Jamaica: Treatment of sexual minorities, including legislation, state protection and support services (2009-December 2012)
|Publisher||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Publication Date||11 January 2013|
|Citation / Document Symbol||JAM104262.E|
|Related Document||Jamaïque : information sur le traitement réservé aux minorités sexuelles, y compris les lois, la protection offerte par l'État et les services de soutien (2009-décembre 2012)|
|Cite as||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Jamaica: Treatment of sexual minorities, including legislation, state protection and support services (2009-December 2012), 11 January 2013, JAM104262.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/512224b22.html [accessed 6 July 2015]|
Sources indicate that male homosexual acts are criminalised in Jamaica (ILGA May 2012, 59; PinkNews 14 Sept. 2009). However, sources note that female homosexual acts are not illegal in the country (ibid.; ILGA May 2012, 59). Nonetheless, the US Department of State's Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 2011 specifies that "[t]he law prohibits 'acts of gross indecency' (generally interpreted as any kind of physical intimacy) between persons of the same sex, in public or in private" (US 24 May 2012, 21). Country Reports 2011 adds that there also exists an "'antibuggery' law that prohibits consensual same-sex sexual conduct between men" (ibid.).
When sources refer to specific legislation prohibiting homosexual acts, they cite the Offences Against the Person Act (ILGA May 2012, 59; Pulitzer Center 21 Mar. 2012). The Act, amended in 2009, states the following:
76. Whosoever shall be convicted of the abominable crime of buggery, committed either with mankind or with any animal, shall be liable to be imprisoned and kept to hard labour for a term not exceeding ten years.
77. Whosoever shall attempt to commit the said abominable crime, or shall be guilty of any assault with intent to commit the same, or of any indecent assault upon any male person, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and being convicted thereof, shall be liable to be imprisoned for a term not exciding seven years, with or without hard labour.
79. Any male person who, in public or private, commits, or is a party to the commission of, or procures or attempts to procure the commission by any male person of, any act of gross indecency with another male person, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and being convicted thereof shall be liable at the discretion of the court to be imprisoned for a term not exceeding two years, with or without hard labour. (Jamaica 1864)
According to sources, the law is "rarely enforced" (The Toronto Star 10 Jan. 2012) or "not widely enforced" (US 24 May 2012, 21). A petition was filed in 2011 with the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights of the Organization of American States challenging the law on behalf of two gay men (Pulitzer Center 21 Mar. 2012; AI 2012; US 24 May 2012, 21-22). According to Country Reports 2011, "[t]he petition claims that the law effectively criminalizes gay men and their sexual orientation and gives license to public officials and private individuals alike to commit violence and abuse against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community members" (ibid.). Further information on the progress of the petition could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
2. Treatment of Sexual Minorities by Society
Sources report that homophobia is common in Jamaica (PIA 21 Dec. 2012; US 24 May 2012, 21; AP 27 Dec. 2011). An article by the Associated Press (AP) states that Jamaica is "by far the most hostile island towards homosexuals in the already conservative Caribbean, gays and their advocates contend" (ibid.). In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, the Programme Manager of Pride in Action (PIA), a Jamaican NGO dedicated to empowering and building confidence in LGBT youth studying at the post-secondary level, stated that homophobia was "deeply ingrained" in Jamaican society due to historical and cultural reasons (21 Dec. 2012). In correspondence sent to the Research Directorate, the Executive Director of the Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All-Sexuals and Gays (J-FLAG), an NGO founded in 1998, likewise stated that "there is still a strong homophobic culture that plays out negatively in how LGBT in Jamaica are treated in all spheres of life" (10 Jan. 2013). The Executive Director added that there is "widespread" discrimination towards sexual minorities and that it is common in all areas of the country (ibid.).
According to sources, some types of Jamaican music propagate homophobia and intolerance towards sexual minorities (US 24 May 2012, 21; Freedom House 2012; The Independent 12 Sept. 2009). The Independent indicates that certain reggae songs call for violence or murder of gay men (ibid.).
A survey conducted by members of the University of the West Indies' Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work examined the attitudes and perceptions regarding same-sex relationships of 1,000 individuals over 18 years of age from communities throughout Jamaica, who were interviewed between April and May 2012 (Boxill et al. 31 July 2012, 6). According to the results of the survey, over 80 percent of respondents believed that male and female homosexuality as well as bisexuality were "immoral" (ibid., 2). The survey also found that 76.7 percent of respondents disagreed with amending the "buggery" law while 65 percent disagreed with amending the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms to protect the rights of sexual minorities (ibid.). The survey also found that 54.1 percent of business people surveyed would not be likely to hire sexual minorities because it would make their co-workers "uncomfortable", although 65.2 percent of business people also stated "that they would not fire someone because of their sexual orientation" (ibid., 3, 24).
Sources indicate that sexual minorities in Jamaica are not generally visible (JFJ 14 Dec. 2012; AIDS-Free World 26 Oct. 2011). An article in the British daily The Independent cites a gay man in Jamaica as stating that "the prevalence and virulence of anti-gay sentiment in the country had made his coming out as a homosexual an impossibility", even to family and friends (12 Sept. 2009).
Sources report that lesbians are somewhat more "tolerated" (PIA 21 Dec. 2012; JFJ 14 Dec. 2012). However, without providing specific examples, the PIA Programme Manager stated that there had been cases of lesbians being victim of "corrective rape" and "murder" (PIA 21 Dec. 2012). According to the J-FLAG Executive Director, "[l]esbians are raped, often in brutal ways, which goes under reported because of the general stigma and shame around rape" (10 Jan. 2013). The JFJ Executive Director indicated that while lesbians may be slightly more tolerated, their sexual orientation must stay hidden, and they cannot show signs of affections in public such as holding hands (14 Dec. 2012). According to PinkNews, a website dedicated to news relating to sexual minorities,"many lesbians face persecution" (PinkNews 14 Sept. 2009).
Sources indicated that it is rare for transgendered people to be publicly visible (PIA 21 Dec. 2012; JFJ 14 Dec. 2012). The JFJ Executive Director noted that there have been cases of assault directed at transgendered individuals (ibid.). The Executive Director expressed the view that transgendered persons or "cross-dressers would need to be very brave to be out openly in public" (ibid.).
Sources indicate that political leaders have made negative statements towards sexual minorities (J-FLAG et al. Oct. 2011, 5-6; PIA 21 Dec. 2012). However, in the 2011 election which led her to power, Prime Minister Portia Simpson Miller stated that she would choose her cabinet members based on their abilities, regardless of their sexual orientation ( PIA 21 Dec. 2012; US 24 May 2012, 22). According to Country Reports 2011, her comment was in reaction to a statement by the former Prime Minister indicating that he would not allow a homosexual in his cabinet (ibid.). During the election campaign, Simpson Miller had indicated that she was willing to let the "anti-buggery law" be re-examined (PIA 21 Dec. 2012; HRW 16 July 2012; US 24 May 2012, 22).
Some sources indicate that there has been more public discussion of issues regarding sexual minorities in recent times (J-FLAG 10 Jan. 2013; PIA 21 Dec. 2012; JFJ 14 Dec. 2012). In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, the Executive Director of Jamaicans for Justice (JFJ), an NGO which the British High Commission in Kingston calls "the premier Human Rights Advocacy organization in Jamaica" (UK ), expressed the view that it seems that some people within Jamaican society are "freer" to speak out, but that it is "still difficult" to do so (JFJ 14 Dec. 2012). The PIA Programme Manager likewise noted that some human rights supporters and those against homophobia have been more "vocal," which has also encouraged others to speak out in turn (PIA 21 Dec. 2012). Nonetheless, the PIA Programme Manager added that homophobia and incidents of discrimination and violence continue to happen (ibid.). Similarly, according to Country Reports 2011, greater public discourse regarding sexual minorities "did not result in a change in conditions in society" (US 24 May 2012, 22).
2.2 Incidents of Violence
Several sources report that sexual minorities are the target of violence in Jamaica (AI 2012; Freedom House 2012; US 24 May 2012, 22). Freedom House states that "[v]iolence against gay, lesbian, and transgendered individuals remains a major concern" (2012). According to Amnesty International (AI), "LGBT organizations reported scores of cases of attacks, harassment and threats against lesbians, gay men and bisexual and transgender people" in 2011 (2012). The J-FLAG Executive Director stated that his NGO has recorded cases of "mob attacks, physical abuse, home evictions and other human rights violations" (10 Jan. 2013). According to Country Reports 2011, both governmental and non-governmental observers agreed that violence against sexual minorities was "widespread" (US 24 May 2012, 22). Country Reports 2011 added that many homosexuals have been compelled to leave the country due to the "climate of fear" created by the violence directed towards them (ibid., 21). However, the PIA Programme Manager stated that it was possible for some members of sexual minorities to be publicly visible and to navigate within society without being subject to violence, although "some instigating event" could lead to violence (PIA 21 Dec. 2012).
J-FLAG says it received 39 reports of human rights abuses against LGBT people, between January and November 2012 (J-FLAG 10 Jan. 2013). The NGO received 186 reports of human rights abused against LGBT people between 2009 and 2011, including 84 reports in 2011 (J-FLAG 12 July 2012). The J-FLAG Executive Director added that 21 people were also displaced from their home in 2011 (10 Jan. 2013).
Sources indicate that the bodies of two mutilated men, who were reportedly members of the LGBT community, were found in New Kingston in June 2012 (Jamaica Observer 14 June 2012; OAS 9 July 2012). The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights of the Organization of American States indicates that, according to a local LGBT organization, eight gay men were killed between April and July 2012 (ibid.).
The body of a cross dresser bearing stab wounds was found in December 2010 in St Andrew (Jamaica Observer 3 Dec. 2010; The Jamaica Gleaner 5 Dec. 2010). According to J-FLAG, "the man was a member of the gay community whose life had been under threat" (ibid.).
An article published by the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA) reports that between 2009 and 2010, four lesbians were submitted to "corrective rapes" in Jamaica (16 June 2010).
The British honorary consul in Jamaica was found murdered in 2009, reportedly with a note alleging that the consul was gay (The Telegraph 11 Sept. 2009) and threatening all gays with death (The Independent 12 Sept. 2009; PinkNews 14 Sept. 2009). However, according to an article by PinkNews, police stated that the murder was "unlikely to be a homophobic attack" (ibid.)
2.2.1 Mob Violence
Sources indicated that sexual minorities may be targeted by mob violence (J-FLAG 10 Jan. 2013; JFJ 14 Dec. 2012; PIA 21 Dec. 2012). The PIA Programme Manager stated that vigilantism and mob violence were "common" in Jamaica (ibid.). According to the J-FLAG Executive Director, mob violence directed at sexual minorities is "an island-wide phenomenon" (10 Jan. 2013). The Independent article notes that in the 18 months prior to September 2009, there were 33 documented incidents of mob violence directed against homosexuals (12 Sept. 2009).
Media articles report that in November 2012, an allegedly gay student at the University of Technology was reportedly beaten by security personnel, while an "angry" crowd was outside the room (The Jamaica Gleaner 2 Nov. 2012; AP 3 Nov. 2012; The Jamaica Star 2 Nov. 2012) because he was caught in a "compromising position" with another man (ibid.; The Jamaica Gleaner 2 Nov. 2012). According to the Associated Press (AP), two security guards were "released from duty as police investigate" (3 Nov. 2012).
Human Rights Watch indicates that according to a news report, in June 2012, a crowd of approximately 100 persons gathered in front of a house where 5 homosexuals were allegedly living and that police needed to intervene to protect the residents from the "angry" mob (16 July 2012).
According to sources, two homes of allegedly gay men were invaded by mobs in 2010 (ILGA 16 June 2010; JASL et al. , para. 11). No mob participants were arrested; however, some gay men were reportedly taken into custody (ibid.) "'for their own protection'" (ILGA 16 June 2010).
3. State Protection
In a report submitted to the UN Human Rights Council for the 2010 Universal Periodic Review, the government of Jamaica indicated the following:
The Government of Jamaica respects the right of all individuals and does not condone discrimination or violence on against any person or group because of their sexual orientation. The Constitution also provides for any person who feels that his/her rights are being violated or likely to be contravened to apply to the Supreme Court (or on appeal to the Court of Appeal) for the enforcement of rights and for redress.
11. A Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Constitutional Amendment) Bill which seeks to provide for more comprehensive and effective protection of the fundamental rights and freedoms of all persons in Jamaica has been introduced in Parliament. (Jamaica 12 Nov. 2010, para. 10-11)
However, sources report that the Charter does not include freedom from discrimination based on sexual orientation (AI 2012; Boxill et al. 31 July 2012, 5).
3.1 Police and Judiciary
Sources indicate that police often fail to take action regarding incidents of violence directed at sexual minorities (US 24 May 2012, 21; Freedom House 2012). According to AI, many cases of violence, harassment and threats "were not fully and promptly investigated" (2012). According to the J-FLAG Executive Director, police officers were perpetrators in 12 out of the 84 incidents reported to the NGO in 2011 (10 Jan. 2013).
Country Reports 2011 states that "[g]ay men were hesitant to report incidents against them because of fear for their physical well-being" (US 24 May 2012, 22). Similarly, a shadow report submitted to the UN Human Rights Committee by a coalition of organizations indicates that authorities are "unresponsive" regarding cases of violence against lesbians and that many lesbians and transgenders "are afraid to report sexual crimes committed against for fear that the police will perpetuate the abuse or humiliate them" (J-FLAG et al. Oct. 2011, 13). However, the J-Flag Executive Director added that "the relationship with the police is improving as their response has improved over the years although there are still instances where personal bias is played out" (10 Jan. 2013) The Executive Director also noted that "our greatest challenge is getting the community more comfortable to report issues to the police" (ibid.)
The PIA Programme Manager stated the judicial system in Jamaica is ineffective in general, not just for sexual minorities, and works very slowly, except for high-profile cases (21 Dec. 2012). The JFJ Executive Director likewise stated that Jamaica's court system is "extremely ineffective" (JFJ 14 Dec. 2012). Several sources note that there is a backlog of cases going through the courts (US 24 May 2012, 10; JFJ 14 Dec. 2012; Freedom House 2012). According to Country Reports 2011, it takes years for cases to come to trial (US 24 May 2012, 9). The J-FLAG Executive Director added that "we have yet to see a real test case for the courts surrounding rights of sexual minorities to get a true sense of the judiciary's own role" (10 Jan. 2013).
Both the JFJ Executive Director and the PIA Programme Manager indicated that they were aware that J-FLAG has provided sensitivity training to police officers regarding sexual minorities (JFJ 14 Dec. 2012; PIA 21 Dec. 2012). According to the PIA Programme Manager, this training was offered in police stations, in particular where there had been a high incidence of discriminatory treatment, and that there has been "improvement" (PIA 21 Dec. 2012). The Programme Manager added that it "is easier to file police reports, especially in Kingston," but that sexual minorities could be subject to have their "lifestyle publicized and criticized" (ibid.).
4. Support Services
The J-FLAG Executive Director stated that "the willingness of LGBT to come forward to seek recourse when their rights are violated is very small", adding that the only organizations through which individuals can seek recourse are the Independent Jamaica Council on Human Rights, Jamaicans for Justice and J-FLAG (13 Jan. 2013). He also noted that these organisations are all located in Kingston, "making it hard for those in rural areas to get support if they are unable to make it into the capital" (ibid.).
J-FLAG describes itself as "the first human rights organization in the history of Jamaica to serve the needs of Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals and Transgendered (LGBT) people" (J-FLAG n.d.a). J-FLAG plays an advocacy role with the Jamaican government and works for legal reform (ibid.; PIA 21 Dec. 2012). It also operates a public education programme as well as a crisis intervention and support programmes. (J-FLAG n.d.a). It places an emphasis on improving tolerance and acceptance in Jamaican society (ibid.).
As noted above, PRIDE in Action (PIA) is an NGO dedicated to LGBT youth which has been officially registered since 2008 (PIA 21 Dec. 2012). The PIA Programme Manager stated that the organisation caters to lesbian and gay post-secondary students (ibid.). It works to empower and build confidence in LGBT youth through creating safe spaces and discussion groups and does some work on HIV prevention and education (ibid). It also serves as an advocate towards university administrations (ibid.).
The J-FLAG website mentions that lesbian, bisexual or "questioning women" can contact "Women for Women", dedicated "to creating an environment free of discrimination, prejudice and social injustices" (J-FLAG n.d.b). The PIA Programme Manager added that human rights organisations JFJ and FAST (Freedom from State Terrorism) both were supportive of the rights of sexual minorities (21 Dec. 2012). Further details on Women for Women and FAST could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
4.1 Health Care
According to sources, sexual minorities may face discrimination in health care services (JFJ 14 Dec. 2012; Brown et al. Apr. 2012, 49). Country Reports indicates that, according to J-FLAG, sexual minorities may face harassment from healthcare providers (US 24 May 2012, 21). Sources also indicate that sexual minorities can have difficulty accessing services dedicated to HIV prevention or treatment (JFJ 14 Dec. 2012; JASL et al. , para. 13). A study by the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS shows that the prevalence rate of HIV among Jamaican men who have sex with men is approximately 32 percent, compared to 1.6 percent in the population in general in 2007 (UN 2010, 4).
The JFJ Executive Director added that while some HIV/AIDS organisations and the Ministry of Health try to "push for greater tolerance", members of the LGBT community are not always "well-tolerated" within local clinics (14 Dec. 2012). The PIA Programme Manager likewise stated that the Ministry of Health has made attempts to eliminate stigma and discrimination within the context of HIV prevention, but that the implementation of policies and rules depends on the attitudes of individuals (21 Dec. 2012). A news release from the Ministry of Health states that the Ministry had organized consultations on reducing stigma and discrimination towards those living with HIV/Aids (Jamaica 27 April 2011). In addition, according to media reports, the Minister of Health has called for legislation criminalizing homosexual behaviour to be repealed, "for the greater good" (Mambaonline 5 Dec. 2012; GSN 4 Dec. 2012).
However, sources also note the existence of healthcare organisations that offer specialized services, including for sexual minorities (JFJ 14 Dec. 2012; Jamaica Red Cross [Nov. 2011]; The Global Forum on MSM & HIV n.d.). Both the Jamaican Network of Seropositives (ibid.) and Jamaica AIDS Support for Life deal with prevention and provide support to people living with HIV/AIDS (JFJ 14 Dec. 2012). The JFJ Executive Director explained that these two groups also try to combat discrimination to a certain extent (ibid.). According to the Executive Director, these organisations are "relatively effective" in assisting with health issues involving sexual minorities (ibid.). The PIA Programme Manager stated that the Jamaica AIDS Support for Life personnel is generally "friendly" with sexual minorities (21 Dec. 2012). The Jamaica Red Cross also notes that it provides a "safe space to allow access to Voluntary Confidential Counselling and Testing" for MSM, in Kingston, and St. Andrew and St. Ann (Jamaica Red Cross [Nov. 2011]).
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
AIDS-Free World. 26 October 2011. "The First-Ever Legal Challenge to Jamaica's Anti-Gay Law."
Amnesty International (AI). 2012. "Jamaica." Annual Report 2012: The State of the World's Human Rights.
Associated Press (AP). 3 November 2012. "Two University Guards in Jamaica Accused of Assaulting Gay Student."
_____. 27 December 2011. David McFadden. "Dane Lewis, Jamaican Activist Criticizes Anti-Gay Rhetoric of Country's Labor Party."
Boxill, Ian, Elroy Galbraith, Rashalee Mitchell, and Roy Russell. 31 July 2012. National Survey of Attitudes and Perceptions of Jamaicans Towards Same Sex Relationships: A Follow-up Study. Kingston: Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work, University of the West Indies.
Brown, Audrey, Atlhea Bailey, Quaine Palmer, Kara Tureski, Susan J. Rogers, Anya Cushnie and Abidemi Adelaja. April 2012. Layered Stigma among Health Facility and Social Services Staff toward Most-at-Risk Populations in Jamaica. Washington, DC: C-Change and FHI 360.
Freedom House. 2012. "Jamaica." Freedom in the World Report 2012.
Gay Star News (GSN). 4 December 2012. "Jamaica Health Minister: Anti-Gay Laws Must Change for Greater Good'".
The Global Forum on MSM & HIV (MSMGF). N.d. "Jamaican Network of Seropositives (JN+)."
Human Rights Watch. 16 July 2012. Boris O. Dittrich. "Jamaica: Letter to Prime Minister Simpson-Miller."
The Independent [London]. 12 September 2009. "Jamaica: A Grim Place to Be Gay."
International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA). May 2012. Lucas Paoli Itaborahy. "Jamaica". State-Sponsored Homophobia: A World Survey of Laws Criminalising Same-sex Sexual Acts Between Consenting Adults.
_____. 16 June 2010. "Jamaica's War on Gays."
Jamaica. 27 April 2011."Ministry of Health Hosts High Level Leaders Consultation on Stigma, Discrimination and Gender Issued in HIV/AIDS."
_____. 12 November 2010. National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15(a) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1.
_____. 1864 [amended 2009]. Offences Against the Person Act.
Jamaica Aids Support for Life (JASL), Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All-Sexuals, and Gays (J-FLAG), Caribbean Vulnerable Communities Coalition (CVC), Sex Workers Association of Jamaica (SWAJ), Women for Women (WfW), The Underlined Response (UR), and International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Intersex--Latin America and the Caribbean (ILGA-LAC). . Submission by Stakeholder LGBTI, Sex Workers and PLWHIV Coalition for the Universal Periodic Review of Jamaica, UN Human Rights Council, Ninth Session (November 2010).
Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All-Sexuals and Gays (J-FLAG). 10 January 2013. Correspondence sent to the Research Directorate by the Executive Director.
Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All-Sexuals and Gays (J-FLAG). 12 July 2012. Dane Lewis. "Is Jamaica a more Tolerant Society?"
_____. N.d.a. "History."
_____. N.d.b. "Lesbian."
Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All-Sexuals and Gays (J-FLAG), Women for Women, Heartland Alliance for Human Needs and Human Rights (IGLHRC), International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, AIDS-Free World (AFW) and George Washington University Law School International Human Rights Clinic. October 2011. Human Rights Violations of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) People in Jamaica: A Shadow Report Submitted for Consideration at the 103rd Session of the Human Rights Committee.
The Jamaica Gleaner. 2 November 2012. "UTech, Marksman Condemn Beating of Alleged Gay Student."
_____. 5 December 2010. "J-FLAG Calls for Investigation into Cross Dresser's Death."
Jamaica Observer. 14 June 2012. "Bodies of Two Men Found in New Kingston."
_____. 3 December 2010. Kimmo Matthews. "Cross Dresser's Body Found in Half-Way Tree."
Jamaica Red Cross. [November 2011]. Kerry-Ann Willis. "Role of the Jamaica Red Cross in Providing Safe Space for MSM."
The Jamaica Star. 2 November 2012. "UTech Student Beaten."
Jamaicans for Justice (JFJ). 14 December 2012. Telephone interview with the Executive Director.
Mambaonline.com. 5 December 2012. "Jamaican Health Minister Back Repeal of Anti-Gay Law."
Organization of American States (OAS). 9 July 2012. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). "IACHR Condemns Murder of Two Gay Men in Jamaica."
PinkNews. 14 September 2009. Jessica Geen. "Jamaican Police Claim Murder of British Consul Was not Homophobic Despite Note Calling Him a 'Batty Man'."
Pride in Action (PIA). 21 December 2012. Telephone interview with the Progamme Manager.
Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. 21 March 2012. Micah Fink. "A Challenge to Jamaica's Anti-Sodomy Law."
The Telegraph [London]. 11 September 2009. Nick Allen. "British Honorary Consul Murdered in 'Homophobic' Attack in Jamaica."
The Toronto Star. 10 January 2012. Catherine Porter. "Jamaica's Leading Gay Activist, Maurice Tomlinson, Married a Torontonian."
United Kingdom (UK). . British High Commission in Kingston. "Jamaicans for Justice."
United Nations (UN). 2010. The Status of HIV in the Caribbean.
United States (US). 24 May 2012. "Jamaica." Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2011.
Additional Sources Consulted
Oral sources: Attempts to contact representatives of the following organizations were unsucessful: Jamaican Network of Seropositives; Independent Jamaican Council for Human Rights; Freedom from State Terrorism; Farquharson Institute of Public Affairs.
Internet sites, including: Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative; ecoi.net; Inter Press Service; International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission; Jamaica — Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice; Jamaica Information Service; GlobalGayz; Human Dignity Trust; United Nations — Refworld.