Last Updated: Tuesday, 02 September 2014, 13:12 GMT

Chronology for Acholi in Uganda

Publisher Minorities at Risk Project
Publication Date 2004
Cite as Minorities at Risk Project, Chronology for Acholi in Uganda, 2004, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/469f38ea1e.html [accessed 2 September 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.
Date(s) Item
1844 A trading route had been opened up as far as Buganda.
1851 - 1860 Arab traders are barred from Buganda.
1861 The first European reached Acholi country.
1862 J.H. Speke crossed Acholi country and entered Buganda.
1870 Traders operating from the Nile led severe raids on the Acholi and Lango in the north. The Lango expanded their territory driving the Iteso to the northwest.
1876 Christian missionaries are introduced to the Baganda people.
1881 - 1890 Baganda convert to both Islam and Christianity. Buganda and Bunyoro were continuously at war.
1890 Lugard signed a treaty with the Baganda on behalf of the Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEA) and became the first administrator in Buganda.
1894 British protection over Buganda was secured and Busogo and Toro were incorporated. The IBEA surrendered its charter to the British crown.
1895 East Africa Protectorate was proclaimed. Bunyoro was incorporated the following year.
1897 Ankole was incorporated by the British. The British put down a rebellion by the Buganda chief.
1900 The Uganda Agreement was drawn up giving the Buganda more internal autonomy than was granted to the rest of the country which led to much dissension during the rest of British rule.
1904 African undertake cultivation of cotton.
1908 Buganda Land Law was passed providing a sound legal basis for freehold tenure in Buganda.
1914 The Western Nile is given to the British by Sudan in exchange for some border adjustments.
1919 The Native Authority Ordinance defined the powers of the chiefs and the Courts Ordinance defined the powers of the native courts.
1922 Under the Crown Lands Declaration Ordinance, most land in Uganda became British land.
1945 Serious political disturbances in Buganda.
1949 Civil disturbance broke out in April and September. Baganda rioters wanted the right to bypass government price controls on cotton exports, the removal of the Asian monopoly on cotton ginning, the right to have their own representatives in local government replace chiefs appointed by the British.
1952 The Uganda National Congress is founded as the first modern African political party. The British begin preparing Uganda for independence.
1953 The Baganda leaders demanded a timetable for the independence of Buganda from the rest of the country. In November, the Baganda king was deported to Britain and a state of emergency was declared.
1954 The government and Baganda leaders hold talks on the constitutional relationship between the kingdom and the government. The king returned as a constitutional ruler the following year. The Buganda Agreement gave the kingdom internal self-government.
1956 The Democratic Party (DP) was founded. It was mainly composed of Roman Catholic Bagandans. Non-Bagandans began to worry about domination by the Baganda king, so they formed a new party, the Uganda People's Congress (UPC). It was led by Milton Obote, a Langi.
1961 The British announced that an election would be held in March. Bagandan leaders urged a boycott of the election because their bid for total independence had been rebuffed by the British. As a result, the DP won 20 of the 21 seats allotted to Buganda. The UPC and Bagandan nationalists (Kabaka Yekka (KY)) were afraid the DP would entrench themselves in the independent state, so they joined together in a loose coalition. This preferential status of the Baganda kingdom eventually led to demands from other kingdoms for formal recognition.
Apr 1962 The new UPC-KY coalition won the majority of seats in the April elections. Obote became prime minister and the Baganda king, head of state.
Oct 9, 1962 Uganda became independent.
Jan 1964 The military mutinied, demanding higher wages and quicker promotions. Obote was forced to call in the British to restore order. From this time on, the military began to assume a more prominent role in the government. Obote selected Idi Amin as his personal protege and rapidly promoted him.
1964 The UPC freed itself of the KY after an alliance is formed with the DP. The UPC agreed to restore lost Bunyoro territory in exchange for the alliance. This threw the Baganda kingdom into disarray. Obote continued to strengthen the central government.
Feb 4, 1966 A no confidence vote against Obote was passed by UPC members of parliament while Obote was in the north. Obote turned to Amin and essentially threw out his own government. He suspended the constitution and arrested the UPC MPs. The Baganda leaders objected to Obote's move and demanded his illegal government remove itself from Buganda soil. Obote responded by sending in Amin and the army.
1967 A new constitution abolished the five kingdoms of Uganda. Buganda was divided into four districts and ruled under martial law.
1969 Obote escaped an assassination attempt. He began to wonder how far he could trust his army.
1970 Another attempt was made on Obote's life. He began recruiting more Acholi and Langi to the military to counter the larger numbers of troops from Amin's home district (West Nile).
Jan 25, 1971 Amin carried out a coup against Obote while he was away. Amin then massacred Acholi and Langi troops he suspected were loyal to Obote. His government was more riddled by rivalries, regional divisions, and ethnic politics than was Obote's. He relied on the military, mainly Nubians and Anya Nya rebels from southern Sudan, to remain in power.
Sep 1972 Amin expelled most of Uganda's 50,000 Asians and seized their property. Throughout the 1970s, Amin's government was characterized by religious conflicts, an obsession with Obote's potential to bring about a coup d'etat, and terror as a means of controlling the population. Approximately 300,000 were killed under Amin.
Nov 1978 Amin invaded Tanzanian territory. The Tanzanian president, joined by exiled Ugandan rebels, counter-attacked. The rebels eventually took Kampala in April 1979, and Amin fled. Following the defeat of Amin, individual leaders in Uganda began amassing private armies. An interim government was established, but there was much fighting between factions.
May 10, 1980 A coup was engineered under the direction of Obote's right-hand man, Paulo Muwanga. Obote returned from exile. Elections were scheduled for December.
1981 - 1985 Museveni's rebels continued to fight the government. Both sides committed atrocities, and more people were killed, perhaps 500,000, than during the eight years of Amin's rule. Acholi soldiers, having survived Amin's genocidal purges in the north, avenged themselves on the inhabitants of Amin's home region (West Nile). Obote forcibly removed 750,000 people in 1983 in an effort to eliminate rural support for Museveni. Abductions by police and disappearances were frequent.
Feb 1981 After winning elections, widely thought to be rigged, in December, Obote once again took office. Yoweri Museveni and his armed supporters declared themselves the National Resistence Army (NRA). The "war of the bush" began with Museveni vowing to overthrow Obote. Museveni's support base was in the western regions of Ankole and Bunyoro and in central and west Buganda.
Jul 1985 Acholi commander Basilio Olara Okello mobilized his troops and led a coup against Obote who fled to Zambia. Obote's military had begun to split along ethnic lines in 1983 with Acholi complaining they were given too much front line duty and too few rewards.
Jul 1, 1985 - Jan 31, 1986 Okello ruled with no coherent policy except self-preservation and continued to fight Museveni's troops.
Jan 1986 Museveni gained Kampala and took over the country. Okello and his troops fled to their ethnic base in the north. His victory gave a predominantly southern cast to both the political and military institutions for the first time since the protectorate was founded. He faced increasing division between the north and south and tension between his NRM (National Resistence Movement) government and other political parties.
Mar 1, 1986 - Dec 31, 1997 The government faced renewed civil war when rebel groups in both the north and the east began fighting. Northerners had feared they would be punished for their years of dominance, so they took to arms. Other political parties were allowed to maintain their headquarters and to issue statements, but they were not allowed to hold rallies or campaign on behalf of candidates. Museveni promoted a broad-based government which kept an uneasy peace with the other parties. The DP was especially awarded important government positions.
1987 Joseph Kony began fighting Museveni's government, first under the Holy Spirit Movement, then the Uganda Democratic Christian Army (UDCA), then under the Lord's Resistence Army (LRA). All three groups are off-shoots of Alice Lakewena's fanatical Christian movement. She led an army against the government in 1987, but it was quickly defeated. Kony, her cousin, then took over the movement after he had had a falling out with the Catholic Church. These rebels are radical Christians who want to rule the country according to their version of the ten commandments. They wage their war in the North, and though not a real threat to the state, they are known for terrorizing their fellow Acholi, especially through kidnapping, killing and maiming.
Feb 1990 Okello died. He had formed the UPDM in exile which waged sporadic war close to the Sudanese border.
Mar 15 - Jun 15, 1990 Followers of the Holy Spirit Movement, a religious cult led by Alice Lakwena which was defeated by the government in 1987, attack villagers in the north, killing some. The government immediately launches a campaign against them.
Sep 15 - Dec 15, 1990 A peace accord is signed between the government and UPDM. UPDM leader Eric Otema Allimadi vowed to stop the war and return peace to Acholi.
Jul 1991 Government troops reportedly kill 1500 UDCA members. Over a thousand more are arrested.
Mar 1992 Three thousand UDCA rebels have surrendered to the government after it promised to grant amnesty to any who gave up fighting.
Jan 1994 Secret talks between the government and UDCA rebels which began in December collapsed. Kony had renounced war in late 1993, and peace had looked imminent.
Feb 12, 1994 Kony and his rebels resume their fight after Museveni gave them an ultimatum to come out of the bush within seven days.
Apr 1994 Elections are held. Acholi in the north, most of whom are Catholic, vote for the UPC or DP parties.
Apr 1995 Uganda severs relations with Sudan over Sudan's support for Kony's movement. Now the LRA, the movement is known for kidnapping Acholi youth and taking them to Sudan where they are trained as soldiers. Females become the "wives" of commanders. Thousands, of children have been captured and hundreds have escaped over the past several years of fighting between Kony and the government. The LRA is composed mainly of Acholi, but the Acholi community as a whole does not support them. Kony's army is thought to number between 1000-2000. Throughout 1995, there have been reports monthly about killings, kidnappings, and other crimes, including selling children into slavery in Sudan, perpetrated by the rebels.
Apr 17, 1995 Rebels attacked two villages the week of April 17th killing more than 80 civilians. Some 120 LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) rebels crossed the Sudanese border and attacked Atiak killing the men and burning down homes.
Apr 23, 1995 Foreign Minister Ruhakana Rugunda said that the Ugandan government broke off diplomatic relations with Sudan over Sudan's support of LRA and WNBF (West Nile Bank Front) rebels. Sudan has reportedly given arms and training and provided bases within southern Sudan to the LRA operating in northern Uganda and the WNBF operating in extreme northwest Uganda. Sudan denies aiding the rebels and in turn accuses the Ugandan government of supporting the SPLA rebel movement in southern Sudan. Fourteen Sudanese diplomats were ordered to leave Kampala.
Apr 28, 1995 Minister of State for Defense Amama Mbabazi said preparations were being made to close the frontier with Sudan in order to block Khartoum from arming LRA rebels. The opposition in Uganda has charged that the southern dominated government has not done enough to protect northern civilians from attacks by the LRA.
May 1, 1995 The Ugandan military lost 28 men and the LRA 14 in a night time clash at the military post of Alero north of Gulu. Another attack on 25 April on Olwal village left nine soldiers and six rebels dead. At least 170 civilians were killed in attacks on villages the week of 17 April and 218 total have died in recent weeks in the rebellion.
May 29, 1995 Alice Lakwena, former leader of the Holy Spirit Movement, the precursor to the Lord's Resistance Army, said she wants to return from exile in Kenya. She fled to Kenya in 1987 after being roundly defeated by Museveni's army. For her first six years, she was under house arrest in Kenya for fear of an assassination against her. In December 1993 she was sent to Thika refugee camp. As many as 5000 of her followers were killed during her "Holy Spirit" war.
Jun 4, 1995 Hundreds of villagers who survived rebel attacks on Atiak in April are living without shelter because they are afraid rebuilding their homes will bring back the rebels. The LRA herded the entire village into the woods and ordered men to lie down. As many as 250 men were killed and most of the houses were razed. The 200 LRA rebels ran away when a government helicopter approached the village.
Jun 11, 1995 Uganda and Sudan agreed to reestablish relations after peace talks between their two leaders in Malawi.
Aug 20, 1995 Thousands of people have fled their villages near the Sudan-Uganda border in the northwest after attacks by a new rebel group, the West Nile Bank Front (WNBF). It is led by Juma Oris, a former colonel from Idi Amin's army. It was established in 1993 but did not become active in Uganda until recently. Another new rebel group, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), began operating near Luwero in January. They have not appeared to be very active since.
Oct 30, 1995 Sudan accused Uganda of launching a cross-border raid and fighting along side SPLA rebels. The SPLA pushed Sudanese forces 80km north from Parajok. During October, the SPLA also overran LRA camps in southern Sudan pushing the group back from the border towards the Sudanese town of Juba. The Ugandan government thought the SPLA offensive had defeated the rebels, who suffered heavy losses. Nothing was heard from the LRA until they resurfaced in February 1996.
Nov 5, 1995 Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Owiny Dollo said three northern leaders were expected to try to meet with Joseph Kony, LRA leader, in the hopes of discussing an end to the conflict. Apparently nothing came of the attempted discussion because fighting has continued in northern Uganda. Uganda asked the SPLA to hand over hundreds of Ugandan dissidents captured by the SPLA in the past two weeks. The SPLA and Ugandan government have accused the LRA of fighting along side Sudanese forces in exchange for arms and the use of Sudanese territory for LRA bases.
Jan 15, 1996 Seventeen LRA abductees surrendered to the Ugandan government. Two hundred seventy others have surrendered since October 1995 and have been undergoing trauma counseling through the auspices of World Vision. Up to 12,000 homeguards have been trained in Acholi since the people in the area took up arms against the LRA in early 1995.
Jan 24, 1996 A referendum in 2000 will decide if Uganda will allow multi-party politics. Museveni prefers a no-party state where candidates for political office are not affiliated with any particular party. He claims multi-party politics will plunge the country into ethnic and regional conflict. The opposition is in favor of a political system of multiple parties.
Feb 1996 The Lord's Resistance Army resurfaced and once again was on the offensive. This included an LRA attack on Purongo, Gulu District, in which rebels razed 100 houses, killed 12 and abducted others. The rebels were reported to be heavily armed. One reason Kony was thought to have gone on the offensive was to resupply his troops with kidnapped villagers. A steady stream of escapees from the LRA continued to turn up at Gulu barracks.
Feb 28, 1996 An LRA ambush on a military patrol at Kulu Otit, 30 kms south of Gulu, left 22 soldiers and four civilians dead. The Ugandan army said about 500 LRA rebels had moved into Uganda from southern Sudan in mid-February and were being pursued by government troops as they moved south.
Mar 6, 1996 Ugandan government troops captured six rebels and ammunition from the LRA outside Gulu.
Mar 11, 1996 Up to 130 people were killed in an LRA attack on a convoy in the north. About 200 rebels attacked the convoy which was accompanied by 20 government soldiers. All 20 soldiers were killed and most of the civilians killed were burned alive in the buses they were traveling in. Fifty-two people were kidnaped in the assault. On 8 March, the LRA killed 28 villagers and during the week of March 4, 88 people were killed in clashes between LRA rebels and government troops.
Mar 18, 1996 LRA rebels attacked two villages near Gulu killing two and capturing 58. The LRA is estimated to have 2000 troops, most of whom are civilians from villages attacked by the LRA. Villagers, mostly young men and women, have been forced to fight for the LRA in both Uganda against the government and in Sudan against the SPLA.
Mar 31, 1996 The LRA attacked two trucks on the road to Kitgum, killing 15 people. They also shelled the military barracks at Gulu. No one was killed at the barracks, but the LRA later attacked a nearby village and burned more than 90 homes.
May 1996 In their second major offensive of the year, two thousand WNBF rebels attempted to invade Uganda. They were quickly repelled by government troops.
Jun 1, 1996 General Salim Saleh, half-brother of President Museveni, was appointed special military advisor to the president. His tasks include reassuring the Acholi that they have nothing to fear from the government, finding a way to end the civil conflict in the north, and resolving the discontent within the UPDF (Uganda People's Defense Force). There is growing resentment in the UPDF amongst troops from east-central Uganda that they are disproportionately sent to the front lines while Ankole troops, from the tribe of Museveni, are never sent to the front.
Jun 8, 1996 As more and more Ugandans press for a peaceful resolution to the rebellion in the north, Museveni rebuffed an LRA request for peace talks. The large vote against Museveni by the Acholi in recent elections was attributed to his lack of success in ending the war. In the last three months, the LRA has killed more than 300 people in raids. Military officials have said local support for the LRA in parts of the north and low morale amongst government soldiers have hampered efforts to end the rebellion.
Jun 26, 1996 The ICRC has suspended operations in northern Uganda following an attack on the Koboka refugee camp, killing 10, including one ICRC worker. The WNBF is suspected of perpetrating the attack. Most of the 35,000 refugees in the camp have fled.
Jul 22, 1996 A former bodyguard of LRA leader Joseph Kony has said the LRA planned to abduct 10,000 Ugandans to take back to their camps in Sudan for military training. The bodyguard, Berson Ojera, was abducted by rebels in August 1995 and escaped 15 July 1996. He also said the bulk of LRA forces consists of abducted villagers and that the LRA fights the SPLA in southern Sudan in exchange for arms. There are an estimated 1200-2000 LRA rebels. Lt.Col. Otti Lagoni directs LRA operations inside Uganda and its leader Joseph Kony stays mainly in southern Sudan.
Aug 2, 1996 LRA rebels have killed more than 500 people, including 400 civilians in Gulu and 115 Sudanese refugees in Acholi Pii camp, in raids since February when they went on the offensive after heavy defeats by the SPLA in October 1995. In its biggest defeat in several years, forty UPDF soldiers were killed in recent fighting between the army and rebels.
Aug 5, 1996 At least 29 WNBF rebels surrendered their fight saying they are disillusioned with the movement. The rebels went on the offensive in May, but were repelled by the government. Rebels then began surrendering to the government in July taking advantage of a general government amnesty. Approximately 100 total rebels have surrendered since July. They said support promised by Sudan had never come and since May, a large number of rebels in Zaire were refusing to return to their base camp in Kaia Two, Sudan.
Aug 12, 1996 The government has been engaged in Operation Clean, a push against northern rebel groups, for about six months. Some 400 civilians have been killed in the past four months in Gulu alone, and observers are worried the government may be alienating locals caught in the crossfire. Members of the WNBF have been turning themselves in to the government, but the LRA has been more resistant to the government's offensive. Museveni's government is perceived by northerners to be dominated by southerners, so some outside observers believe Museveni must do more to protect and appease northern civilians who might otherwise become sympathetic to the rebels' cause.
Aug 18, 1996 An angry crowd in northern Uganda stoned to death four LRA rebels who had been held captive by government soldiers. Soldiers could not stop the crowd of about 300 from taking the rebels and stoning them.
Sep 6, 1996 LRA rebels killed 10 civilians in a raid on two northern villages. They also abducted 11 people and burnt more than 50 huts. Forty people have been killed in the past week by the LRA. An estimated 15,000 UPDF troops patrol the north.
Sep 23, 1996 Uganda said Sudanese warplanes dropped bombs on a garrison in the town of Moyo, 20 km south of the border. The Sudanese air force has bombed Uganda over the past several years in an attempt to destroy SPLA base camps.
Nov 20, 1996 In the past two years, more the 3000 children are estimated to have been kidnaped by LRA rebels and forced to join the rebellion against the Ugandan government. The abductions have increased in recent months.
Dec 1996 Ugandan President Museveni threatened to launch raids against Sudan to attack LRA bases. Uganda denied that it had been in Sudanese territory but threatened to move in unless Sudan stopped giving support to the LRA. Sudan also said it would invade Uganda in return. Brigadier Jim Muhwezi, director-general of Uganda's Internal Security Organizaiton, said the situation in the North was calm because the LRA was in dissarray following their defeat by SPLA fighters. There have been occasional reports in the past of the defeat of the LRA, but they have always managed to regroup and continue their activities.
Dec 5, 1996 Museveni said his troops have killed about 280 Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) Muslim rebels in November-December in western Uganda. He plays down the skirmishes in the west and prefers to concentrate on the fighting in the north. He continues to prefer a military solution despite pressures from Acholi elders and others to negotiate peace. The ADF became active in November 1996. Museveni has moved his headquarters from Kampala to Gulu to personally oversee the campaign against the LRA.
Jan 31, 1997 The United Nations World Food Program estimated that 60,000 people were gathered in Gulu and they were without shelter or food. The UN asked the Ugandan government to ensure security for food delivery convoys and relief staff trying to help the refugees. Sudanese refugees in Uganda and Zaire are being forced to flee fighting in these states and return to Sudan. Both the LRA and WNBF have often attacked refugee camps in Uganda. There are estimated to be 200,000 Sudanese refugees in Uganda. Conflict between the government and LRA rebels has intensified in recent weeks.
Apr 1997 The Acholi diaspora held a conference in London on 4-5 April. The conference was seen as reflecting the weariness of the Acholi after years on conflict in their region. Museveni continues to refuse negotiations with the rebels and in March and April, the UPDF scored major victories over both the LRA and WNBF. The government gained Kaya, defeated the WNBF between Kaya and Yei, attacked LRA camps at Tolukuma near Kit, and destroyed the LRA rear base at the Yei-Juba road junction with Mundi road. Two hundred rebels were reportedly captured in the government offensives. While in London, Acholi legislators held talks with LRA rebels in a bid to end the conflict in Uganda. The parliamentarians were pleased with the talks and rebels said they hoped to soon end the conflict peacefully.
May 11, 1997 Uganda and Sudan agreed to release all those held captive in border clashes. In April, Uganda reported it had killed 60 Sudanese soldiers and captured more than 100 just inside Uganda as it beat back a joint LRA-Sudanese force. Uganda denied sending its troops inside Sudan to fight along side the SPLA.
Feb 1998 LRA leader Kony and about 200 fighters entered Kitgum from southern Sudan. They went on a rampage looting villages and kidnapping youth. In 10+ years of war, the LRA is believed to have caused up to 300,000 Acholi victims.
Jun 1998 The LRA war in Uganda continues. UNICEF has estimated that as many as 10,000 children have been abducted and forcibly conscripted into rebel ranks. Rebels are thought to have the support of less than 10% of the Acholi population. The majority of Acholi are also opposed to Museveni, largely because they believe his government has neither the will nor ability to stop the LRA.
Jul 18, 1998 Acholi delegates accused UPDF commanders of turning the war in the north into a business. (Africa News Services Inc)
Jul 21, 1998 The Acholi have been urged to live in peace by bringing an end to all the clashes that have claimed many lives. Dr. Mawson of a Ugandan-based human rights organization said that the only way Uganda can have peace and stop the violence is to move beyond the past, looking at the country's history with the aim of building a future rather than justifying one position or another in the present. (Africa News Services Inc)
Jul 22, 1998 Responding to the journalists' questions on the political and security situations in Uganda, president Yoweri Museveni said that there would be no government cease-fire until the rebels are completely wiped out or they cease their criminal activities against the people of Uganda. With regard to the situation in Acholiland in particular, he affirmed his government's commitment to eradicating all criminal banditry activities without making any reference to peace or an end to the conflict. ( BBC World wide Monitoring)
Jul 22, 1998 Acholi from Uganda and the diaspora met in London and called for the government and the rebel Lord's Resistance Army to declare an immediate cease-fire in the north. The Kacoke Madit (Big Meeting) also called for what they referred to as an "acceptable third party" to facilitate the cease-fire. (Africa News Services Inc)
Jul 22, 1998 President Yoweri Museveni said he can only accept a cease-fire against the Kony rebels if they confine themselves to their base in Sudan or in a camp at any place agreed upon. Museveni, addressing a press conference at the State House, also vowed to deal ruthlessly with the terrorists behind recent bomb attacks in Kampala. He said some of the suspects have been arrested and others are in London and Pakistan. (Africa News Services Inc)
Jul 26, 1998 Exiled former president Dr. Apollo Milton Obote told the Acholi community to avoid turning the insurgency that has dogged the northern region for over eleven years into a strictly Acholi affair. He strongly emphasized that the war in Northern Uganda or anywhere in the country is a national affair and the whole of Uganda must be involved in bringing the insurgency to an end. (Africa News Services Inc)
Aug 3, 1998 Tribalism has resurfaced in Ugandan life and politics as many people move to smaller communities to be closer to and provide solidarity with their tribes and kinsmen. ( Africa News Services Inc)
Sep 28, 1998 Hardly a day passes in Uganda without casualties of the rebel insurgencies in the northern and western regions. This protracted war with the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) has led to the death of thousands of civilians, government soldiers and the displacement of an unspecified number of people. Rebel activities in northern Uganda have gained the reputation for their brutality. The ongoing conflict has led to the abduction of at least 3,000 children by Kony rebels, unknown numbers of rapes of women and girls, burned villages, ambushed vehicles, the use of young Acholi boys as shields for the rebels, and the destruction and looting of property in Gulu, Kitgum and Lira. On his part, President Museveni has refused to participate in peace talks with the rebels. This hard line stance has been condemned by Acholi leaders, church authorities and many people in the public who believe that since military action against the rebels has failed to resolve the conflict, other means should be attempted. (Africa News Services Inc)
Oct 1, 1998 Rebel leader Joseph Kony was injured and in critical condition in Juba, the Minister of State for Security, Mr. Muruli Mukasa, has said. He said Kony's biggest camps at al-Gabelain, about 38 miles south of Juba, the largest southern Sudanese city, were destroyed. The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) a week ago captured al-Gabelain, Liria and other small garrisons from the Sudanese army. About 40 Kony rebels were said to have been killed in al-Gabelain. (Africa News Services Inc)
Oct 29, 1998 Acholi have called upon the government to pass a blanket amnesty law which would forgive all the rebels fighting against it. The amnesty would include even the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) commanders like Joseph Kony, Otti Lagony and Otti Vincent -- if they abandoned the rebellion. The call was echoed during consultation meetings with minister of Internal Affairs, Major Tom Butime; Minister of State for Primary Health, Mrs Betty Aketch Okullu, and Minister of State for Antiquities, Mr. Yafesi Omara Otim.(Africa News Services Inc)
Nov 9, 1998 Anglican bishops from war-torn northern Uganda launched a three year campaign for Peace, Reconciliation and Human Rights throughout the country aimed at removing past inter-tribal animosity. In an open air rally officially launching the campaign, the Bishop of Lango diocese, the Rt. Rev. Melchisedek Otim, expressed his apologies for the role his tribesmen played in dethroning the Kabaka (King) of the Buganda Kingdom. (Africa News Services Inc)
Mar 19, 1999 The Lord's Resistance Army chief Joseph Kony has been compared to a latter day "Mad Max" in a study by two Belgian academics in the Oxford- based journal African Affairs. The study by Professors Ruddy Doom and Koen Vlassenroot also says that there is method in the apparent madness of the LRA chief's operations. (Africa News Services Inc)
Mar 20, 1999 The Cabinet in a recent meeting resolved that the Government should grant amnesty to all fighting rebel groups, including their leaders, the minister in-charge of northern reconstruction has said. Speaking at the last funeral rites of James Oryem Canogura at Pajule Trading Centre, Pajule sub-county, Kitgum district, Alphonse Owiny-Dollo said rebel leaders like Joseph Kony and Otti Lagony would be eligible for amnesty. "The Cabinet has accepted that the Government will grant total amnesty to all rebels and soon the Amnesty Bill will be tabled before Parliament for discussion. If passed into law, even those rebels who killed more than 1,000 people will benefit from it," Owiny Dollo said. (Africa News Services Inc)
May 8, 1999 The Acholi Parliamentary Group (AGP) yesterday reacted with anger at the transportation of 22 people from Gulu to Kampala by the controversy-prone presidential adviser on Political Affairs, Maj. Kakooza Mutale. A press release signed by APG's vice chairman, Okello-Okello (MP Chwa) said the MPs expressed "great concern at the manner in which 20 members of the extended family of Justin Kidega from Pamin-Luwek village, Angaya parish, Paicho division, Aswa county in Gulu were dubiously transported to Kampala and are now being paraded as fugitives". ( Africa News Services Inc)
May 10, 1999 The UPDF brigade commander, Brig. Katumba Wamala, Saturday stopped controversial presidential adviser Maj Kakooza Mutale from using Radio Freedom in Gulu town to address the local people. There were massive demonstrations against Mutale as Museveni arrived in Gulu. At least 8,000 Gulu residents yesterday jammed Gulu streets, demonstrating against Kakooza Mutale following his allegations that Gulu and Kitgum LC5 chairmen are Kony rebel collaborators. The Police kept monitoring the demonstration but did not stop it. Several demonstrators carried placards reading "Museveni we do not want Kakooza Mutale; We want peace; Kakooza is a wrong element; We are tired of the war, leave Ochola to talk to Kony; We have been killed enough; Enough is enough; Museveni help us; Kakooza is misleading and confusing Acholi and Kakooza, take your madness back to Kampala; leave Acholi alone." (Africa News)
May 14, 1999 President Yoweri Museveni has invited rebel leader Joseph Kony to stand for elections, either for the Presidency or a parliamentary seat. He further urged him to stop fighting. (Africa News Services Inc)
May 16, 1999 President Yoweri Museveni has called upon the Langi to discard the UPC and join the government, to develop the district and improve on household income in order to eradicate poverty.(Africa News Services Inc)
May 20, 1999 The Acholi Makerere Students Association (AMSA) has attacked Presidential Adviser on Political Affairs, Maj. Kakooza Mutale, for fanning hatred in the area. They expressed solidarity with their district leaders on their approach to ending the 13-year-old war in Gulu and Kitgum. (Africa News Services Inc)
May 27, 1999 The army's human rights record in the north came under serious attack at a Kampala seminar when it was revealed that the army has killed over thirty children. Rev. Fr. Carlos Rodriguez, chairman of the Peace and Justice Committee of the Catholic Mission Kitgum, blamed the UPDF for incidents in which innocent civilians were killed. The priest was presenting a paper, 'Media Coverage of Human Rights in Conflict Situations The Right To Information' at a seminar organized by the Human Rights and Peace Centre (HURIPEC) at Makerere University Faculty of Law.(Africa News Services Inc)
Jun 3, 1999 President Yoweri Museveni stressed his commitment to ensuring security and peace in Uganda. In his speech at the state opening of parliament on 2nd June, President Yoweri Museveni spoke about security issues, saying that any threat to Uganda would be "crushed promptly and convincingly". Museveni said that rebels had shifted their targets to urban centers and he called on the attorney-general to expedite legal proceedings against the rebels and those helping them. He repeated his amnesty offer to the rebels and invited them to take advantage of it, reminding them that it would not be open-ended. (BBC World Wide Monitoring)
Jul 1, 1999 Gulu and Kitgum district leaders were to travel to Sudan to meet the influential Sudanese Speaker of Parliament, Mr. Hassan Al-Tourabi. The Gulu District Council chairman, Lt. Col. Walter Ochora, told the council on Tuesday, "We shall soon travel to Sudan to meet the Speaker of the Sudanese Parliament and tell him to stop supporting Kony's war which is killing the innocent in Acholiland." (Africa News Services Inc)
Jul 22, 1999 The Uganda Peoples' Congress (UPC) yesterday raised doubts over the Government statements that Brig Smith Opon Acak was killed in combat. Dr. James Rwanyarare, the party's Presidential Policy Commission chairman, told a press conference at Uganda House that Acak was killed "under very suspicious circumstances." (Africa News Services Inc)
Sep 14, 1999 On Thursday, September 9, some 300-400 Karimojong were killed at Kalosarich between Kotido and Moroto. It was an ugly mix of a cattle rustling, revenge killings and reckless UPDF gunship shelling. Before the UPDF intervened, another 100 Karimojong had reportedly been killed in similar "ethnic" clashes at Moru Ariwon as Bokora warriors attacked their Matheniko cousins in a "revenge" attack following the death of about 160 Bokora massacred at Turutuko last August. (Africa News Services Inc)
Sep 30, 1999 Prime Minister Apollo Nsibambi yesterday told the Acholi to address rebel fears about atrocities they committed if they want the amnesty law to serve its purpose. Closing the International Conference on Peace, Research and Reconciliation Agenda at Gulu District Farm Institute, Nsibambi said the "amnesty law will be passed but the LRA may fear to come out because of the atrocities they committed on their Acholi people". He told the Acholi to use traditional and cultural ways of resolving conflict without revenge." (Africa News Services Inc)
Oct 12, 1999 Mention of the name Kitgum immediately conjures up images of death and destruction, war and poverty. These have come to be expected in the northern Ugandan district where fighting between government forces and elements of Joseph Kony's Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) has been going on for the past 13 years. A visit to Kitgum however reveals more than just war and destruction. At Atanga sub-country in Arua county, 48 kilometres southwest of Kitgum, large- scale political re-education, known all over the country as mchaka mchaka, has been especially successful. (Africa News Services Inc)

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