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Switzerland: Police protection available to victims of extortion by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in Switzerland

Publisher Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Author Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada
Publication Date 4 April 2003
Citation / Document Symbol CHE41158.E
Reference 2
Cite as Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Switzerland: Police protection available to victims of extortion by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in Switzerland, 4 April 2003, CHE41158.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f7d4d68a.html [accessed 23 September 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

No information on the use of extortion by the LTTE or the availability of police protection for victims of extortion by LTTE in addition to that reported in ZZZ30894.E of 25 January 1999 could be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.

However, Article 156(1) of the Swiss Penal Code enacted on 21 December 1937 does state that those persons convicted of extortion through the use of violence or serious threats may receive a maximum sentence of five years in prison (Switzerland 21 Dec. 1937). Article 156(2) of the same Code states that those persons convicted of a repeat offence of extortion could receive a maximum sentence of ten years in prison (ibid.). If violence was used or if there was an imminent threat to life, Article 156(3) of the Code allows for sentencing under Article 140(1) on banditry, which provides for a prison sentence of between six months to ten years (ibid.). Article 140(2) of the Code states that if a firearm or other dangerous weapon was used in the act of banditry, the offender would receive a minimum sentence of one year, and if under Article 140(3) the act of banditry was carried out by a member of an organized gang the minimum sentence would be two years (ibid.). If the victim received a life-threatening injury or was treated with cruelty, Article 140(4) provides for a minimum sentence of five years (ibid.).       

In a report entitled "Swiss Consider Accession to UN Convention" on the Government of Sri Lanka's Website,     

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

References

Campaign for U.N. Reform (CUNR). 23 April 2002. "Freezing Terrorist Assets:

Background on International Convention on the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism." [Accessed 28 Mar. 2003]

Sri Lanka. 21 July 2000. Official Website of the Government of Sri Lanka. "Swiss

Consider Accession to UN Convention." [Accessed 27 Mar. 2003]   

Switzerland. 21 December 1937. Code pénal suisse. (Confoederatio Helevetica.)

[Accessed 3 Apr.2003]

United Nations (UN). 9 December 1999. International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 9 December 1999. [Accessed 28 Mar. 2003]

Additional Sources Consulted

IRB Databases

Internet sites, including:

Campaign for UN Reform

Governance World Watch

Lanka Web

Swiss Crime Prevention Centre

Swiss Embassy - Washington D.C.

Swiss Police

TamilCanadian.com

Search engine:

Google

Copyright notice: This document is published with the permission of the copyright holder and producer Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB). The original version of this document may be found on the offical website of the IRB at http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/. Documents earlier than 2003 may be found only on Refworld.

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