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Mozambique: Information on the current situation of RENAMO fighters in the rural areas; and on whether the government is forcing doctors to serve in the rural areas in spite of the RENAMO threat

Publisher Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Author Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada
Publication Date 1 December 1995
Citation / Document Symbol MOZ22409.E
Cite as Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Mozambique: Information on the current situation of RENAMO fighters in the rural areas; and on whether the government is forcing doctors to serve in the rural areas in spite of the RENAMO threat, 1 December 1995, MOZ22409.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6ad8a27.html [accessed 19 September 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

 

Information on these subjects could not be found among the sources consulted by the DIRB. The information below may be of interest, however.

According to sources, a General Peace Accord between RENAMO (or the Mozambique National Resistance, MNR) and Frelimo (Front for the Liberation of Mozambique) was signed in October 1992 (Keesing's Feb. 1995b, 40392; Africa Research Bulletin 1-30 Nov. 1994, 1; HRW 1994, 30). Peace has held since then (ibid.).

In the October 1994 multiparty elections, Joaquim Alberto Chissano, leader of Frelimo, won a little over 50 per cent of the presidential vote, while Afonso Dhlakama, leader of the "former rebel" group RENAMO, took a little over one third of the votes (Keesing's Nov. 1994, 40262-63; Africa Research Bulletin 1-30 Nov. 1994, 1; HRW 1994, 30). Dhlakama, however, could not be awarded status as leader of the opposition as he was not an elected MP (Keesing's May 1995, 40535; Africa Confidential 6 Oct. 1995b, 3).

In the legislative elections, Frelimo won an "eight seat overall majority" over RENAMO and the Democratic Union (Keesing's Nov. 1994, 40263; Africa Research Bulletin 1-30 Nov. 1994, 1-2).

RENAMO did, however, win a majority of seats in the five "most populous and economically viable regions" of the north and centre, namely Sofala, Manica, Telte, Zambezia and Nampula (Keesing's Nov. 1994, 40263; Africa Research Bulletin 1-30 Nov. 1994, 2; Africa Confidential 14 Apr. 1995, 7) and expected to be awarded governorships of those five provinces (Keesing's Dec. 1994a, 40310). President Chissano rejected this assumption, preferring to have in place governors "faithful" to his government (ibid.; Africa Research Bulletin 1-31 Dec. 1994b, 11675; Africa Confidential 14 Apr. 1995, 7) and in January 1995, he appointed Frelimo governors to Nampula, Sofala and Zambezia (Keesing's Jan. 1995, 40344). At its national conference in Quelimane on 14-16 February 1995, RENAMO "accepted" Chissano's decision (Keesing's Feb. 1995a, 40392).

Conflict between Frelimo and RENAMO arose during the first session of the legislative assembly during which RENAMO Mps walked out en masse in protest over voting procedures (Keesing's Dec. 1994b, 40310; Africa Research Bulletin 1-31 Dec. 1994a, 11675).

More recently, in mid-September 1995, Afonso Dhlakama warned that if he did not receive more money soon, RENAMO "could split, plunging the back into civil war" (Africa Confidential 6 Oct. 1995a, 2). However, according to The Indian Ocean Newsletter of 4 November 1995, Dhlakama was "practically forced" by South Africa's executive deputy president Thabo Mbeki into publicly declaring that he "condemned all use of armed force, in order to undercut any subversive plans by RENAMO military" (1). This attachment briefly outlines Mozambique's current political situation.

Please consult the November 1994 and December 1994 attachments from Africa Research Bulletin and the November 1994 attachment from Keesing's for more information on the October 1994 elections.

The 14 April 1995 Africa Confidential attachment provides information on military mutinies, problems with the new army and a corrupted police force. This attachment also describes a February 1995 incident in which police assaulted two RENAMO MPs who were touring Tete province (ibid., 7).

For further background information on the overall situation in Mozambique, please consult Amnesty International Report 1995 and Human Rights Watch World Report 1995, which are available at Regional Documentation Centres.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the DIRB within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

References

Africa Confidential [London]. 6 October 1995a. Vol. 36, No. 20. "Mozambique: Money and Votes."

_____. 6 October 1995b. Vol. 36, No. 20. "Local Politics, Real Politics."

_____. 14 April 1995. Vol. 36, No. 8. "Mozambique: Underpaid, Underfed and Unruly."

         Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series [Oxford]. 1-31 December 1994a. Vol. 31, No. 12. "Mozambique: Renamo Walk Out."

_____. 1-31 December 1994b. Vol. 31, No. 12. "Mozambique: "Inconvenience" or Disrupt?"

_____. 1-30 November 1994. Vol. 31, No. 11. "Mozambique: Chissano's Victory."

Human Rights Watch (HRW). 1994. Human Rights Watch World Report 1995. New York: Human Rights Watch.

         The Indian Ocean Newsletter [Paris]. 4 November 1995. No. 692. "Mozambique: Mbeki Puts the Boot In."

         Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. May 1995. Vol. 41, No. 5. "Mozambique: Status of Dhlakama."

_____. January 1995. Vol. 41, No. 1. "Mozambique: Appointment of Provincial Governors."

_____. February 1995a. Vol. 41, No. 2. "Mozambique: Renamo

 National Conference."

_____. February 1995b. Vol. 41, No. 2. "Mozambique: Defence Cuts."

_____. December 1994a. Vol. 40, No. 12. "Mozambique: Commencement of Chissano's New Term—New Government."

_____. December 1994b. Vol. 40, No. 12. "Mozambique: Brief Renamo Parliamentary Boycott."

_____. November 1994. Vol. 40, No. 11. "Mozambique: Frelimo Election Victory."

Attachments

Africa Confidential [London]. 14 April 1995. Vol. 36, No. 8. "Mozambique: Underpaid, Underfed and Unruly," pp. 6-7.

         Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series [Oxford]. 1-31 December 1994a. Vol. 31, No. 12. "Mozambique, Renamo Walk Out," pp. 11675.

_____. 1-31 December 1994b. Vol. 31, No. 12. "Mozambique: "Inconvenience" or Disrupt?" p. 11675.

_____. 1-30 November 1994. Vol. 31, No. 11. "Mozambique: Chissano's Victory," pp. 11635-37.

         The Indian Ocean Newsletter [Paris]. 4 November 1995. No. 692. "Mozambique: Mbeki Puts the Boot In," p. 1.

         Keesing's Record of World Events [Cambridge]. November 1994. Vol. 40, No. 11. "Mozambique: Frelimo Election Victory," pp. 40262-63.

Additional Sources Consulted

African Human Rights Newsletter [The Gambia]. Twice-yearly. 1995.

         Amnesty International Report 1995. 1995.

         Current History [Philadelphia]. Monthly. 1995.

DIRB "Mozambique" country file. 1995.

DIRB "Mozambique: Amnesty International" country file. 1995.

         News from Africa Watch. Infrequent reports. 1995.

On-line search of media sources.

Copyright notice: This document is published with the permission of the copyright holder and producer Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB). The original version of this document may be found on the offical website of the IRB at http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/. Documents earlier than 2003 may be found only on Refworld.

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