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Nicaragua: The political party called the Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN); whether this group engages in demonstrations, violent acts or forced recruitment; the reaction of the government to the FSLN; whether FSLN members are elected; whether the party uses pressure to force people to participate in its activities (2002-October 2004)

Publisher Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Author Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada
Publication Date 14 October 2004
Citation / Document Symbol NIC43024.FE
Reference 1
Cite as Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Nicaragua: The political party called the Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN); whether this group engages in demonstrations, violent acts or forced recruitment; the reaction of the government to the FSLN; whether FSLN members are elected; whether the party uses pressure to force people to participate in its activities (2002-October 2004), 14 October 2004, NIC43024.FE, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/42df614a11.html [accessed 29 November 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Established in 1961, the Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN), which is often referred to as the Sandanistas, took control of Nicaragua in July 1979 during a "popular revolution" (Political Parties of the World 2002, 353; see also Political Handbook of the World: 2000-2002 2002, 805). While in power, the Sandinistas made significant progress in a number of social policies in the areas of property redistribution, health and education (BBC 20 Aug. 2004; NACLA Report on the Americas May-June 2004). After governing Nicaragua for nearly 10 years, the FSLN fell from power in the 1990 elections (Political Parties of the World 2002, 353; Political Handbook of the World: 2000-2002 2002, 805). The Sandinistas "vowed to defend the 'fundamental conquests of the revolution,' . . . however, the FSLN lost both its discipline and unity" after the elections, causing the party to split into three distinct factions following a party congress in May 1994 (Political Parties of the World 2002, 353-354; see also Political Handbook of the World: 2000-2002 2002, 805).

However, the FSLN, headed by Daniel Ortega, maintained a political presence in the country and participated in the October 1996 and November 2001 federal elections (Political Parties of the World 2002, 353; Political Handbook of the World: 2000-2002 2002, 805). During the most recent elections, in November 2001, the FSLN won 38 of 92 seats in the National Assembly and is the current opposition party to the Constitutionalist Liberal Party (Partido Constitucionalista Liberal, PLC) (United States Aug. 2004).

With regard to the government's reaction to the FSLN, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2003 noted that 70 per cent of judges belonged to the FSLN (25 Feb. 2004, Sec. 1.e). As a result, "the justice system was in the hands of the FSLN . . . and the FSLN used the judiciary to serve its political purposes," particularly to impede the resolution of property claims (Country Reports 2003 25 Feb. 2004, Sec. 1.e). No additional information on this subject could be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints for this Response.

No information on FSLN forced recruitment, demonstrations or violent acts, or on whether the FSLN pressures people into participating in its activities could be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

References

BBC. 20 August 2004. "Country Profile: Nicaragua." [Accessed 29 Sept. 2004]

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2003. 25 February 2004. "Nicaragua." United States Department of State. Washington, DC. [Accessed 29 Sept. 2004]

NACLA Report on the Americas. May-June 2004. Alejandro Bendana. "The Rise and Fall of the FSLN." [Accessed 7 Oct. 2004]

Political Handbook of the World: 2000-2002. 2002. "Nicaragua." Edited by Arthur S. Banks and Thomas C. Muller. Binghamton, NY: CSA Publications.

Political Parties of the World. 2002. "Nicaragua." 5th Edition. Edited by Alan J. Day. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group.

United States. August 2004. Department of State. Washington, DC. "Background Note: Nicaragua." [Accessed 29 Sept. 2004]

Additional Sources Consulted

Publications: Central America Report [Guatemala City], Europa World Year Book 2004, Latinamerica Press [Lima].

Internet sites, including: Amnesty International, Centro Nicaraguense de Derechos Humanos (CENIDH), Freedom House, Human Rights Watch.

Copyright notice: This document is published with the permission of the copyright holder and producer Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB). The original version of this document may be found on the offical website of the IRB at http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/. Documents earlier than 2003 may be found only on Refworld.

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