United States Department of State, U.S. Department of State Country Report on Human Rights Practices 1996 - St Kitts and Nevis, 30 January 1997, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6aa3040.html [accessed 26 January 2015]
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ST. KITTS AND NEVIS Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, January 30, 1997 St. Kitts and Nevis is a multiparty, parliamentary democracy and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The Constitution provides the smaller island of Nevis considerable self- government, as well as the right to secede from the Federation in accordance with certain enumerated procedures. A Prime Minister, a Cabinet, and a bicameral Legislative Assembly comprise the Government. A Governor General, appointed by the British Monarch, is the titular head of state, with largely ceremonial powers. After national elections in June 1995, Dr. Denzil Douglas of the St. Kitts and Nevis Labour Party became Prime Minister and formed a government with 7 of 11 seats in the legislature. The judiciary is independent. Security forces consist of a small police force, which includes a 50-person Special Services Unit that receives some light infantry training, and a small coast guard. The mixed economy is based on sugar cane, tourism, and light industry. Most commercial enterprises are privately owned, but the sugar industry (the country's largest economic enterprise) and 85 percent of arable land are owned by a state corporation. Per capita gross domestic product was about $3,500 in 1994. Human rights were generally respected, although the Government continued to restrict access by the opposition to government-controlled media. Violence against women is a problem.
Respect for Human Rights
Section 1 Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:
a. Political and Other Extrajudicial Killing
There were no political or other extrajudicial killings.
There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances.
c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Law enforcement authorities abide by the constitutional prohibitions against the use of torture or other forms of inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Family members, attorneys, and clergy are permitted to visit detainees regularly. St. Kitt's prison was built in the 1830's. Prisoners suffer from severe overcrowding, poor food, and lax security. These conditions have contributed to riots in the past, although none occurred in 1996.
d. Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Exile
The Constitution prohibits arbitrary arrest and detention, and this provision is respected in practice. The law requires that persons detained be brought before a court within 48 hours. There were no reported cases of exile.
e. Denial of Fair Public Trial
The Constitution provides that every person accused of a crime must receive a fair, speedy, and public trial, and these requirements are generally observed. The judiciary is highly regarded and independent. The court system comprises one high court and four magistrates' courts at the local level, with the right of appeal to the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States Court of Appeal. Final appeal may be made to the Privy Council in the United Kingdom. There are no military or political courts. Legal assistance is available for indigent defendants. There were no reports of political prisoners.
f. Arbitrary Interference With Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence
There were no reports of arbitrary government or police interference in the private lives of individuals. The law requires judicially issued warrants to search private homes.
Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:
a. Freedom of Speech and Press
The Constitution provides for freedom of speech and the press, and, for the most part, the authorities respected these provisions in practice. However, the Government owns the only radio and television station on St. Kitts, and these media generally did not adequately publicize rallies and conventions held by the opposition political party. There is a religious television station and a privately owned radio station on Nevis. St. Kitts and Nevis does not have a daily newspaper; each of the major political parties publishes a weekly or biweekly newspaper. A third weekly newspaper is nonpartisan. The papers are free to criticize the Government and do so regularly and vigorously. The nonpartisan paper claims that politicians both in opposition and the Government have threatened to close it down; however, the paper recently celebrated its second anniversary without interruption of its publication. International news publications are readily available. The Government does not restrict academic freedom.
b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association
The Constitution provides for the right of peaceful assembly. Political parties organized demonstrations, rallies, and public meetings during the 1995 election campaign without significant government interference. Many meetings sponsored by the Nevis Island administration and opposition parties were held in Nevis to discuss the secession question.
c. Freedom of Religion
The Constitution provides for the free exercise of religion, and religious practices are not restricted. All groups are free to maintain links with coreligionists in other countries.
d. Freedom of Movement Within the Country, Foreign Travel, Emigration, and Repatriation
The Government does not restrict travel within or departure from the country. No formal government policy toward refugee or asylum requests exists. The issue of provision of first asylum did not arise. There were no reports of forced expulsion of anyone having a valid claim to refugee status; however, government practice remains undefined.
Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government
Citizens are free to change their government by peaceful means. A vigorous multiparty political system exists in which political parties are free to conduct their activities. Periodic elections are held in which all citizens 18 years of age and older may register and vote by secret ballot. The Legislative Assembly has 11 elected seats; 8 for St. Kitts and 3 for Nevis. In the June 1995 elections, Dr. Denzil Douglas' St. Kitts and Nevis Labour Party won seven of eight seats at stake in St. Kitts with 60 percent of the popular vote, and Douglas became Prime Minister. The People's Action Movement (PAM), the former ruling party, took only one seat, but received 40 percent of the vote. The Concerned Citizens Movement won two of the three Nevis seats; the Nevis Reformation Party won the remaining one. The island of Nevis has considerable self-government and its own legislature. In accordance with its rights under the Constitution, the Nevis Island Assembly in July initiated steps towards secession from the Federation when a bill of secession passed unanimously on first reading. On second reading in November, however, two opposition members abstained and the bill failed to obtain the required two-thirds majority of the five-seat Assembly. The bill would have authorized drafting a new constitution and, after a 6-month period to allow the citizenry time to debate, the holding of a Nevis-wide referendum. The secession referendum would require two-thirds of the votes cast on Nevis in favor for secession to be ratified. All parties involved have been following constitutional procedures, and no acts of violence have been recorded in connection with the secession question. Although the Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of political opinion or affiliation, the opposition PAM alleges widespread employment discrimination by the St. Kitts Labour Party against public sector employment of persons perceived to be opposition supporters. PAM alleges that the ruling party dismissed or demoted many PAM supporters from their jobs in order to replace them with its own supporters. A government official confirmed that opposition members of Parliament voted out of office and entitled to pension benefits did not receive those payments. There are no impediments in law or in practice to the participation of women in leadership roles in government or political parties. St. Kitts and Nevis' sole female member of Parliament chose not to run for reelection in the June 1995 elections, and there were no other female candidates. However, women do hold such high government offices as permanent secretary and are active within the political parties.
Section 4 Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights
While there are no governmental restrictions, no local human rights groups have been formed. There were no requests for investigations or visits by international human rights groups.
Section 5 Discrimination Based on Race, Sex, Religion, Disability, Language, or Social Status
The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of race, place of origin, birth out of wedlock, political opinion or affiliation, color, sex, or creed, and the Government generally respects these provisions in practice.
The role of women in society is not restricted by law but is circumscribed by culture and tradition. According to a government official, violence against women is a problem, but many women are reluctant to file complaints or pursue them in the courts. Despite this reluctance, there were publicly reported cases of both domestic violence and rape, and a few convictions. A special police unit works closely with the Ministry of Women's Affairs to investigate domestic violence and rape cases.
The Government is committed to children's rights and welfare and has incorporated most of the provisions of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child into domestic legislation.
People with Disabilities
Although there is no legislation to protect the disabled or to mandate accessibility for them, the Government and the Constitution prohibit discrimination in employment, education, and other state services.
Section 6 Worker Rights
a. The Right of Association
The Constitution provides for the right of all workers to form and belong to trade unions. The law permits the police, civil service, and other organizations to have associations which serve as unions. The major labor union, the St. Kitts Trades and Labour Union, is affiliated with the St. Kitts and Nevis Labour Party and is active in all sectors of the economy. There is also an independent teachers' union, a union representing dockworkers in the capital city, and two taxi drivers' associations. The right to strike, while not specified by law, is well established and respected in practice. There were no major strikes. Unions are free to form federations or confederations and to affiliate with international organizations. The islands' unions maintain a variety of international ties. St. Kitts and Nevis became a member of the International Labor Organization in June and assumed all its obligations for enforcement of labor standards.
b. The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively
Labor unions are free to organize and to negotiate for better wages and benefits for union members. The law prohibits antiunion discrimination but does not require employers found guilty to rehire employees fired due to antiunion discrimination. However, the employer must pay lost wages and arrange for severance pay. There is no legislation governing the organization and representation of workers, and employers are not legally bound to recognize a union, but in practice employers do so if a majority of workers polled wish to organize. Collective bargaining takes place on a workplace by workplace basis, not industrywide. The Labour Commission mediates all types of disputes between labor and management on an ad hoc basis. In practice, however, few disputes actually go to the Commission for resolution. If neither the Commission nor the Minister of Labour can resolve the dispute, legislation allows for a case to be brought before a civil court. There are no export processing zones.
c. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor
The Constitution forbids slavery and forced labor, and they do not occur in practice.
d. Minimum Age for Employment of Children
The minimum legal working age is 14 years. The Labour Ministry relies heavily on school truant officers and the community affairs division to monitor compliance, which they do effectively. Local law mandates compulsory education up to the age of 16.
e. Acceptable Conditions of Work
A 1984 law, updated in 1994, establishes minimum wage rates for various categories of workers, such as domestic servants, retail employees, casino workers, and skilled workers. The minimum wage varies from $56.18 (EC$ 150) per week for full-time domestic workers to $74.91 (EC$ 200) per week for skilled workers. These provide an adequate, though Spartan, living for a wage earner and family; many workers supplement wages by keeping small animals such as goats and chickens. The Labour Commission undertakes regular wage inspections and special investigations when it receives complaints; it requires employers found in violation to pay back wages. The law provides for a 40- to 44-hour workweek, but the common practice is 40 hours in 5 days. Although not required by law, workers receive at least one 24-hour rest period per week. The law provides that workers receive a minimum annual vacation of 14 working days. While there are no specific health and safety regulations, the Factories Law provides general health and safety guidance to Labour Ministry inspectors. The Labour Commissioner settles disputes over safety conditions. Workers have the right to report unsafe work environments without jeopardy to continued employment; inspectors then investigate such claims.