Rwanda: Treatment of Hutu intellectuals by government authorities and their place in Rwanda society; treatment of Hutus with high-ranking positions by the Department of Military Intelligence (DMI) and by the Rwandese Patriotic Army (RPA) (1996-May 2000)
|Publisher||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada|
|Publication Date||1 June 2000|
|Citation / Document Symbol||RWA34381.E|
|Cite as||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Rwanda: Treatment of Hutu intellectuals by government authorities and their place in Rwanda society; treatment of Hutus with high-ranking positions by the Department of Military Intelligence (DMI) and by the Rwandese Patriotic Army (RPA) (1996-May 2000) , 1 June 2000, RWA34381.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6ad7870.html [accessed 11 December 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Current and specific information on the treatment of Hutu intellectuals or Hutus with high-ranking positions by the government authorities is scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate. Current and specific information on their treatment by the Department of Military Intelligence (DMI) or the Rwandese Patriotic Army (RPA) could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
According to International Crisis Group (ICG), "the President of the Supreme Court has gradually removed most of the more senior Hutu magistrates from their posts for reasons that seem vague and ambiguous (7 Apr. 1999). Speaking about justice in Rwanda, the same source of information adds that "another matter for concern is the way in which some authorities are discrediting most of the experienced Hutu magistrates (ibid.).
Without referring specifically to Hutu intellectuals or to Hutus with high-ranking positions, HRW indicated in an April 2000 report that "Hutu have suffered for years from arbitrary detention and abuses by authorities for various reasons." (HRW 27 Apr. 2000).
Its is also states in the Country Reports 1999 that "some Hutus accuse the Government of favoring Tutsis in government employment, admission to professional schooling, recruitment into the army, and other matters. Some organizations also complain that in hiring, the government favours English-speaking Tutsis over French-speaking Tutsis (Feb. 2000, Section 4).
During a 26 May 2000 telephone interview, a former minister of justice in Rwanda (1996-January 1999) of the Hutu ethnic group origin, also doctor in law, now residing in Ottawa declared the following:
Since July 1994 when the Rwandese Patriotic Front took power, some wealthy Hutus, intellectuals or with high-ranking positions experienced many abuses by soldiers or civilians administrators resulting from dispute over property or from jealousy. Such abuses have worsened since 1996 when Hutu refugees returned to Rwanda, ending an exile that had followed the 1994 genocide.
Indeed, in order to keep the land or houses they occupied during their owner's absence, some military officers or government officials falsely accused the Hutu owners of being associated with insurgents or having participated in genocide. Also Hutu intellectuals who held high-ranking positions were falsely accused by those with connections in government, in order to replace them with members of their own entourage. During the period of 1996-1998, many members of the Hutu ethnic group were arrested, detained or even killed due to such false accusations. However, such abuses of power were committed by some individuals and were not initiated by government policies.
Today in Rwanda, people are not targeted on ethnic grounds but for their political opinions, and both Tutsis and Hutus are forced in exile Ibid.).
For general information on the treatment of members of the Hutu ethnic group during 1996 -1998, please refer to Amnesty International, HRW and Country Reports annual reports, available in all Regional Documentation Centres.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1999. 25 February 2000. Washington, DC: US Department of State.
Human Rights Watch (HRW). April 2000. Rwanda: The Search For Security and Human Rights Abuses.
International Crisis Group (ICG). 7 April 1999. Five Years After Genocide in Rwanda: Justice In Question.
Rwandese Former Minister of Justice, Ottawa. 26 May 2000. Telephone interview.
Additional Sources Consulted
Africa Confidential December 1997-April 2000.
Africa Research Bulletin 1997-March 2000.
L'Autre Afrique June 1998-janvier 2000.
Jeune Afrique 1997-May 2000.
Keesing's Record of World Events 1997-March 3000.
La Lettre hebdomadaire de la FIDH 1998-April 2000.
Le nouvel Afrique-Asie 1997- April 2000.
World News Connection (WNC).
Internet Websites, including:
Africa News Service.
Amnesty International Online.
Human Rights Watch Online.
International Crisis Group (ICG).
Missionary Service News Agency (MISNA).
Panafrican News Agency (PANA).