2011 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Comoros
|Publisher||United States Department of State|
|Author||Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor|
|Publication Date||24 May 2012|
|Cite as||United States Department of State, 2011 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - Comoros, 24 May 2012, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fc75aacc.html [accessed 16 April 2014]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
The Union of the Comoros is a constitutional, multiparty republic. The country consists of three islands – Grande Comore (also called Ngazidja), Anjouan, and Moheli – and claims a fourth, Mayotte, which France governs. In November and December 2010 elections were held to choose a new union president as well as governors for each of the three islands. Serious electoral irregularities on the island of Anjouan noted by some observers were not sufficient to change the outcome of the national contests, and the constitutional court upheld the results of the elections. On May 26, former vice president Ikililou Dhoinine became president of the Comoros. Security forces reported to civilian authorities.
Official corruption, bribery in particular, was a pervasive problem in the government at all levels. Children were subject to various forms of abuse from violence to forced labor, including the worst forms of child labor, and trafficking in persons. The government did not effectively enforce laws providing protections of worker's rights.
Other human rights problems reported during the year included poor prison conditions, long pretrial detention, restrictions on press freedom, violence and societal discrimination against women, and criminalization of consensual same-sex sexual activity.
Impunity for violations of human rights existed. The government rarely took steps to prosecute, much less punish, officials anywhere in the government who committed abuses.
Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:
a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life
During the year there were no confirmed reports the government or its agents committed any politically motivated killings. However, in June 2010 Colonel Combo Ayouba, a senior army officer, was assassinated at his home in Moroni. At year's end an investigation continued, and the chief of staff of the Comoran Defense Forces was under house arrest for his possible role in the killing (see section 1.e).
There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances.
c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
The constitution and laws prohibit such practices. During the year there were no reports government officials employed them.
Prison and Detention Center Conditions
The detention facility in Moroni was known as the national prison. There were detention facilities as well on Anjouan and Moheli. The military detained security personnel in its own facilities. National or island-level authorities used these various detention facilities as deemed appropriate, and detainees could be transferred from either Anjouan or Moheli to Grande Comore depending upon the nature of the offense.
The limited available information indicated that prison conditions remained poor. Detainees and prisoners normally received a single meager meal per day. They depended on family members to supplement their diet; those with no relations in the area suffered. Common problems included nonpotable water, inadequate sanitation, overcrowding, inadequate medical facilities, and poor diet. During the year there were no reports of deaths of prison inmates.
The national prison in Moroni accommodated a maximum of 150 persons under crowded conditions. Consistent records of prison populations were not available. Authorities held pretrial detainees with convicted prisoners.
Prisoners and detainees were permitted reasonable access to visitors and Muslim religious observance. Prisoners could also bring complaints to the attention of authorities; however, investigations or follow-up actions almost never occurred.
The government permitted visits by independent human rights observers.
There were some documented improvements in conditions in the Badjo detention facility on Moheli island, where a renovation included a new cellblock, potable water and sanitation infrastructure, and beds.
d. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention
The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary arrest and detention, and the government generally observed these prohibitions.
Role of the Police and Security Apparatus
Six separate security forces report to four different authorities. Union government forces include the Army of National Development and the Gendarmerie, which report to the president's Cabinet Director for Defense (equivalent of minister); and the National Directorate of Territorial Safety (immigration and customs) under the Minister of Interior, Information, and Decentralization. Each of the three islands also has its own local police force under the authority of its ministry of interior.
Impunity was a problem, and there was no mechanism to investigate police abuses. Police and security forces participated in training on civil-military relations, public health, and peacekeeping operations.
Arrest Procedures and Treatment While in Detention
The law requires warrants for arrests and permits detainees to be held for 24 hours, although these provisions were not always respected in practice. The prosecutor must approve continued detention. A tribunal informs detainees of their rights, including the right to legal representation. The law provides for the prompt judicial determination of the legality of detention, and detainees must be promptly informed of the charges against them. In practice these rights were inconsistently respected. The law describes a bail system under which the individual is not permitted to leave the country. Some detainees did not get prompt access to attorneys or families. The law also requires the state to provide an attorney for indigent defendants, but this rarely occurred. Formal procedures described under the law were subject to unpredictable, inconsistent, and broad variations in actual practice.
Pretrial Detention: Pretrial detention was a problem. By law pretrial detainees can be held for only four months, but this period can be extended. Detainees routinely await trial for extended periods for reasons including administrative delays, case backlogs, and time-consuming collection of evidence. Some extensions lasted several months.
e. Denial of Fair Public Trial
The constitution and law provide for an independent judiciary, and the government generally respected judicial independence in practice. However, judicial inconsistency, unpredictability, lack of payment of salaries, and corruption were problems.
The law provides for the right to a fair trial for all citizens. Under the legal system, which incorporates French legal codes and Shari'a (Islamic law), trials are open to the public, and defendants are presumed innocent. Juries deliberate criminal cases. Defendants have the right to consult an attorney; indigent defendants have the right to have one provided at public expense. Defendants may be present, access government-held evidence, question witnesses, and present witnesses and evidence on their own behalf. There is an appeal process. The formal procedures described in the law were subject to unpredictable, inconsistent, and broad variations in actual practice. Defendants rarely received legal counsel at public expense.
Political Prisoners and Detainees
In August 2010 the government put General Mohamed Amiri Salimou, chief of staff of the Comoran Defense Forces, under house arrest for his possible role in the killing of Colonel Combo Ayouba (see section 1.a.). In April the Court of First Instance acquitted Salimou and all but four of the 30 persons arrested with him of the charge of rebellion without pronouncing on the charge of murder. The four were sentenced to one year in prison; three have been held in solitary confinement. The investigation into the charge of killing Combo continued, and Salimou remained under house arrest, with no date set for his trial by year's end.
Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies
There is an independent but not impartial judiciary for civil matters. Officers of formal courts frequently asked for payment from parties before the court in the course of exercising their functions. Administrative remedies were rarely available, although citizens with influence had access to such alternatives. Court orders were inconsistently enforced.
f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence
The constitution and law prohibit such actions, and the government generally respected these prohibitions in practice.
Section 2. Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:
a. Freedom of Speech and Press
Status of Freedom of Speech and Press
The constitution and law provide for freedom of speech and press.
Freedom of Press: The union government partially limited press freedom by publicly criticizing journalists who wrote controversial articles, and journalists on all three islands practiced self-censorship. According to the Comoran Federation of Human Rights, in March the outgoing administration of President Mohamed Sambi pressured the state-run newspaper Al Watan and the independent newspaper Al Balad to suspend their editor in chief and director, respectively, for articles critical of the long transition period and delays in inaugurating President Ikililou.
There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports the government monitored e-mail or Internet chat rooms. Individuals and groups could engage in the expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail.
Academic Freedom and Cultural Events
There were no government restrictions on academic freedom or cultural events.
b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association
The constitution and law provide for freedom of assembly and association, and the government generally respected these rights in practice.
c. Freedom of Religion
See the Department of State's 2010 International Religious Freedom Report.
d. Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of Refugees, and Stateless Persons
The constitution and law provide for freedom of movement within the country and foreign travel, and the government generally respected these rights in practice. No specific constitutional or legal provisions deal with emigration and repatriation.
The government cooperated with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and other humanitarian organizations in providing protection to internally displaced persons, refugees, returning refugees, asylum seekers, stateless persons, and other persons of concern.
Protection of Refugees
The law does not provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has not established a system for providing protection to refugees. In practice, although very few refugees sought asylum, the government provided protection against the expulsion or return of refugees to countries where their lives or freedom would be threatened on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.
Section 3. Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government
The constitution and law provide citizens the right to change their government peacefully, and citizens exercised this right in practice through periodic, free, and fair elections based on universal suffrage.
Elections and Political Participation
The constitution provides for a rotating union government presidency in which every four years each island takes a turn at holding a primary for three presidential candidates. The constitution thus restricts, by island, those eligible to run for the presidency. However, aside from the rotation principle, anyone is free to run for election.
Recent Elections: In November and December 2010, elections were held to choose a new union government president, as well as governors for each of the three islands. The turn passed to Moheli. From the original 10 candidates (all natives of Moheli), Mohelian voters selected three to run in the national election. Although some observers noted serious irregularities on the island of Anjouan in the national election, these were not sufficient to change the outcome, and the constitutional court upheld the final election results. Former vice president Ikililou Dhoinine became the union president in May.
In December 2009 legislative elections were held for both the union national assembly (parliament) and the three island assemblies. These elections were also considered generally free and fair.
Participation of Women and Minorities: There was one woman in the 33-member National Assembly and three women in the 10-member cabinet. No minorities held National Assembly seats or ministerial posts in the union or island governments.
Section 4. Official Corruption and Government Transparency
The law provides criminal penalties for official corruption. However, the government did not implement the law effectively, and officials often engaged with impunity in corrupt practices, such as taking money for performing routine administrative services or doing favors. Resident diplomatic, UN, and humanitarian agency workers reported petty corruption was commonplace at all levels of the civil service despite the government's anticorruption campaign. Businessmen reported corruption and a lack of transparency, and the World Bank indicators reflected that corruption was a significant problem.
Corruption continued in the security forces. Citizens paid bribes to evade customs regulations, avoid arrest, and have police reports falsified. Some police personnel paid bribes to receive promotions.
The union Ministry of Justice is responsible for combating corruption. However, although public allegations of corruption were routine, the government did not charge, prosecute, or discipline officials.
Officials are subject to financial disclosure laws as of June 21. Presidential decree No. 11-103/PR implementing a 2008 Law on Transparency of Political, Economic, Financial and Social Activities requires all officials at union and island levels to declare their assets prior to entering office. Officials subject to the law submitted written declarations on taking office.
No laws provide for public access to government information. Those who have personal or working relationships with government officials can generally access government information, but members of the general public cannot.
Section 5. Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights
One domestic human rights organization and some international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) generally operated without government restriction, investigating and publishing their findings on human rights cases. Domestic NGOs largely supplanted government ministries in the provision of some functions, especially in health and education. Government officials were generally cooperative and responsive to their views.
The government cooperated with international organizations and permitted visits by representatives of the UN and other organizations. No outside visits were made during the year, but domestic human rights and other nongovernmental organizations used locally based UN personnel as a means of influencing the government. No reports or criticisms were issued.
Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons
Although the law prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, disability, language, or social status, there were reports of discrimination against women and persons with disabilities.
Rape and Domestic Violence: Rape is illegal and punishable by imprisonment of five to 10 years or up to 15 years if the victim is younger than age 15. However, the government did not enforce the laws on rape effectively. The law does not specifically address spousal rape, which occurred. Statistics were scarce, since many of these situations were settled within families or by village elders without recourse to the formal court system. Authorities believed the problem was widespread, as was overall sexual violence. For example, allegations of crimes of sexual aggression accounted for about half of all persons detained.
The law prohibits domestic violence. No reliable data were available on the extent of the problem. The government did not take any concrete action to combat violence against women. While women can seek protection through the courts in such cases, extended family or village elders customarily addressed such problems. Domestic violence cases rarely, if ever, entered the formal court system.
Sexual Harassment: Sexual harassment is illegal and punishable by up to 10 years' imprisonment. Although rarely reported due to societal pressure, such harassment was nevertheless a common problem, and the government did not effectively enforce penalties against it.
Sex Tourism: The Comoros is a source country for men and women subjected to sex trafficking. There are reports that foreign tourists frequented establishments where such trafficking occurred.
Reproductive Rights: Couples and individuals are generally free to choose the number and spacing of their children, and to have the information and means to do so free from discrimination, coercion, and violence. Modern contraceptive use among married women and girls ages 15-49 was approximately 19 percent, according to the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). Existing health resources (including personnel, facilities, equipment, and drugs) were inadequate, making it difficult for the government to respond to the health needs of the population. According to the Population Reference Bureau, approximately 62 percent of births were attended by skilled personnel. The UNFPA estimated maternal mortality in 2008 to be 340 deaths per 100,000 live births. A general lack of adolescent reproductive health information and services led to unwanted pregnancies and increased morbidity and mortality among adolescent girls. These incidents were generally concealed for social and cultural reasons. There are no legal barriers preventing women from receiving treatment for sexually transmitted infections, but many hesitated to do so due to social and cultural concerns.
Discrimination: The law provides for equality of persons, and in general, inheritance and property rights practices do not discriminate against women. The local cultures on Grande Comore and Moheli are traditionally matrilineal, and all inheritable property is the possession of women. This cultural practice leads at times to what might be seen as discrimination against men in the inheritance of homes and land. Men retain the head-of-household role in society. Throughout the country, including on Anjouan, land and homes are usually awarded to women in case of divorce or separation. Societal discrimination against women was most apparent in rural areas where women were mostly limited to farming and child-rearing duties, with fewer opportunities for education and wage employment. In urban areas growing numbers of women were employed and generally earned wages comparable with those of men engaged in similar work; however, few women held positions of responsibility in business. The Ministry of Health, Solidarity, and Gender Promotion is responsible for promoting women's rights.
Birth Registration: Any child having at least one Comoran parent is considered a citizen, regardless of where the birth takes place. Any child born in the country is considered a citizen unless both parents are foreigners, although these children can apply for citizenship if they have lived in the country for at least five years at the time of their application. An estimated 15 percent of children were not officially registered at birth, although many of these situations were regularized subsequently. No public services were withheld from children who were not officially registered.
Education: Universal education is compulsory until the age of 12, but not tuition-free. The public education system was in severe disrepair; private schools, including madrassas, took up some of the slack. When families paid private school tuition, boys generally were more likely to attend schools than girls.
Child Abuse: The government did not take specific action to protect or promote children's welfare and did not enforce legal provisions that address the rights and welfare of children. Although there were no official statistics on child abuse, it was common and often occurred when impoverished families sent their children to work for wealthier families. The practice was most prevalent on Anjouan, where children were sent to the French department of Mayotte, where the population is ethnically related to that of Anjouan. There were also scattered reports of teachers raping students in some schools. Traditional societal networks rather than formal law enforcement investigations generally handled these cases.
Sexual Exploitation of Children: Child prostitution and child pornography are illegal. The law considers unmarried children under age 18 to be minors, and they are protected legally from sexual exploitation, prostitution, and pornography. The age of consent is 13. Anyone convicted of luring a child into prostitution is subject to a prison term of two to five years and a fine of 150,000 to one million Comoran francs ($417 to $2,778). There were no official statistics regarding these matters. There was evidence that children sent to work within the country or to Mayotte by family members, or enrolled in madrassas were sometimes subject to sexual abuse. The country was a source for children subjected to sex trafficking. Girls were exploited in prostitution on all three islands in rented houses, nightclubs, and hotels, often with the knowledge of their families or after being coerced by other young girls. There were reports that foreign tourists frequented these establishments.
International Child Abductions: The country is not a party to the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction.
There was no known Jewish population, and there were no reports of anti-Semitic acts.
Trafficking in Persons
For information on trafficking in persons, see the Department of State's 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report.
Persons with Disabilities
The constitution and laws do not mandate access to buildings, information, and communication for persons with disabilities.
Handicap Comores, the country's nongovernmental center for persons with disabilities on Grande Comore, was run by a local NGO called Shiwe, or "Pillar." The center imported wheelchairs and prostheses.
There is no restriction on the right of persons with disabilities to participate in civic affairs.
Societal Abuses, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
Consensual same-sex sexual activity is illegal and can be punished by up to five years' imprisonment and a fine of 50,000 to one million Comoran francs ($139 to $2,778). During the year, however, no case of this nature came before the courts. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons generally did not publicly discuss their sexual orientation, due to societal pressure. There were no LGBT organizations.
Other Societal Violence or Discrimination
There were no reports of societal violence or discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS.
Section 7. Worker Rights
a. Freedom of Association and the Right to Collective Bargaining
The law allows workers to form and join independent unions of their choice without previous authorization or excessive requirements. It provides for the right to strike, requiring an eight-day notification period and specification of the reason for and duration of the strike. The law includes a system for resolving labor disputes. Unions have the right to bargain collectively. The government, especially the ministries of finance and labor, sets wages in the large public sector, and imposes a minimum wage in the small private sector. The law allows unions to conduct their activities without government interference. The law does not prohibit antiunion discrimination by employers in hiring practices or other employment functions. There are no laws protecting strikers from retribution.
The law was not applied in the settlement of private-sector disputes, but was invoked unpredictably and inconsistently in labor disputes in the public sector. Worker organizations were independent of the government and political parties.
Workers exercised these rights in practice. There were no reports of instances of retribution against strikers. Common problems included failure to pay salaries regularly or on time, mostly in the government sector, and unfair and abusive dismissal practices such as firing employees without giving proper notice or paying the required severance pay. There were no incidents of antiunion discrimination during the year.
b. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor
The law prohibits forced or compulsory labor by adults with certain exceptions for obligatory military service, community service, and during accidents, fires, and disasters. The union government's civil protection unit may oblige persons to respond to disasters if it is unable to obtain sufficient voluntary assistance. There are no specific prohibitions against forced or compulsory child labor. The law was not applied during the year.
Forced child labor occurred in practice, particularly in agriculture (planting, weeding, harvesting), fishing, informal retail (selling goods on the street), and domestic service.
Also see the Department of State's 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report.
c. Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment
Laws exist to protect children from exploitation in the workplace. The law establishes 15 as the minimum age for employment.
The government did not enforce such laws. The Ministry of Labor is responsible for enforcing child labor laws, but it did not actively or effectively do so. There were three labor inspectors (one for each island). These inspectors were responsible for all potential violations of labor law and did not focus only on child labor cases.
Children worked in subsistence farming, fishing, in the informal sector selling goods along roadsides, and extracting and selling marine sand. Children worked on food crops such as manioc and beans, and also on cash crops such as vanilla, cloves, and ylang-ylang (a flower used to make perfume). Some children worked under forced labor conditions, particularly in domestic service, roadside and market selling, and agriculture. In addition, some Qur'anic schools arranged for indigent students to receive lessons in exchange for labor, which sometimes was forced. Some families placed their children in the homes of wealthier families where they worked in exchange for food, shelter, or educational opportunities. Many children were not paid for their work.
Also see the Department of Labor's 2010 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor.
d. Acceptable Conditions of Work
The official estimate for the poverty income level is 250,000 Comoran francs ($700) per year.
Although the union government and local governments did not enforce the minimum wage law and workweek standards, unions had adequate influence to negotiate de facto minimum wage rates for different skill levels for unionized jobs. These provisions applied to all workers, regardless of sector or country of origin. In practice unions promoted this de facto minimum wage via their ability to strike against employers.
Some employers, particularly the government, were consistently remiss in paying salaries. Despite some strikes and other protests, the union government was unable regularly to pay government employees – including low-level officials, teachers, and medical workers – with arrears building up over years; most public sector employees did not receive more than one third of their expected pay in any given year.
No safety or health standards exist for worksites.