Country Fact Sheet - China
|Publisher||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Publication Date||July 2007|
|Cite as||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Country Fact Sheet - China, July 2007, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/46d2e1ad2.html [accessed 20 January 2017]|
|Comments||This document was prepared by the Research Directorate of the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada on the basis of publicly available information, analysis and comment. All sources are cited. This document is not, and does not purport to be, either exhaustive with regard to conditions in the country surveyed or conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. For further information on current developments, please contact the Research Directorate.|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
People's Republic of China (Zhonghua Renmin Gonghe Guo)
China is located in Eastern Asia. Its neighbouring countries are: Mongolia and Russia to the north; India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar (formerly Burma), Laos and Vietnam to the south; Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan to the northwest; Afghanistan and Pakistan to the west; and North Korea to the northeast. China's coastlines in the east and south border the East China Sea, Korea Bay, the Yellow Sea and the South China Sea. China, including Taiwan, has a total area of approximately 9,596,960 km2 (land: 9,326,410 km2; water: 270,550 km2). Its geography is diverse with plains, deltas and hills in the east and mountains, high plateaus and deserts in the west. The climate in the country is extremely varied, ranging from tropical in the south to cold-temperate in the north, with subarctic-like conditions in the Himalaya Mountains. Between September/October and March/April, cold, dry monsoons blow over North China and southward, while in the summer, wet monsoons affect South China and northward. China is subject to natural disasters, including typhoons along its southern and eastern coasts.
Population and density
Population: 1,321,851,888 (July 2007 estimate).
Density: 136 persons per km2 (December 2004 estimate).
Principal cities and populations (based on 2000 census data)
Chongqing 30.5 million; Shanghai 16.4 million; Beijing (capital) 13.5 million; Tianjin 9.8 million; Wuhan 5.1 million; Shenyang 4.8 million; Guangzhou 3.8 million; Chengdu 3.2 million; Xi'an 3.1 million; and Changchun 3 million. In addition, more than twenty other cities have populations exceeding one million people.
China's official language is standard Chinese, or Mandarin [also referred to as Putonghua]. Some major dialects spoken in China include Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, and Hakka (Kejjia). There are also several minority languages that are spoken. Local dialects are spoken in the south and southeast of the country.
Although there are many variations of spoken Chinese, all of the dialects have a common written form, which has been standardized over the last two centuries. In 1958, China introduced the Pinyin system to romanize Chinese personal and geographic names. In 2000, the Hanyu Pinyin (or Han language Pinyin) phonetic alphabet became the official standard for the phonetic spelling of China's national language.
China is officially atheist; however, there are five officially recognized religions: Buddhism, Daoism (Taoism), Islam, and Catholic and Protestant Christianity. Buddhists, Daoists, and Christians account for 3 to 4 % of the country's population, while Muslims comprise 1 to 2 % (2002 estimate).
Han Chinese 92%. Fifty-five minority ethnic groups, including Zhuang, Uigyr, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, and Korean, account for the remaining 8%.
Demographics (2007 estimate unless otherwise indicated)
Population growth rate: 0.606%.
Infant mortality rate: 22.12 deaths/1,000 live births.
Life expectancy at birth: 72.88 years.
Fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman.
Literacy: 90.9% of people 15 years of age or older can read and write (2002 estimate).
Yuan or Renminbi (RMB).
RMB 6.94 = CAD 1.001
2006: 1 January (Solar New Year), 29 January-1 February (Lunar New Year), 8 March (International Women's Day, women only), 1 May (Labour Day), 1 August (Army Day), 9 September (Teachers' Day), 1-2 October (National Days).
2007: 1 January (Solar New Year), 18-21 February (Lunar New Year), 8 March (International Women's Day, women only), 1 May (Labour Day), 1 August (Army Day), 9 September (Teachers' Day), 1-2 October (National Days).
Head of State and General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
President Hu Jintao (since 15 March 2003).
Zeng Qinghong (since 15 March 2003).
Premier of the State Council
Wen Jiabao (since 16 March 2003).
Chairman of the National People's Congress
Wu Bangguo (since 15 March 2003).
Form of government
China is a communist state. The president is the chief of state; the president and the vice president are elected by the National People's Congress (NPC). They each serve a five-year term up to a maximum of two terms. The state council is chosen by the NPC, and the premier who is the head of government, is nominated by the president (and approved by the NPC). China holds elections; however, no significant opposition parties exist.
China's unicameral National People's Congress (NPC) has 2,985 deputies, who are elected for five-year terms by municipal, regional, provincial, and military bodies. The NPC elects ministers and state councillors (including the premier and vice premiers) to the 24-member Politburo, which controls most of the power within the government.
China has 22 provinces (excluding Taiwan), 5 autonomous regions, 2 special administrative regions and 4 municipalities.
Provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
Autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet).
Special administrative regions: Hong Kong, Macau.
Municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin.
China's judicial system is composed of two parts: The People's Courts and the People's Procuratorates. Cases are heard and judged in the People's Courts. The highest body of the People's Courts is the Supreme People's Court, which rules on appeals, reviews death sentences, supervises the lower courts, and ensures proper application of the law. The Local People's Courts are composed of higher, intermediate, and basic courts; the Special People's Courts include military, maritime, and railway transport courts.
The Supreme People's Procuratorate is the highest body of the People's Procuratorates. Its role is to protect the constitution and the rights of its citizens, in addition to examining cases and making decisions where government departments and civil servants are concerned. The Local People's Procuratorates oversee the activities of the People's Courts, including the approval of arrests and aiding public prosecutions.
At county-level and below, China practises universal suffrage for citizens age 18 years and older. Citizens vote for representatives of the local people's congress; however, citizens do not have the ability to change the government. In the 2003 elections, Hu Jintao was elected president by the NPC with a total of 2,937 votes (4 against, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote). Zeng Qinghong was elected vice president in the same election. He received 2,578 votes (177 against, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote). Two NPC seats were empty at the time of elections. The next elections will be held in March 2008.
Military service in China is by selective conscription. Conscripts are between 18 and 22 years of age, and they serve a 24 month term. There is no minimum age for those serving voluntarily. Members of the military study party principles and teachings. Military officers are also party members.
China's military, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) is composed of seven military (administrative) units. In 2005, the PLA was estimated to number 2, 255,000 personnel (including 1,000,000 conscripts):
Air Force: 400,000
Paramilitary forces numbered 1,500,000 and there were 800,000 reservists.
The 2005 defence budget was estimated to be RMB 247,700,000,000 (CAD 34,801,850,000).2
Although Article 35 of China's constitution guarantees freedom of speech and freedom of the press, Article 51 states that these rights "may not infringe upon the interests of the State, of society or of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens."
In 2003, China had 2,119 newspapers and 9,074 periodicals. Each province and city has a newspaper plus a daily publication from the local Communist Party. China's main newspapers are Renmin Ribao (People's Daily, Communist Party), Zhongguo Qingnian Bao (China Youth Daily, state, connected to Communist Youth League), China Daily (state, English), Jiefangjun Bao (People's Liberation Army), Zhongguo Jingji Shibao (China Economic Times, state), Fazhi Ribao (Legal Daily, state), Gongren Ribao (Workers' Daily, state), Nongmin Ribao (Farmers' Daily, state), and the Nanfang Ribao (Southern Daily, Communist Party).
China's major radio stations are the state-run China National Radio and the state-run China Radio International; the latter has programs in more than 40 languages and broadcasts to Taiwan and Korea.
Television is a major source of news for Chinese citizens, and the state runs approximately 2,100 channels. Foreign broadcasts are restricted and must be approved by the government. China's major television station is Chinese Central TV (CCTV).
China's central news agencies are Xinhua (New China News Agency, state) and Zhongguo Xinwen She - China News Service (state, targets overseas Chinese).
In 2000 there were approximately 380,000,000 TV receivers, and in 2004, 52,990,000 personal computers and 94,000,000 Internet users.
United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) and Country Ranki
|Rank:||81 out of 177 countries (2004).|
|Hong Kong||Value:||0.927/1 (2004).|
|Rank:||22 out of 177 countries (2004).|
United Nations Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and Country Rankii
|Rank:||64 out of 136 countries (2006).|
Population below the national poverty line
10% (2004 estimate).
Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)iii
|70 out of 163 countries surveyed (2006).|
|Hong Kong||8.3/10 (2006.)|
|15 out of 163 countries surveyed (2006).|
Transparency International's Global Corruption Barometer (GCB)iv
This information was unavailable for China.
Hong Kong: Political parties 3.5, parliament/legislature 2.9, business/private sector 3.9, police 3.4, legal system/judiciary 2.6, media 3.7, tax revenue 2.3, medical services 2.6, education system 2.6, the military 2.8, utilities 2.4, registry and permit services 2.2, NGOs 3.4, religious bodies 2.5.
[Information compiled from: BBC 22 Mar. 2007; ibid. n.d.; China 14 Mar. 2004; ibid. n.d.; EIU 5 June 2007; ibid. 5 Feb. 2007; Europa World Year Book 2006 10 June 2006; Factiva 20 Dec. 2006; PHW 2007 Oct. 2006; PBS 19 Oct. 2005; TI 7 Dec. 2006; ibid. 6 Nov. 2006; UK 13 Mar. 2007; UN 2006; US 17 Apr. 2007; ibid. 6 Mar. 2007; ibid. Aug. 2006]
i The HDI is a composite measurement of human development in a country, based on life expectancy, levels of literacy and education, and standard of living. Values are: 0.800 and higher (high human development), 0.500-0.799 (medium human development) and 0.500 and under (low development index). Countries are ranked in descending order by their HDI value. [back]
ii The GDI adjusts the rating of the HDI to reflect inequalities between men and women. [back]
iii The Transparency International CPI is based on composite survey data from 16 polls and 10 independent institutions. The data reflects the perceptions of resident and non-resident business people and country analysts. Scores range from 0 (highly corrupt) to 10 (highly clean). According to their score, countries are ranked in order from least corrupt (1) to most corrupt (163). [back]
iv The Transparency International GCB is a public opinion survey used to gauge people's perceptions of corruption within their own state. [back]
2. POLITICAL BACKGROUND
In November 2002, Hu Jintao became the general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and ushered in an almost entirely new group of leaders.5 In March 2003, Hu became China's president.6 In September 2004, former Party leader Jiang Zemin stepped down as the head of the military commission, completing President Hu's rule, in what has been called "the first orderly transition of power since the communist revolution in 1949."7 Upon taking power, President Hu put a spotlight on combating party corruption,8 an issue which has undermined its reputation with the Chinese public.9 Between 2004 and 2005, 50,000 party members were disciplined for corruption.10
In April 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic hit China, infecting nearly 3,500 people and killing more than 150.11 In the aftermath, spectators hoped that the government would loosen its control over the media and allow for greater political freedom.12 However, the press was once again restricted in June 2003; the government presented a list of banned topics to journalists, and in August 2003, they were ordered not to discuss political reforms and constitutional amendments, or partake in historical revision.13 Nonetheless, in December 2003, the NPC approved a constitutional amendment that would protect citizens' rights to private property; the first of its kind since 1949.14
China's economy has experienced tremendous growth in the past decade.15 Nonetheless, industrial growth has negatively affected social stability and the environment.16 Social disruption has steadily increased in China: in 1994, there were 10,000 protests reported; in 2005, there were 87,000 reported, involving some 3,800,000 people.17 Protestors included those who have been laid-off by industry, those angry at official corruption and those who had been forcibly evicted by industry, developers and local officials.18 Violence has broken out in villages due to the forced seizure of village land, for which villagers receive no compensation.19 This situation has been exacerbated by the upcoming 2008 Olympics, which will be held in Beijing.20
In March 2006, a Chinese government official warned of impending disaster if China's pollution problem was not adequately addressed.21 On 14 March 2006, the NPC's latest five-year plan provided for a more conscientious use of energy and a decrease in pollutants.22
Hong Kong: In 1841, Britain occupied Hong Kong, and in 1898 Britain leased it from China for 99 years in 1898.23 In 1984, Britain and China signed the Joint Declaration, which provided for the return of Hong Kong to China, under the "One Country, Two Systems" model at the end of the lease.24 Hong Kong would remain a capitalist region for 50 years, but would fall under PRC governance in matters concerning foreign affairs and defence.25 In 1990, a new Basic Law, or constitution, was approved by the NPC. 26 On 1 July 1997, Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.27 For more information about Hong Kong, please see the National Documentation Package (NDP) entitled "Hong Kong," which is available on the IRB Web site.
Macao: Macao was settled by the Portuguese in the 16th Century, and came under Portuguese control in the mid-19th Century.28 Following the Joint Declaration between China and Britain, Portugal signed the Joint Declaration on the question of Macao in 1987.29 Macao became the Macao Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 20 December 1999, under conditions very similar to those of Hong Kong.30
Taiwan: Following defeat in 1949, the nationalist leaders of the Kuomintang (KMT) party fled to Taiwan and set up what it considered to be the "legitimate" government of China.31 Today, most states recognize Beijing as China's central government; however, the status of Taiwan remains tenuous.32 Although a cautious rapprochement between Taiwan and the PRC began in 1990,33 China continues to focus on reunification,34 and Taiwan has consistently refused this proposal.35 In 2001, China simulated an invasion of Taiwan, whereas Taiwan tested its ability to defend against an attack from China.36 In 2005, the first direct flight was resumed (since 1949) between China and Taiwan.37 Also in 2005, the PRC passed an anti-secession law to allow reunification with force, if necessary.38 In 2006, the President of Taiwan, Chen Shui-bian, publicly suggested that the United Nations (UN) give membership to Taiwan instead of to the PRC.39 For more information about Taiwan, please see the National Documentation Package (NDP) entitled "Taiwan," which is available on the IRB Web site.
Tibet: Tibet was invaded by China in 1950.40 In 1965, it was established as the Tibetan Autonomous Region (TAR).41 Tibet's spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, fled into exile in India following a failed uprising in 1959.42 The Dalai Lama's chosen successor has not been seen since 1995 when the 6 year old boy was placed under house arrest by the Chinese authorities; in his place, the PRC nominated its own successor.43 The Dalai Lama remains in exile, and has continued to call for Tibet's self-rule under Chinese sovereignty.44 Nonetheless, the PRC believes that his true motivation remains full-independence.45
3. POLITICAL PARTIES
Chinese Communist Party (CCP): Although the CCP's official biography claims it was founded in 1922, Western observers have dated its creation at 1921.48 The CCP has held a monopoly of power since 1949, when the People's Republic of China declared itself an entity.49 Mao Zedong remains an important figure.50
The CCP operates through a pyramid structure.51 At the pyramid's base lie local party groups, and at the top, is the National People's Congress (NPC).52 The NPC elects a Central Committee of 200 members (in addition to 150 alternates), and in return, the Central Committee elects the Politburo (24 members) and its Standing Committee (9 members).53 The Politburo has been called "the nexus of all power in China," and it controls the armed forces, the NPC, and the State Council.54 Nonetheless, the nine-person Standing Committee holds the ultimate power and makes the most significant decisions.55
The CCP has numerous commissions and secretariats.56 The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection is especially powerful, as it is the internal body which disciplines and investigates abuses by party members.57 Corruption is a central issue for the CCP.58 In 2005, the CP launched an anti-corruption campaign, which resulted in the arrest of Chen Liangyu, the head of the Shanghai Communist Party, in September 2006.59 On 10 July 2007, China's former head of the State Food and Drug Administration, Zheng Xiaoyu, was executed for taking bribes.60
As of September 2006, the Chinese government reports that CP membership includes 70 million people, which makes it the world's largest political party.61 The General Secretary is the leader of the CP.62 Hu Jintao was named general secretary in November 2002, president in March 2003, and chair of the Central Military Commission in 2004.63
Other Parties (which support the CCP):
China Association for Promoting Democracy (Zhongguo Minzhu Cujin Hui): This association emphasized education when it was founded in 1945.64 In July 2004, it claimed a membership of 84,000.65 Its chairman is Xu Jialu.66
China Democratic League (Zhongguo Minzhu Tongmeng): Founded in 1941 as the League of Democratic Parties, the China Democratic League was created to garner intellectual opposition to the Kuomintang (KMT),67 a group led by Chiang Kai-shek. In November 2002, the China Democratic League claimed a membership of 130,000.68 Its chairman is Ding Shisun.69
China National Democratic Construction Association (Zhongguo Minzhu Jianguo Hui): This party was founded in 1945.70 It is composed of industrialists and businessmen and encourages contact with overseas Chinese.71 In 2002, membership was reported at close to 70,000.72 Its chairman is Cheng Siwei.73
China Party for Public Interests (Zhongguo Zhi Gong Dang): This party was founded in San Francisco in 1925.74 In 2002 it counted a membership of 15,000, most of whom have overseas connections.75 The party's chairman is Luo Haocai.76
Chinese Peasants and Workers' Democratic Party (Zhongguo Nong Gong Minzhu Dang): This party was officially formed under its current name in 1947; however, it descended from an anti-Chiang Kai-Shek nationalist group whose initial goal was a bourgeois republic.77 In 2002, the group's membership numbered 65,000, most of which comprised public health, culture and education, science and technology workers.78 The party's chairman is Jiang Zhenghua.79
Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang (Zhongguo Guomin Dang Geming Weiyuanhui): Founded in Hong Kong in 1948 by anti-Chiang Kai-Shek KMT members, this party sought "peaceful reunification of the motherland."80 In 2002, its membership numbered over 53,000.81 Its current chair is He Luli.82
September 3, 1945 (V-J Day) Society (Jiu San Xuehui): This party was founded in 1944 in Sichuan as the Democracy and Science Forum; however, it was renamed to mark the date of the Japanese surrender.83 Its membership comprises those who work in the fields of science and technology. 84Its chairman is Wu Jieping.85
Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (Taiwan Minzhu Zizhi Tongmen): This group was founded in 1947 by Taiwanese in favour of the PRC.86 Its chairman is Zhang Kehui and its ultimate goal is the reunification of Taiwan with China.87
Chinese Democratic Party (CDP): The CDP unsuccessfully applied for official registration in 1998.88 Its goal was democratic elections; however, in November 1998, its leaders Wang Youcai, Qin Youngmin, and Xu Wenli were arrested and imprisoned for lengthy sentences.89 The party was essentially dismantled following the arrests of 18 other CDP leaders in late 1999. 90
In Addition: China Labour Party; China Democratic United Front-Liberal Democratic Party.91
Islamic Party of East Turkestan: This party operates underground in Xinjiang Province, advocating for separation on behalf of the Uyghur minority.92 The party's leader, Arkhan Abulla, was reportedly sentenced to death in 2001 for establishing the separatist party.93
Falun Dafa (Great Law of the Dharma Wheel): Also known as Falun Gong (Dharma Wheel Practice), this group was formed in 1992.94 The group's origins are in Buddhist teachings, and it practices meditation and breathing exercises.95 China banned the Falun Gong in 1999 as a threat to the CP, after 10,000 of its adherents protested in Beijing over the arrest of 100 practitioners.96 Falun Dafa claims to have millions of followers over the world.97 In 2000, the CCP declared Falun Dafa a "political rival" and an "enemy of the nation";98 however, its practice is not banned in either Hong Kong or Macau.99
4. ARMED GROUPS AND OTHER NON-STATE ACTORS
East Turkistan Liberation Organization (ETLO) (Sharq azat Turkistan): The ETLO represents the ethnic Uyghurs, Muslims of Turkish descent who have had a problematic relationship with the PRC.100 The ETLO advocates the creation of an Islamic state in Xinjiang province, and is reported to receive funding from Al-Qaeda.101
Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM): Also known as the Eastern Turkistan Islamic Party (ETIP), the Revolutionary Front of East Turkestan (RFET) and the United National Revolutionary Front of East Turkestan (UNRF).102 The ETIM was formed in 1933.103 It is an ethnic Uyghur separatist group, whose goal is the creation of a separate Islamic state in the Xinjiang province (although some experts suggest that the proposed state would include portions of other nearby states as well).104 The ETIM is led by Hassan Makhsum.105
5. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS
Of particular concern to outside observers is the growing rural-urban divide.106 As a result of China's construction boom, specifically in preparation for the Olympics, a housing problem has developed which is particularly acute for the migrant population.107 Slums have emerged where villages used to be; they offer cheap accommodations amidst poor living conditions to rural workers in construction and the trades.108 To prepare for the games, the Chinese Government has been razing the "villages within cities."109 Official estimates state that 8,400,000 people migrated from rural areas to the cities each year between 2001 and 2005; by the end of 2007, the Chinese government aims to eliminate 171 villages.110
1Canada 14 May 2007. [back]
2Ibid. 19 June 2007. [back]
3PHW 2007 Oct. 2006, 239. [back]
4Ibid., 245. [back]
5Political Parties of the World 24 Jan. 2005, 127. [back]
6BBC 22 Mar. 2007. [back]
9EIU 5 Feb. 2007. [back]
11Europa World Plus. [back]
15PHW 2007 Oct. 2006, 245; Economist 29 Mar. 2007. [back]
16Europa World Plus; PHW 2007 Oct. 2006, 245. [back]
17EIU 5 Feb. 2007. [back]
18Europa World Plus. [back]
19BBC 7 Mar. 2006. [back]
20Economist 7 June 2007. [back]
21Ibid. 245; BBC 19 Apr. 2007. [back]
22PHW 2007 Oct. 2006, 245. [back]
23UK 12 Dec. 2006. [back]
25PHW 2007 Oct. 2006, 244; UK 12 Dec. 2006. [back]
26Europa World Plus. [back]
27UK 12 Dec. 2006. [back]
28Ibid. 8 Dec. 2006. [back]
31UK 25 Jan. 2007; Europa World Plus. [back]
33PHW 2007 Oct. 2006, 240. [back]
34UK 13 Mar. 2007. [back]
35Europa World Plus. [back]
36BBC 19 Apr. 2007. [back]
38PHW 2007 Oct. 2006, 240. [back]
40BBC 4 June 2007. [back]
42Ibid. 4 June 2007.[back]
43Ibid. 4 June 2007 [back]
44Ibid. 4 June 2007 [back]
46Ibid. 4 June 2007b. [back]
47Europa World Plus. [back]
48Political Parties of the World. 24 Jan. 2005, 124. [back]
49BBC n.d.; ibid. 19 Apr. 2007. [back]
50Ibid. n.d. [back]
56EIU 5 Feb. 2007. [back]
57Ibid.; BBC n.d. [back]
59EIU 5 Feb. 2007. [back]
60BBC 10 July 2007; International Herald Tribune 10 July 2007. [back]
61EIU 5 Feb 2007. [back]
63PHW 2007 Oct. 2006, 242. [back]
64Political Parties of the World. 24 Jan. 2005, 127. [back]
67Ibid., 127-8. [back]
68Ibid., 128. [back]
75Ibid., 128. [back]
86PHW 2007 Oct. 2006, 246. [back]
87Political Parties of the World. 24 Jan. 2005, 128. [back]
89Ibid.; Europa World Plus. [back]
90PHW 2007 Oct. 2006, 246. [back]
93AP 14 Feb. 2001. [back]
94Extremist Groups 2002, 181. [back]
96Ibid.; EIU 5 Feb. 2007; Europa World Plus. [back]
97Extremist Groups 2002, 182. [back]
98Europa World Plus. [back]
99Extremist Groups 2002, 183. [back]
100MIPT 30 Mar. 2007a. [back]
102Ibid. 30 Mar. 2007b; Extremist Groups 2002, 177 [back]
104MIPT 30 Mar. 2007b. [back]
106BBC 22 Mar. 2007; ibid. 7 Mar. 2006. [back]
107Economist 7 June 2007. [back]
Associated Press (AP). 14 February 2001. "China to Execute Islamic Protester." (Factiva)
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 10 July 2007. "China Food Safety Head Executed."
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_____. 4 June 2007b. "Timeline: Tibet."
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_____. 7 March 2006. Rupert Wingfield-Hayes. "China's Rural Millions Left Behind."
_____. N.d. "How China is Ruled."
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_____. 14 May 2007. Bank of Canada. "Daily Currency Converter."
China. 14 March 2007. The National People's Congress. "Constitution of the People's Republic of China."
_____. N.d. "Who's Who in China's Leadership."
The Economist [London]. 7 June 2007. "No Place to Call Home."
_____. 29 March 2007. "Reaching for a Renaissance."
Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). 5 June 2007. "Country Briefings China: Political Structure."
_____. 5 February 2007. "Country Briefings China: Political Forces."
Europa World Plus. N.d. "The People's Republic of China."
The Europa World Year Book 2006. 10 June 2006. Vol. 2. "China." London: Routledge.
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Factiva. 20 December 2006. "Country Profile: China."
International Herald Tribune. 10 July 2007. Joseph Kahn. "China Executes the Former Head of Its Food and Drug Agency."
Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT). 30 March 2007a. Terrorism Knowledge Base (TKB) "Group Profile: East Turkistan Liberation Organization."
_____. 30 March 2007b. Terrorism Knowledge Base (TKB). "Group Profile: Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM)."
Political Handbook of the World 2007 (PHW 2007). October 2006. "China." Edited by Arthur Banks, Thomas Muller and William Overstreet. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
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Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). 19 October 2005. "Chinese Government Cracks Down on Internet Free Speech."
Transparency International (TI). 7 December 2006. Global Corruption Barometer 2006.
_____. 6 November 2006. Corruption Perceptions Index 2006.
United Kingdom (UK). 13 March 2007. Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Country Profiles: China.
aid=1018965313021> . [Accessed 7 May 2007]
_____. 25 January 2007. Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Country Profiles: Taiwan.
aid=1019041599961> . [Accessed 7 May 2007]
_____. 12 December 2006. Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Country Profiles: Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region of China).
aid=1018965321201> . [Accessed 7 May 2007]
_____. 8 December 2006. Foreign & Commonwealth Office. Country Profiles: Macao (Special Administrative Region of China).
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_____. 6 March 2007. Department of State. "China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2006.
_____. August 2006. Library of Congress, Federal Research Division. Country Profile: China.