Mexico: Activities of the Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN) since 2006; their region of influence; treatment by the government authorities of EZLN members, particularly those who are close to subcomandante Marcos
|Publisher||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Publication Date||3 June 2011|
|Citation / Document Symbol||MEX103776.E|
|Cite as||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Mexico: Activities of the Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN) since 2006; their region of influence; treatment by the government authorities of EZLN members, particularly those who are close to subcomandante Marcos, 3 June 2011, MEX103776.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e02f65c2.html [accessed 23 May 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
On 12 September 2007, Agence France-Presse (AFP) stated that the Zapatista National Liberation Army (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) [translation] "had not initiated any armed confrontations for about seven years." Similarly, in 2009, the EFE News Service noted that since the 1994 Zapatista uprising, the EZLN has "acted almost exclusively in the political sphere" (EFE 1 Jan. 2009).
EZLN area of influence
EFE News Service indicated that the Zapatistas, after their 1994 uprising, "retreated into a few villages in rural Chiapas, where the government has not pursued them, to engage in political activity" (EFE 3 Aug. 2008). According to EFE, the EZLN has established "autonomous municipal seats" in the state of Chiapas, which are called "caracoles" and are formed of various communities that have their "own good government boards" (EFE 1 Jan. 2009). The caracoles, indicates EFE, are "political and cultural centers" where Zapatistas and civil society members can meet; the "good government boards" serve as "executive bodies in communities sympathetic to the EZLN" (ibid.).
Reporting on information released in 2011 by the European Solidarity Brigade, which is formed with members of unions and grassroots organizations from several European countries, EFE News Service indicates that the five EZLN autonomous governments formed in 2003 in Chiapas now aim at creating education and health care facilities, as well as running the Autonomous Zapatista People's Bank, also known as Banpaz (EFE 30 Jan. 2011). The five autonomous communities are run by councils, which are located in Oventic, La Garrucha, Morelia, La Realidad and Roberto Barrios (ibid.). The Mexican newspaper Reforma, based in Monterrey, also indicates that the Chiapas caracoles are located in these places (30 Dec. 2008). In 2006, Reforma referred to Oventic as the main Zapatista bastion in the indigenous zone of Los Altos de Chiapas (20 Aug. 2006). EFE News Service referred to La Garrucha zone as "rebel-controlled" (3 Aug. 2008).
According to a 30 December 2008 Reforma article, the National Council for Social Development Assessment (Consejo Nacional de Evaluación de la Política de Desarrollo Social, Coneval) reported that eight out of the ten most [translation] "backward" municipalities in Chiapas have "Zapatista presence," with the top three being Sitalá, Chalchihuitán and Santiago el Pinar, which overall contain fifteen Zapatista communities. A total of 87 Zapatista communities are also present in the municipalities of Aldama, Pantelhó, Zinacantán, Chenalhó, Chilón, San Juan Cancuc, Chanal, Amatenango del Valle, Huixtán and Larráinzar, which are considered [translation] "very socially backward" (Reforma 30 Dec. 2008). The [translation] "least backward" communities with Zapatista presence are Comitán, La Libertad, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Frontera Comalapa, Palenque and Bochil (ibid.). Furthermore, El Universal, a Mexican newspaper, noted el Ejido de Cascadas, Chimalapas and San José Majomut as regions with Zapatista bases (14 Apr. 2008).
EZLN activities in 2006
According to AFP, on 1 January 2006, subcomandante Marcos began a campaign around the country known as [translation] "the Other Campaign" (AFP 10 Jan. 2006). The purpose of the campaign, which ran parallel to the Mexican presidential election, was to create an [translation] "alternative front of the left," which is both "anti-capitalist and against neoliberalism" (ibid. 2 Jan. 2006). The Los Angeles Times noted that this was a "six-month speaking tour" by subcomandante Marcos, who then began calling himself Delegate Zero (23 Jan. 2006). Marcos was planning to visit Mexico's 31 states as part of the Other Campaign, counter to the presidential campaign, hoping to "revive interest in his leftist message" (Los Angeles Times 23 Jan. 2006).
Several media sources reported on the activities of the EZLN that took place as part of the "Other Campaign" (AFP 2 Jan. 2006; ibid. 10 Jan. 2006; El Mundo 19 Jan. 2006; Los Angeles Times 23 Jan. 2006; NOTIMEX 21 Mar. 2006; ibid. 3 May 2006; Reforma 6 May 2006).
AFP reports that on 2 January 2006, subcomandante Marcos led the first plenary assembly of the Other Campaign with social and civil organizations (2 Jan. 2006). The assembly was held at the Universidad de la Tierra, in San Cristóbal de Las Casas, and included 200 participants (AFP 2 Jan. 2006).
AFP indicated that in his January 2006 visit to Joaquin Amaro, a fishing village in the southeast of Chiapas, Marcos spoke against the candidates of the presidential election and listened to complaints of high electricity prices, encouraging people to not pay the high amounts (10 Jan. 2006).
El Mundo, a Madrid-based newspaper, noted in a 19 January 2006 article that subcomandante Marcos visited Cancún where he spoke to an audience of 3,000. The Los Angeles Times reported that Marcos visited Yucatán in January 2006, speaking at two beach resorts (23 Jan. 2006).
The Mexican news agency NOTIMEX indicated on 21 March 2006 that subcomandante Marcos met with 21 writers, researchers and academics at the Universidad de Guadalajara, in Jalisco.
In a 3 May 2006 article, NOTIMEX reported that subcomandante Marcos declared before the unity of Xochimilco of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM) that he is not pursuing an [translation] "armed revolution," but rather a [translation] "peaceful and civil movement in favour of the poor." In four months, indicates NOTIMEX in the same article, the campaign had visited 20 Mexican states (3 May 2006). Reforma reported that in early May 2006, the campaign was in the municipality of Texcoco, in Mexico state (6 May 2006).
El Norte, a Monterrey-based Mexican newspaper, reported on 18 April 2006 that supporters of the EZLN and members of the Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO), led by Rodolfo Olguín Ruiz, coordinator of the Other Campaign, blocked access to the Canadian firm Minera San Xavier in the San Luis Potosí municipality in protest of the [translation] "aggression" that company employees committed against two of their activists as well as the mine's pollution of the community.
Associated Press (AP) reported on 1 May 2006 that along with thousands of union members, the Zapatistas marched in México City for Labour Day, and Marcos announced in front of about 2,000 people that the Zapatistas are boycotting all North American products in support of exploited Mexican immigrants.
AFP reports that in May 2006, following police attempts to evict street vendors from the town of San Salvador Atenco, near México City, clashes broke out during which police officers were kidnapped, many were hurt and a youth was killed (9 May 2006). Police retaliation for the kidnappings included an operation in which at least 2,000 police officers arrested 211 people (AFP 9 May 2006). Reforma reported that militants of the Other Campaign gathered in San Salvador Atenco, where they called for the establishment of road blockades and demonstrations in order to pressure the government to release the detainees (7 May 2006). AFP reported that 200 EZLN militants left Chiapas to participate in the protests (29 June 2006). Furthermore, Reuters reported on 2 July 2006 that subcomandante Marcos led a march through the capital of Mexico of approximately 3,000 people in protest of events in San Salvador Atenco, as well as against the presidential campaign.
NOTIMEX reported that in early November 2006, Zapatistas formed blockades in the Sierra and Altos of Chiapas in support of actions carried out by the Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca (Asamblea Popular de los Pueblos de Oaxaca, APPO), and also to demand that the governor leave office (1 Nov. 2006a). About 150 EZLN members also marched to the Hemiciclo in Juárez and blocked the junction of the Insurgentes and Paseo de la Reforma road, planning to join the APPO hunger strike (NOTIMEX 1 Nov. 2006b). El Norte reported on 2 November 2006 that thousands of EZLN supporters blocked 15 stretches of federal and state roads in different regions in Chiapas, including Los Altos, Selva, Norte and Fronteriza, to protest against the [translation] "repression" in Oaxaca. The NOTIMEX agency indicated that in Oaxaca, teachers were demanding better benefits and calling for the governor to step down (19 June 2006). AFP noted that in support of the opponents of Oaxaca state, the EZLN established at least 6 blockades in Los Altos de Chiapas, with five near the city of Cristóbal de las Casas (20 Nov. 2006).
EZLN activities in 2007
Media sources reported that at the beginning of 2007, the 13th anniversary of the Zapatista armed uprising was marked with a commemorative meeting which was held in Oventic and included more than 2,000 participants from 44 to 48 countries, as well as EZLN militants and members of indigenous groups (El Norte 2 Jan. 2007; La Republica 4 Jan. 2007). Furthermore, NOTIMEX indicated that between 30 December 2006 and 2 January 2007, the EZLN held the first meeting between the Zapatista village and the villages of the world (Primer Encuentro Entre los Pueblos Zapatistas y los Pueblos del Mundo) in Oventic, which consisted of 38 different ethnic indigenous autonomous municipalities, making up the five caracoles, and those who had joined the Other Campaign internationally from 47 other countries in an exchange of experiences and dialogue (2 Jan. 2007).
NOTIMEX reported that in February 2007, Zapatistas kidnapped an Oxchuc police officer and asked for a ransom of 10 thousand pesos, the same amount required to bail an EZLN militant accused of robbery out of the prison in Ocosingo; the Zapatistas released the police officer after holding him for 11 days (22 Feb. 2007).
On 22 March 2007, EFE News Service reported that subcomandante Marcos announced the "resumption" of the Other Campaign, with this second phase including plans for "an international campaign of solidarity with the Indian communities and in defence of indigenous autonomy" with a delegation made up of fourteen EZLN commanders and one subcommander. NOTIMEX reported that the Other Campaign's second phase was called [translation] "World campaign for the defence of the indigenous people's land," and was directed to the north of Mexico (25 Mar. 2007). According to AFP, part of this campaign included Zapatistas travelling to other Mexican states for different activities such as a camp in Baja California Sur (AFP 27 Mar. 2007).
AFP noted that before the second meeting of the "villages of the world," which was planned to take place from 20 to 28 July 2007, the EZLN held a political meeting in Tuxtla Gutiérrez, in Chiapas, [translation] "in protest of the violence that they claim the government exerts against social and indigenous organizations" (AFP 19 July 2007). Reforma also notes that the second meeting of the villages of the world included members of social movements, as well as peasants from Korea, Thailand, India, the United States, and Madagascar, among other countries (21 July 2007).
AP reported on 24 September 2007 that the EZLN issued a statement of support for the People's Revolutionary Army (Ejercito Popular Revolucionario, EPR), a Marxist guerrilla group, which allegedly attacked Mexico's pipelines. However, AP also mentioned that this statement, which was sent to the media and posted on the Zapatistas' Internet site, could not be "independently verified" (24 Sept. 2007).
In December 2007, AP reported the announcement of the temporary public retirement of subcomandante Marcos after he had spent two years promoting a new leftist movement in Mexico (AP 17 Dec. 2007).
Reforma reported on 14 March 2007 that Zapatista encampments were created in the settlement of Huitepec Ocotal in order to safeguard an ecological reserve, as part of the Zapatista movement to defend [translation] "life, culture and nature."
In a 12 August 2007 article, Reforma reported that two indigenous Zapatistas were hospitalized after being attacked by members of the Organization to defend the rights of indigenous groups and peasants (Organización para la Defensa de los Derechos Indígenas y Campesinos, OPDDIC) in the municipality of Chilón, as part of a series of violence due to land disputes. In addition, AFP indicated on 12 September 2007 that EZLN guerrillas [translation] "clashed with peasants over a territorial dispute" in Chiapas, which resulted in one wounded. The incident occurred in the ecotourism centre of las Cascadas de Agua Azul, where the EZLN and OPDDIC have carried on a two-year land dispute (AFP 12 Sept. 2007). On 15 December 2007, NOTIMEX also reported that indigenous peasants from the OPDDIC and the EZLN had been involved in a land dispute over las Cascadas de Agua Azul, which resulted in the death of two EZLN members and the arrest of the accused OPDDIC members (15 Dec. 2007).
EZLN activities in 2008
Reforma reported that the third meeting of the Zapatista villages and the villages of the world was held in La Garrucha in early January 2008, in conjunction with the celebration of the 14th anniversary of the Zapatista movement uprising (2 Jan. 2008).
According to NOTIMEX, in May 2008, when the Zapatistas established the headquarters of their autonomous municipality of Morelia, in Altamirano, a land dispute took place between Zapatistas and supporters of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) (25 May 2008). More than 30 people were wounded (NOTIMEX 25 May 2008).
EFE News Service reported in a 3 August 2008 article on a meeting held in La Garrucha, during which members of the National and International Caravan of Observation and Solidarity, as well as Zapatista Communities members denounced "the incursion by federal forces into EZLN territory."
In late December 2008, as indicated by AFP, 140 Mexican and foreign organizations celebrated the EZLN's 15th anniversary, as well as the First International Festival of Dignified Rage (Primer Festival Internacional de la Digna Rabia), held in Iztapalapa; festivities also took place in San Critóbal de las Casas (AFP 28 Dec. 2008). Between 2,500 and 3,000 people participated in the event (AFP 2 Jan. 2009; EFE 3 Jan. 2009). El Universal reported that the festivities occurred in Oventic (2 Jan. 2009).
EZLN activities in 2009
According to the Chiapas Ministry of Justice, EZLN supporters and militants from the Ocosingo Regional organization of coffee growers (Organización Regional de Cafeticultores de Ocosingo, Orcao) had a land dispute in Ocosingo which led to a clash in which five peasants were hurt and 25 houses were damaged (quoted in El Universal 6 Jan. 2009). NOTIMEX reports on the same conflict, as well as on two other conflicts: one in Ocosingo between EZLN supporters and peasants of the organization Cocicel, over a piece of land called "Agua Azul" located in the glen of Taniperlas, where 15 people were hurt; and, one in the Chilón municipality where members of the PRI and people living in San Sebastián Bachajón tried to evict Zapatistas from the collection booth at the ecotourism centre Agua Clara, leaving four people injured (9 Jan. 2009).
AFP reported on 31 December 2009 that for the first time, the EZLN cancelled its uprising anniversary celebration due to the Chiapan government's state of alert regarding organized crime.
EZLN activities in 2010
AFP indicated that in February 2010, EZLN-affiliated communities detained five indigenous tzeltales, who were also members of the OPDDIC, during a confrontation near las Cascadas de Agua Azul in Chiapas, which left one person dead and 20 wounded (AFP 11 Feb. 2010).
EZLN activities from January to May 2011
The chairman of the Commission of Concord and Pacification (Cocopa) stated that the Zapatistas "have eschewed violence since their initial rebellion 17 years ago" and are concentrating on "'organization and community work'" in the state of Chiapas (quoted in EFE 3 Jan. 2011). The chairman also noted that in Chiapas, "the EZLN Good Government Boards have become a standard 'in the matter of collective work and communitarian social accomplishments'" (ibid.).
AP reported that in early February 2011, at the Cascadas de Agua Azul in Chiapas, EZLN sympathizers kidnapped and detained 17 tourists during one day, in the midst of a confrontation with peasants supporting the government; the tourists were released after negotiations (3 Feb. 2011). According to EFE, 106 EZLN supporters were arrested and released in relation to the incident, while ten other EZLN supporters were still detained as of 6 February 2011 (EFE 6 Feb. 2011). Further information on those detained could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
On 7 May 2011, AFP indicated that several thousand EZLN members participated in a manifestation in San Cristóbal de las Casas [translation] "in support of the march of silence against violence in Mexico City led by the poet Javier Sicilia"; participants were protesting against drug-trafficking-related violence and the related military strategy of the Mexican president Felipe Calderón. According to EFE, "some 20,000 masked Indians" participated in the march; this was "the largest [demonstration] organized by the Zapatistas in a decade;" however, subcomandante Marcos was not present (EFE 8 May 2011). El Norte reports that the march was headed by 17 Zapatista commanders and included about 5,000 EZLN militants and sympathizers (8 May 2011).
Treatment by and relationship with government authorities
On 11 May 2006, AFP reported that the Commissioner for peace in Chiapas asked the EZLN to surrender their weapons, which represent a [translation] "'deplorable violent threat'", but that his demand was refused by Marcos who rejected dialogue with the Commissioner and the Vincente Fox government, saying that it is [translation] "'ridiculous to suggest this promotes a violent situation'"; the EZLN has been refusing a dialogue of disarmament since 1997.
On 13 May 2006, Reforma indicated that according to members of Cocopa [translation] "the Amnesty Law does not protect Marcos from crimes he might commit during confrontations with the Police or civil society. It only protects him from the arrest warrant issued after the EZLN uprising in 1994." The Cocopa attorney stated that the arrest warrant for Marcos is still in suspension, while the president of Cocopa further noted that according to the Law for Dialogue and Conciliation in Chiapas, [translation] "during a dialogue process, arrest warrants are suspended" (Reforma 13 May 2006).
AFP reports that in February 2007, the EZLN accused the Mexican government of holding anti-drug trafficking operations in Chiapas to [translation] "intimidate them and to reactivate the paramilitary groups," who killed hundreds after the Zapatista uprising in 1994 (12 Feb. 2007).
Reforma reported that in August 2008, the Coordinating Body for the Dialogue and Negotiation in Chiapas (Coordinación para el Diálogo y la Negociación en Chiapas, CDNCH), of the Secretary of Governance, stated that they are no longer looking for [translation] "dialogue" with the EZLN command, but that they are focusing on the management of federal support for the communities in Chiapas, as well as promoting anti-Zapatista movements on their website (10 Aug. 2008).
According to AFP, Mexican lawyers reported to embassies from European Union countries that in early June 2008, the Mexican military conducted operations in the Zapatista-controlled indigenous communities of Chiapas, using the [translation] "'pretext'" that they were looking for marijuana fields (AFP 20 June 2008). AFP further reported that the Mexican military harassed and intimidated the indigenous communities, and entered La Garrucha community without judicial order, in [translation] "'an arbitrary, menacing and aggressive fashion" (ibid.). El Universal indicated that EZLN indigenous supporters [translation] "repelled with machetes, sticks and stones" the entry of military and police troops in La Garrucha, San Alejandro and Hermenegildo Galena, in the municipality of Ocosingo (7 June 2008). The military argued that they were looking for marijuana plantations, while EZLN representatives supported that the people resisted because about 200 soldiers and federal police came near La Garrucha, the headquarters of the caracol Hacia un Nuevo Amanecer (El Universal 7 June 2008). According to El Universal, [translation] "in the last six months, the indigenous territories of la Selva, Norte and Altos de Chiapas have been the center of clashes between communities, the army and the police" (ibid.).
In an appeal for action, Amnesty International (AI) reports that in April 2009, indigenous men believed to be EZLN sympathizers were arrested by police and charged with violent robbery and participating in organized crime (3 June 2009). The men, indicates AI, did not have access to legal representation and interpreters and they claimed that they were tortured and threatened by the police to get their statements (AI 3 June 2009).
A 10 June 2009 NOTIMEX article reports the head of the National Commission for the Development of the Indian Indigenous Villages (Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indios Indígenas) as saying that [translation] "the federal government has entered into an adequate relationship with the majority of indigenous communities in Chiapas," adding that [translation] "many communities that were active in the ranks of the EZLN have changed their perception of the government's actions and now receive the social programs implemented in their favour." He further noted that the communities have encountered an [translation] "adequate attitude" by government officials dealing with their petitions (NOTIMEX 10 June 2009).
Further information on the treatment of members of the EZLN by government authorities, particularly those close to subcomandante Marcos, could not be found in the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Agence France-Presse (AFP). 7 May 2011. "México: miles de zapatistas marchan en Chiapas en apoyo a Javier Sicilia." (Factiva)
_____. 11 February 2010. "Simpatizantes del EZLN liberan 5 indígenas retenidos tras choques en México." (Factiva)
_____. 31 December 2009. "EZLN cancela por primera vez festejos de aniverario por levantamiento armado." (Factiva)
_____. 2 January 2009. "Subcomandante Marcos abre festejos de aniversario de zapatistas mexicanos." (Factiva)
_____. 28 December 2008. Leticia Pineda. "México: unas 140 organizaciones conmemoran aniversario zapatista." (Factiva)
_____. 20 June 2008. "Militares mexicanos incursionan en comunidades zapatistas, afirman abogados." (Factiva)
_____. 12 September 2007. "México: EZLN y campesinos se enfrentan a balazos por disputa territorial." (Factiva)
_____. 19 July 2007. "Guerrilleros mexicanos del EZLN realizan mitin en el sur del país." (Factiva)
_____. 27 March 2007. "Marcos y 15 comandantes del EZLN viajan a Ciudad de México." (Factiva)
_____. 12 February 2007. "Zapatistas denuncian que gobierno usa operativo antidrogas para intimidarlos." (Factiva)
_____. 20 November 2006. "Indígenas mexicanos simpatizantes del EZLN bloquean caminos al sur del país." (Factiva)
_____. 29 June 2006. "Zapatistas parten hacia Ciudad de México para participar en movilizaciones." (Factiva)
_____. 11 May 2006. "Gobierno mexicano le pide a la guerrilla de EZLN que entregue las armas." (Factiva)
_____. 9 May 2006. "México: el subcomandante Marcos advierte de posible estallido de violencia." (Factiva)
_____. 10 January 2006. "Marcos incita a comunidades humildes a no pagar altas tarifas eléctricas." (Factiva)
_____. 2 January 2006. "México: inician reuniones de Marcos y el EZLN con la sociedad civil." (Factiva)
Amnesty International (AI). 3 June 2009. "Further Information on 103/09 (AMR 41/021/2009, 21 April 2009) and Follow-up (AMR 41/024/2009). Torture/Threats/Legal Concern/Medical Concern." (AMR 41/029/2009)
Associated Press (AP). 3 February 2011. "Autoridades mexicanas: zapatistas secuestran a extranjeros." (Factiva)
_____. 17 December 2007. "México: EZLN anuncia retiro temporal de espacios públicos." (Factiva)
_____. 24 September 2007. "Mexico's Zapatista Rebels Back Group That Attacked Pipelines." (Factiva)
_____. 1 May 2006. E. Eduardo Castillo. "México: Sindicalistas y EZLN apoyan inmigrantes en EEUU." (Factiva)
EFE News Service. 8 May 2011. "20,000 Zapatistas March for Peace in Mexico." (Factiva)
_____. 6 February 2011. "106 EZLN Supporters Released in Mexico." (Factiva)
_____. 30 January 2011. "Report: Mexico's Zapatistas Focusing on Health, Education." (Factiva)
_____. 3 January 2011. "Officials Reject Zapatista Role in Mexican Pol's Abduction." (Factiva)
_____. 3 January 2009. "Zapatista Leader Slams War on Drugs in Mexico." (Factiva)
_____. 1 January 2009. "Mexico's Zapatistas Mark 15th Anniversary of Uprising." (Factiva)
_____. 3 August 2008. "Mexican Guerrilla Leader Makes First Public Appearance in Months." (Factiva)
_____. 22 March 2007. "Subcommander Marcos Reappears, Announces New Tour of Mexico." (Factiva)
Los Angeles Times. 23 January 2006. Sam Enriquez. "Masked Marxist, with Marimbas; Mexico's Delegate Zero, Aka Subcomandante Marcos, Brings His Nationwide Political Speaking Tour and Festival to the Yucatan." (Factiva)
El Mundo [Madrid]. 19 January 2006. "Testigo. El subcomandante Marcos recorre con su campaña alternativa el principal centro turístico de México, Cancún." (Factiva)
El Norte [Monterrey, Mexico]. 8 May 2011. Martín Morita. "Condenan zapatistas gestión de Calderón." (Factiva)
_____. 2 January 2007. María Teresa del Riego. "Exhortan a combatir capitalismo." (Factiva)
_____. 2 November 2006. "Revive conflicto al EZLN." (Factiva)
_____. 18 April 2006. Luis Nieto. "Bloquean zapatistas minera en SLP." (Factiva)
NOTIMEX. 10 June 2009. "Destacan relación de Federación con comunidades indígenas de Chiapas." (Factiva)
_____. 9 January 2009. "Reportan 15 indígenas heridos tras un enfrentamiento en Ocosingo." (Factiva)
_____. 25 May 2008. "Urgen al diálogo y evitar conflictos agrarios en Chiapas." (Factiva)
_____. 15 December 2007. "Detienen a presuntos agresores de zapatistas en Chiapas." (Factiva)
_____. 25 March 2007. "Inicia EZLN segunda etapa de la llamada 'otra campaña' en Chiapas." (Factiva)
_____. 22 February 2007. "Liberan a policía retenido durante 11 días por 'zapatistas'." (Factiva)
_____. 2 January 2007. "Termina encuentro del EZLN, en Oventic; realizarán otro evento." (Factiva)
_____. 1 November 2006a . "Inician zapatistas bloqueos en Chiapas en apoyo a la APPO." (Factiva)
_____. 1 November 2006b. "Bloquean zapatistas cruce de Insurgentes y Reforma." (Factiva)
_____. 19 June 2006. "Lamentan empresarios intervención del EZLN en movimiento de Oaxaca." (Factiva)
_____. 3 May 2006. "Se prepara el EZLN para convertirse en un movimiento civil y pacifico." (Factiva)
_____. 21 March 2006. "Se reune el subcomandante Marcos con intelectuales en Guadalajara." (Factiva)
Reforma [Monterrey, Mexico]. 30 December 2008. Silvia Garduño. "Persiste rezago entre zapatistas." (Factiva)
_____. 10 August 2008. Daniela Rea. "'Olvida' Ejecutivo conflicto en Chiapas." (Factiva)
_____. 2 January 2008. María Teresa del Riego. "Celebra EZLN 14 aniversario." (Factiva)
_____. 12 August 2007. María Teresa Del Riego C. "Hieren a 2 zapatistas por disputa de tierras." (Factiva)
_____. 21 July 2007. María Teresa del Riego. "Arranca en Oventic encuentro zapatista." (Factiva)
_____. 14 March 2007. María Teresa del Riego. "Toma EZLN reserva en Chiapas." (Factiva)
_____. 20 August 2006. María Teresa del Riego. "Reportan calma en zona zapatista." (Factiva)
_____. 13 May 2006. Andrea Merlos. "Rechaza la Cocopa 'fuero' de Marcos." (Factiva)
_____. 7 May 2006. Rolando Herrera. "Amaga EZLN bloquear vías." (Factiva)
_____. 6 May 2006. Emiliano Ruiz. "Llega Marcos a Atenco." (Factiva)
La República [Lima, Peru]. 4 January 2007. "La guerrilla se pone cana." (Factiva)
Reuters. 2 July 2006. Vanessa Padilla. "Zapatista Marcos lidera acto y marcha lejos de candidatos México." (Factiva)
El Universal [México]. 6 January 2009. Fredy Martín Pérez and Óscar Gutiérrez. "Cafeticultores chocan con los zapatistas."
_____. 2 January 2009. Fredy Martín Pérez. "Con bailes, rememora el EZLN alzamiento."
_____. 7 June 2008. Óscar Gutiérrez. "Zapatistas impiden ingreso de militares." (Factiva)
_____. 14 April 2008. Jorge Ramos. "Segob desaparece la coordinación para diálogo en Chiapas." (Factiva)
Additional Sources Consulted
Oral sources: A professor of social and political science at York University could not provide information. Attempts to contact Acción Zapatista at the University of Texas were unsuccessful.
Internet sites, including: Centro de Derechos Humanos Prodh; European Country of Origin Information Network (ecoi.net); Freedom House; Human Rights Watch; InSight; Justice in Mexico Project; Mexico - Comisión Nacional de los Derechos Humanos; Mexico Solidarity Network; United Nations Refworld; United States (US) Department of State.