Nigeria: The Ijaw Youth Movement (IYM); date founded, names of executive members, location of headquarters, description of membership cards and its relationship to the Ijaw Youth Council (IYC) and the Egbesu Boys; information on IYC membership cards (1999-2000)
|Publisher||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada|
|Publication Date||24 December 2003|
|Citation / Document Symbol||NGA42304.E|
|Cite as||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Nigeria: The Ijaw Youth Movement (IYM); date founded, names of executive members, location of headquarters, description of membership cards and its relationship to the Ijaw Youth Council (IYC) and the Egbesu Boys; information on IYC membership cards (1999-2000) , 24 December 2003, NGA42304.E , available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/403dd20a14.html [accessed 22 May 2013]|
Only one reference to the Ijaw Youth Movement (IYM) was found among the sources consulted (TNI May 1999). The 1999 annual report of the Transnational Institute (TNI), a non-partisan and non-profit research institute based in Amsterdam and founded in 1974 to promote international cooperation (ibid. n.d.), lists Oronto Douglas of the IYM and the Chiccoco Movement for Democracy as a speaker at a TNI forum held in May 1999 called "Prospects for Democratisation in Nigeria" (ibid. May 1999).
Although no information on IYC membership cards could be found among the sources consulted, general information on the Ijaw Youth Council (IYC) can be found in NGA33212.E of 19 November 1999.
The Nigerian government's Office of Public Communications' Website describes the Egbesu Boys as the military wing of the Ijaw National Congress bound to protect the people of the Niger Delta from the oil multinationals and the Nigerian government with force (9 Apr. 2003). At the same time, Tunde Babawale, a senior lecturer in political science at the University of Lagos (WAR 2001), describes the Egbesu Boys as the "militant wing of the Ijaw youth movements that have been resisting the exploitation of the mineral resources (oil) of the Niger Delta by the Nigerian State and oil multinationals" (WAR 2001). For detailed information on the Egbesu Boys and their activities within the Ijaw community, please consult NGA34309.E of 25 May 2000.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Nigeria. 9 April 2003. Office of Public Communications. "Ethnic Militia Groups of Nigerian Societies."
Transnational Institute (TNI), Amsterdam. May 1999. "Annual Report 1999."
_____. n.d. "About TNI."
West Africa Review (WAR), Binghamton, NY. 2002. Tunde Babawale. Vol. 3, No. 1. "The Rise of Ethnic Militias, De-Legitimisation of the State, and the Threat to Nigerian Federalism."
_____. 2001. "Notes on Contributors."
Additional Sources Consulted
Europa World Year Book
Unsuccessful attempts to obtain information from the Secretary General of the Ijaw Youth Council within the time constraints of this Response.
Internet sites, including:
Amnesty International (AI)
Human Rights Watch (HRW). May 1999. Vol. 11, No. 2 (A). "Crackdown in the Niger Delta."
Ijaw National Alliance of the Americas
Ijaw Resource Center
Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN)
Niger Delta Congress
Niger Delta Development Commssion (NDDC)
Niger Delta Women for Justice
Urhobo Historical Society