Last Updated: Friday, 11 July 2014, 13:14 GMT

Estonia: Whether lesbians in Estonia are provided redress by the state in cases of discrimination and ill-treatment

Publisher Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Author Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada
Publication Date 21 March 2003
Citation / Document Symbol EST40637.E
Reference 7
Cite as Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Estonia: Whether lesbians in Estonia are provided redress by the state in cases of discrimination and ill-treatment, 21 March 2003, EST40637.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f7d4d9138.html [accessed 12 July 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

  The new Estonian Penal Code enacted on 1 September 2002, does not make any reference to sexual orientation or to the protection of persons discriminated against because of their sexual orientation (Estonia 1 Sept. 2002). This information would update EST39106.E of 12 June 2002 on state protection for homosexuals and on the availability of redress for lesbians in Estonia.

  Likewise, sexual orientation is not mentioned in the Constitution of Estonia, adopted on 28 June 1992, however, Article 12 does provide for "other reasons" when describing grounds on which discrimination is prohibited (Estonia 28 June 1992).

       

A report on the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights Website, entitled Women 2000: An Investigation into the Status of Women's Rights in Central and Southern European and the Newly Independent States, states lesbians may establish an NGO without restrictions and that "Estonian society has become more tolerant towards homosexuals". For information on specific groups that work on behalf of sexual minorities in Estonia, see EST 34035.E of 21 March 2000.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

References

Estonia. 28 June 1992. Constitution of Estonia. (Article 12) (International

Constituional Law). [Accessed 11 Mar. 2003]

______. 1 September 2002. Penal Code of Estonia. (Baltic Commercial Law Office).

   [Accessed

   19 Mar. 2003]

International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights. n.d. Women 2000: An Investigation into the Status of Women's Rights in Central and Southern European and the Newly Independent States. (International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights).

< http://www.ihf-hr.org/reports/women/estonia.pdf > [Accessed 11 Mar. 2003]

Gay LT. n.d. "Sexual Orientation Discrimination in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia." (Gay LT). [Accessed 11 Mar. 2003]

Additional Sources Consulted

IRB Databases

Internet sites including:

Amnesty International

Council of Europe

Estonian Association for Lesbian and Bisexual Women

European Union

Human Rights Watch

International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC)

International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA)

Search engine:

Google

   

        

Copyright notice: This document is published with the permission of the copyright holder and producer Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB). The original version of this document may be found on the offical website of the IRB at http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/. Documents earlier than 2003 may be found only on Refworld.

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