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Pakistan: Information on the government's treatment of Pathans, Pathan political parties and advocates of an independent Pathan state

Publisher Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Author Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada
Publication Date 1 December 1994
Citation / Document Symbol PAK19280.E
Cite as Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Pakistan: Information on the government's treatment of Pathans, Pathan political parties and advocates of an independent Pathan state, 1 December 1994, PAK19280.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6ac3e54.html [accessed 21 September 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

 

Comprehensive information on the above-mentioned subject could not be found among the sources currently available to the DIRB in Ottawa.

The Pathans, known also as Pashtuns, Pahstouns, Pakhtuns, Afghans comprise the principal tribes inhabiting areas along Pakistan's borders (Reuters 5 Nov. 1994; World Directory of Minorities 1991, 310). Pathans are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school and are the second largest ethnic community in Pakistan (ibid.). Described as "steeped in the customs of Islam," and resistant to change, the Pathans have long been permitted a large degree of self-government by the Pakistani authorities (Reuters 5 Nov. 1994; Revolutionary and Dissident Movements 1988, 265; World Directory of Minorities 1991, 311). Many tribesmen reportedly support "the standard of resurgent Islam." (Reuters 5 Nov. 1994).

In November 1994, fights between government troops and Muslim militants in Pakistan's northern border areas were reported (ibid.). However, this Reuters report does not specifically identify as Pathens the militants involved in these fights.

In 1991, Country Reports 1991 reports police intervention in clashes between Pathans and Baluchis (1992, 1556). This source states that "police on occasion used excessive force dealing with these incidents, but there was no evidence of intentional killings by the police." (ibid.).

For information on the "cultural identity" of the Pathans, please consult the attached 1987 report by the International Commission of Jurist (ICJ) (116).

Further information on the current treatment of the Pathans by the government could not be found among sources currently available to the DIRB. However, for general information, including clashes among Pathan tribes and between Pathan and other tribes, please refer to the attachments.

This response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the DIRB within time constraints. This response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find attached the list of sources consulted in researching this information request.

References

Commission of International Jurists (ICJ). 1987. Pakistan: Human Rights Martial Law. Geneva: ICJ.

Reuters. 5 November 1994. "Nine Killed as Pakistan Fight Islamic Militants." (NEXIS)

Revolutionary and Dissidents Movements: An international Guide. 1988. Edited by Henry W. Degenhardt. Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Ltd.

World Directory of Minorities . 1991. Edited by the Minority Rights Group. Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Ltd.

Attachments

Agence France Presse (AFP). 17 September 1992. "Fifty Killed, 70 Injured in Tribal Clashes in Pakistan." (NEXIS)

Commission of International Jurists (ICJ). 1987. Pakistan: Human Rights Martial Law. Geneva: ICJ, pp. 116-18.

Documentation-Réfugiés [Paris]. 27 February-8 March 1991. No. 129. "Supplement: le Pakistan," p. 11.

Human Rights in Developping Countries Yearbook 1994. 1994. Edited by Peter Baehr et al. Oslo: Nordic Human Rights Publications, pp. 306-307.

Inter Press Service (IPS). 20 May 1993. Mushahid Hussain. "Pakistan: Ishaq Khan's Political Star is on the Wane." (NEXIS)

Los Angeles Times. 16 May 1993. Michael Shuttleworth. "Gun-Toting Poppy Framers Face Anti-Drug Warriors; Pakistan: Tribesmen Vow to Fights to the Finish if the Nations' Holy War Against Narcotics' Reaches into Theie Far Mountains." (NEXIS)

Reuters. 5 November 1994. "Nine Killed as Pakistan Fight Islamic Militants." (NEXIS)

Revolutionary and Dissidents Movements: An international Guide. 1988. Edited by Henry W. Degenhardt. Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Ltd., p. 265.

World Directory of Minorities . 1991. Edited by the Minority Rights Group. Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Ltd., pp. 310-12.

Other Sources Consulted

Oral Sources.

Copyright notice: This document is published with the permission of the copyright holder and producer Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB). The original version of this document may be found on the offical website of the IRB at http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/. Documents earlier than 2003 may be found only on Refworld.

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