens may pass their nationality to their children, but only through an application process. Birth registration is universal and immediate except for Dusun and Iban indigenous persons in rural areas (see section 6, Indigenous People). Parents with stateless status are required to apply for a special pass for a child born in the country; failure to register a child makes it difficult to enroll the child in school.

Child Abuse: As of September the government reported 16 cases of child abuse resulting in 23 arrests, of which 16 remained under investigation, seven were under prosecution, and one was dismissed. The Royal Brunei Police Force hosts a specialized Woman and Child Abuse Crime Investigation Unit, and the Ministry of Culture, Youth, and Sports provides shelter and care to victims.

Forced and Early Marriage: The legal minimum age of marriage for both boys and girls is 14 unless otherwise stipulated by religion or custom under the law, which generally set a higher minimum age. The Islamic Family Order sets the minimum marriageable age at 16 for Muslim women and 18 for Muslim men. Ethnic Chinese must be age 15 or older to marry according to the Chinese Marriage Act, which also stipulates that sexual intercourse with an ethnic Chinese woman under 15 is considered rape even if it is with her spouse. There was anecdotal evidence that child marriages occurred.

Harmful Traditional Practices: There is no law criminalizing female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). There were no reports of FGM/C. In August 2012 the Ministry of Religious Affairs issued a statement declaring that circumcision for Muslim females is a religious rite obligatory under Islam. The State Mufti declared that circumcision was obligatory to a mature Muslim male and female on condition that he or she can bear the ritual of circumcision carried out upon them. The ministry noted the confusion between the term circumcision as a common practice that is advisable in Islam, where only the hood of the female clitoris is removed, and FGM/C, which is the entire or partial removal of the genitalia. The ministry further noted that the FGM/C procedure or the removal of the clitoris to which World Health Organization objects is contrary to the practice prescribed by sharia. Information boards at the Kampong Ayer Culture and Tourism Gallery stated that while male circumcisions were done in a hospital, female circumcisions were conducted through traditional procedures in the home.

Sexual Exploitation of Children: By law sexual intercourse with a girl under age 13 constitutes rape and is punishable by imprisonment for not less than eight years and not more than 30 years and not less than 12 strokes of the cane. The law protects women, girls, and boys from exploitation through prostitution and "other immoral purposes," including pornography.

International Child Abductions: The country is not a party to the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction.


There were no known Jewish communities in the country, and there were no reports of anti-Semitic acts.

Trafficking in Persons

See the Department of State's Trafficking in Persons Report.

Persons with Disabilities

The law does not prohibit discrimination against or mandate accessibility or other assistance for persons with disabilities. The government provided educational services for children with disabilities, but the level of services available was uneven. There were no reports of abuse in educational and mental health facilities. The Department for Community Development conducted several programs targeted at promoting awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities.

There were nine NGOs operating in the country representing persons with disabilities. They worked to supplement services provided by the three government agencies that support persons with disabilities. The NGOs received some funding from the government through the Ministry of Culture, Youth, and Sports, and the Yayasan Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Foundation, as well as through charitable events by local businesses. Public officials called for persons with disabilities to be included in everyday activities. Access to buildings, information, and communications for persons with disabilities was inconsistent.

National/Racial/Ethnic Minorities

The government emphasizes the importance of ethnic Malays in society through the national Malay Islamic Monarchy philosophy, which is enshrined in the constitution. Ethnic Malays, who constitute approximately two-thirds of the population, dominate the top levels of government and private enterprise, and under the constitution, ministers and most top officials must be Malay Muslims, although there have been exceptions.

There is no legal ban on foreigners or non-Malay citizens in land ownership, but non-Malays and foreigners encountered obstacles in land purchases. Stateless persons in particular did not have the documentation to purchase land and relied on the powers of attorney to own land, often for generations. In March 2012 the government announced land reforms that retroactively annulled powers of attorney used in land ownership and proposed to turn any land purchased under a power of attorney into 66-year leases, affecting up to 49,000 PRs and stateless persons. The reform particularly affects the ethnic-Chinese owned land and aboriginal tribal lands, as these minorities make up most of the PRs and stateless in the country. Government officials stated that "any land owned by a Malay person cannot be sold to those who are not Malay, and a Malay cannot buy land from owners who are not Malay." The change had not yet taken effect by year's end.

Indigenous People

A large percentage of indigenous Iban were stateless. In rural areas some indigenous Iban did not register the birth of their children, which created difficulties during school enrollment, access to health care, and employment. Indigenous lands of the Iban and Dusun are not specifically demarcated, and there were no specially designated representatives for the indigenous groups in the LegCo or other government entities. In general indigenous persons had minimal participation in decisions affecting their lands, cultures, and traditions and in the exploitation of energy, minerals, timber, or other natural resources on indigenous lands.

Societal Abuses, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

The law makes it a criminal offense to have "carnal intercourse against the order of nature." In cultural practice this included sexual relations between men. There were no reports of official or societal discrimination based on sexual orientation in employment, housing, access to education, or health care, likely because societal stigma may cause affected individuals to withhold reporting such problems. Anecdotal information, however, indicated that individuals avoided disclosing sexual orientations not traditionally accepted due to fear of societal or legal retribution. There were no NGOs working on human rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons in the country.

Other Societal Violence or Discrimination

There were no reports of societal violence or discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS.

Section 7. Worker Rights

a. Freedom of Association and the Right to Collective Bargaining

The law, including related regulations and statutory instruments, protects the right of workers to form and join unions. Under the Trade Unions Act, unions must be registered with the government. All workers, including civil servants other than those serving in the military and those working as prison guards or police officers, may form and join trade unions of their choice without previous authorization or excessive requirements. Foreign workers are excluded from most labor law protections, including freedom of association. The only union in the country was composed of Brunei Shell Petroleum workers. There were no other active unions or worker organizations.

While the law permits the formation of trade union federations, it forbids affiliation with international labor organizations unless there is consent from the minister of home affairs and the Department of Labor.

The government prohibits strikes, and the law makes no explicit provision for the right to collective bargaining.

The law prohibits employers from discriminating against workers in connection with union activities, but it does not provide for reinstatement for dismissal related to union activity.

There were no reports of government interference in union activity, and worker organizations were independent of the government. Employer discrimination against union members was not reported.

b. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor

The law prohibits all forms of forced or compulsory labor. Foreign embassies with a large population of citizens working in the country reported cases of nonpayment of wages for up to a year as well as a lack of access to travel documents.

There were credible reports of domestic and construction workers from neighboring countries paying the equivalent of two months' wages to fictitious employers to obtain labor passes and work freelance on the local economy. The government began to issue labor passes only to registered recruiting agencies to minimize migrant workers' vulnerability to debt bondage. There were also credible reports of employers withholding pay from citizens from South Asian countries for as much as one year in order to recoup the fees charged by labor recruiters.

Also see the Department of State's Trafficking in Persons Report.

c. Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment

Various domestic laws prohibit the employment of children under age 16. Parental consent and approval by the Labor Commission are required for those under age 18. Female workers under age 18 may not work at night or on offshore oil platforms. The Department of Labor, which is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs, effectively enforced laws related to the employment of children. There were no reports of violations of child labor laws.

d. Acceptable Conditions of Work

The law does not set a minimum wage, but most employed citizens commanded good salaries. Wages for employed foreign residents were wide ranging. Some foreign embassies set minimum wage requirements for their nationals working in the country.

The standard workweek is Monday through Thursday and Saturday, with Friday and Sunday off, allowing for two rest periods of 24 hours each week. The law provides for paid annual holidays, overtime for work in excess of 48 hours per week, and double time for work performed on legal holidays. The law also stipulates that an employee may not work more than 72 hours of overtime a month. Laws regarding hours were frequently not observed in practice.

Occupational health and safety standards were established by government regulations.

The Labor Department inspected working conditions both on a routine basis and in response to complaints. There were approximately 40 labor inspectors in the Labor Department. The government usually moved quickly to investigate abuses, and abusive employers faced criminal and civil penalties. The Labor Department had the power to terminate the license of abusive employers and revoke their foreign labor quota. The majority of abuse cases were settled out of court through agreements where the employer paid financial compensation to the worker.

The government generally enforced labor, health, and safety regulations effectively, but enforcement in the unskilled labor sector was lax. This was true especially for foreign laborers at construction sites, where wage arrears and inadequate safety and living conditions were reported. The government may close a workplace where health, safety, or working conditions are unsatisfactory, but this did not happen during the year.

Government data from 2011, the most recent available, indicated approximately 85,000 foreigners lived in the country temporarily. The law protected the rights of foreign workers through inspections of facilities and a telephone hotline for worker complaints. Immigration law allows for prison sentences and caning for workers who overstay their work permits, for workers who fall into irregular status due to their employers' negligence, for irregular immigrants seeking work, as well as for foreign workers employed by companies other than their initial sponsor. The law also requires recruiting agencies to be registered.

Government mediation by the Labor Department continued to be the most common means used to resolve labor disputes. The commissioner responsible for labor had the additional authority to protect foreign worker rights. The government prosecuted employers who employed irregular immigrants or did not process workers' documents, rendering them irregular. When grievances could not be resolved, regulations require employers to pay for the repatriation of the foreign workers and all outstanding wages. By custom, particularly for low-skilled workers, some employers held employee passports and restricted employee activities during nonworkhours.

Foreign workers who filed grievances sometimes did not receive their back wages. Foreign migrant workers often signed contracts with employment agents or other sponsors in their home countries that reduced their promised salaries through payments to the agencies or sponsors. The government forbade wage deductions to agencies or sponsors and mandated that employees receive their full salaries; nevertheless, foreign workers continued to pay high fees to manpower agents to obtain work in the country.

There were cases reported of nonpayment of salaries. The majority of cases involved domestic and construction workers. In many cases courts levied judicial penalties including convictions and fines against employers found guilty of nonpayment of wages.

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