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Albania: Consequences of a family's failure to retaliate against another family for murdering their family member when the two families are in a blood feud; whether a blood feud can be initiated in instances where (i) a woman refuses to marry a man who forces her to work as a prostitute, or by a pimp against a woman who refuses to continue her work as a prostitute, (ii) the female's family does not approve of the male she is dating, or where (iii) an Orthodox woman marries a non-Orthodox (Muslim) male against the wishes of her male relatives and has lost her virginity to a non-Orthodox husband; whether Kanun law makes provision with respect to any of the aforementioned situations

Publisher Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Author Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada
Publication Date 17 May 2004
Citation / Document Symbol ALB42520.E
Reference 2
Cite as Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Albania: Consequences of a family's failure to retaliate against another family for murdering their family member when the two families are in a blood feud; whether a blood feud can be initiated in instances where (i) a woman refuses to marry a man who forces her to work as a prostitute, or by a pimp against a woman who refuses to continue her work as a prostitute, (ii) the female's family does not approve of the male she is dating, or where (iii) an Orthodox woman marries a non-Orthodox (Muslim) male against the wishes of her male relatives and has lost her virginity to a non-Orthodox husband; whether Kanun law makes provision with respect to any of the aforementioned situations, 17 May 2004, ALB42520.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/41501be32a.html [accessed 20 December 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Information on blood feuds, including consequences of a family's failure to retaliate for the murder of a family member when the two families are in a blood feud, and whether the above-mentioned situations could trigger a blood feud, in addition to that which has already been provided in ALB42373.E of 11 March 2004, ALB42544.E of 7 April 2004, ALB42171.E of 10 December 2003 and ALB42280 of 22 January 2004, could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate. However, section 873 of Chapter 22 of the Kanun of Lekë Dukagjinit (KLD), the most widely known source of customary law in Albania (Shkoder.net n.d), may be relevant and provides that "[i]f one of the victim's relatives kills the murderer after 24 hours have passed, that person is no longer avenging blood, but is incurring blood" (Kanuni I Lekë Dukagjinit (KLD) 1989).

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.

References

Kanuni I Lekë Dukagjinit (KLD). 1989. "The Law Regarding Crimes: Murder." Albanian Text Collected and Arranged by Shtjefën Gjeçov, Translated by Leonard Fox. Gjonlekaj Publishing Company: New York.

Shkoder.net. n.d. Zef Ahmeti. "The Criminal Law in the 'Kanun of Lekë Dukagjini." (Albania The Criminal Law) [Accessed 8 Mar. 2004]

Additional Sources Consulted

Searching for Peace in Europe and Eurasia

Internet sites, including: Albania Helsinki Committee, Albanian National Committee of Women and Family, Amnesty International (AI), Association Albania, BBC, Dialog/WNC, EU Conflict, European Country of Origin Information Network (ECOI), Freedom in the World Report 2003, Frosina Foundation, Gendercide, The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Women's Issues Worldwide (2003), Human Rights Watch (HRW), Innocenti Digest, International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF), Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN), Network of East West Women, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), United Kingdom - Immigration and Nationality Directorate (IND), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

Copyright notice: This document is published with the permission of the copyright holder and producer Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB). The original version of this document may be found on the offical website of the IRB at http://www.irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/. Documents earlier than 2003 may be found only on Refworld.

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