Last Updated: Wednesday, 23 July 2014, 14:54 GMT

2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Ghana

Publisher United States Department of Labor
Author Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Publication Date 31 August 2007
Cite as United States Department of Labor, 2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Ghana, 31 August 2007, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d7493552.html [accessed 24 July 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor
Percent of children 5-14 estimated as working in 2000:24.2%1763
Minimum age for work:151764
Age to which education is compulsory:141765
Free public education:Yes1766*
Gross primary enrollment rate in 2005:88%1767
Net primary enrollment rate in 2005:65%1768
Percent of children 5-14 attending school in 2000:80%1769
As of 2002, percent of primary school entrants likely to reach grade 5:63%1770
Ratified Convention 138:No1771
Ratified Convention 182:6/13/20001772
ILO-IPEC participating country:Yes1773
* Must pay for school supplies and related items.

Incidence and Nature of Child Labor

In 2000, approximately 24.5 percent of boys and 24 percent of girls ages 5 to 14 were working in Ghana. The majority of working children were found in the agricultural sector (71 percent), followed by services (22.6 percent), manufacturing (5.8 percent), and other sectors (0.6 percent).1774 In rural areas, children engage in agriculture, including work on cocoa farms. Some children use machetes in harvesting and carry heavy loads.1775 In urban centers, children work in the informal economy, in transportation, restaurants, petty trading, and fare collecting. Street children are becoming increasingly visible in the large cities, as children migrate from rural to urban areas in increasing numbers.1776 Children engage in street vending,1777 commercial agriculture, and small-scale mining and quarrying. The fishing industry on Lake Volta employs many children in potentially hazardous work such as deep sea diving1778 and casting and drawing nets.1779 Girls work in domestic service for fishermen in the Lake Volta area of Yeji.1780 Girls work as head porters in urban areas such as Accra, Kumasi, and Takoradi. These girls often live on the streets and are especially vulnerable to being exploited in prostitution.1781 Children are also engaged in commercial sexual exploitation.1782 The exploitation of children in prostitution in the tourism industry is increasing1783 and is reported to occur in the tourist destinations of Elmina and Cape Coast.1784

Some children, mostly girls, are engaged in Trokosi, a religious practice indigenous to the southern Volta region, which involves pledging primarily children and young women to atone for family members' sins by helping with the upkeep of religious shrines and assisting during prayers. During their period of atonement, which can last from a few months to 3 years, Trokosis sometimes live near their shrines of service, often with members of their extended family. A Trokosi is expressly forbidden from engaging in sexual activity during the atonement period.1785 Opinions differ on whether trokosi constitutes forced or ritual servitude, which is banned under the law;1786 but Ghana's Ministry of Manpower, Youth, and Development and the Cocoa Board have stated that the Trokosi system represents ritual servitude.1787 There is no evidence of physical or sexual abuse being a systematic part of the practice, but instances of sexual abuse may occur. United States Embassy investigations into Trokosi did not yield credible evidence of systematic or widespread abuses associated with the practice.1788

Ghana is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor.1789 Ghanaian children are trafficked to Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Nigeria, and The Gambia for domestic service and labor exploitation. Girls are trafficked to the Middle East for forced labor in domestic service and, in isolated instances, to Western Europe for commercial sexual exploitation.1790 Children from Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Benin, and Nigeria are trafficked to Ghana for forced labor in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.1791

The internal trafficking of children is also a problem. Within Ghana, children are trafficked to work in cocoa farming, domestic service, street vending, portering, the fishing industry, and commercial sexual exploitation. The IOM estimates that thousands of children have been trafficked internally to work in the fishing villages lining Lake Volta.1792 Typically, boys trafficked internally come from the north and are trafficked to Lake Volta for fishing or to the west for mining, while girls come from the north or east and are trafficked to Accra and Kumasi for work in portering, domestic service, and trading.1793 There were reports of children being given away, leased, or sold by their parents to work in agriculture, fishing, shops, quarry mines, domestic service,1794 and commercial sexual exploitation.1795 The common cultural practice of "adoption," in which impoverished parents send their children to live with affluent relatives and family friends, has helped contribute to the problem of child trafficking in Ghana.1796

Child Labor Laws and Enforcement

Ghanaian law sets the minimum age for employment at 15 years, and at 13 years for light work. Light work is defined as work that is not harmful to the health or development of a child and does not affect the child's attendance or ability to benefit from school.1797 The law stipulates that children 15 years and older, or children who have completed basic education, can work as apprentices if the craftsman provides food, training, and a safe and healthy work environment.1798 Children under 18 years may not engage in night work, which is defined as work conducted between 8 p.m. and 6 a.m.1799 The law prohibits persons under 18 years from engaging in hazardous labor, which includes work in mines or quarries; at sea; in bars, hotels, or places of entertainment; in manufacturing that involves chemicals; in places that operate machinery; or in any job that involves carrying heavy loads.1800 Employers who violate any of the above provisions regulating children's employment, with the exception of those related to apprenticeships, are subject to a fine and/or 2 years of imprisonment. Employers who operate in the formal sector must keep a register with the dates of birth or apparent ages of the children they employ; failure to keep this register is punishable by a fine.1801

The law prohibits forced or bonded labor by anyone, including children.1802 Ritual servitude is illegal in Ghana and is punishable by 3 years of imprisonment.1803 The law prohibits persons with custody, charge, or care of a child under 16 years from encouraging or causing that child to become involved in prostitution.1804 It is a misdemeanor to procure females under age 21, except "known prostitutes," for prostitution.1805 Sexual relations with a girl under 14 years is against the law and is punishable by imprisonment of 1 to 10 years.1806 Ghanaian law contains specific provisions against trafficking in persons, providing another person for trafficking, and using a trafficked person. Each of these offenses carries a penalty of at least 5 years of imprisonment.1807 The law mandates that police officers respond to all requests for assistance from trafficking and offer protection to persons who report cases of alleged trafficking, even if such a person is not the victim. The law provides for the rescue, temporary shelter and care, counseling, family tracing, and rehabilitation of victims of trafficking; it also establishes a Human Trafficking Fund to assist victims.1808 The minimum age for military recruitment is 18 years, and there is no conscription.

The Ministry of Manpower, Youth, and Employment is the agency responsible for enforcing child labor laws. District labor officers and other district officials are responsible for conducting annual workplace inspections and investigating allegations of violations. Inspectors must provide employers with information about child labor laws. There were no prosecutions for child labor violations in 2006, and inspections were limited mainly to the formal sector, although most working children are found in the informal sector.1809 According to the U.S. Department of State, enforcement of child labor laws in Ghana was inconsistent and ineffective.1810

The Domestic Violence Victim Support Unit of the police is responsible for enforcing antitrafficking laws. The Ministry of Manpower, Youth, and Employment's Department of Social Welfare is responsible for providing assistance to trafficking victims.1811

Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

In 2006, the Ministry of Manpower, Youth, and Employment released its 5-year National Program for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in the Cocoa Sector, which is a component of the Government of Ghana's National Timebound Program for Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor. The objective of the national cocoa sector program is to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in cocoa production by 2011, and contribute to the elimination of other worst forms of child labor by 2015.1812 The program seeks to accomplish its objective through the following strategies: 1) improve the knowledge base on child labor in cocoa, to help inform the certification and monitoring called for by the Protocol for the Growing and Processing of Cocoa Beans and their Derivative Products (the Harkin-Engel Protocol); 2) strengthen the legal framework, focusing on enforcement of current laws, for addressing the worst forms of child labor in cocoa growing areas; 3) mobilize key stakeholders in cocoa growing areas to collaborate on awareness-raising campaigns and other efforts to eliminate child labor, and particularly the worst forms of child labor; 4) develop and implement interventions that will eliminate the worst forms of child labor in cocoa, thus emphasizing the various stages of the process of cocoa production; 5) promote universal basic education and the development of human capital in cocoa growing areas; 6) develop and implement interventions that will reduce the need for child labor in cocoa production; and 7) build capacity at the central, regional, district, and community levels to effectively address child labor in Ghana, and the worst forms of child labor in cocoa in particular.1813 The program is funded by the government, cocoa industry partners, and multilateral and bilateral donors; the Ministry of Manpower, Youth, and Employment is overseeing its implementation.1814

The Government of Ghana included child labor as a problem to be addressed in its Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy for 2006-2009, indicating that priority will be given to special programs to combat the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and child trafficking.1815 The government has released its National Policy Guidelines on Orphans and Other Children Made Vulnerable by HIV/AIDS, which includes children engaged in the worst forms of child labor and street children as target groups.1816

In 2006, USDOL awarded a USD 4.3 million contract to Tulane University for a project to oversee public and private efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in the cocoa sector in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire.1817 In partnership with the West African Health Organization, Tulane University will study the health effects on children working in hazardous conditions in the cocoa sector and report to USDOL and Congress annually on the status of child labor monitoring and verification systems, as well as the child labor-free cocoa certification system mandated by the Harkin-Engel Protocol, which should cover a minimum of 50 percent of the cocoa-growing regions in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. The Harkin-Engel Protocol is a voluntary agreement signed by the World Cocoa Foundation and the Chocolate Manufacturers Association in September 2001; it is named for Senator Tom Harkin (D-IA) and Representative Eliot Engel (D-NY), whose offices negotiated the agreement and witnessed its signing. Along with a joint statement issued October 1, 2005, the Harkin-Engel Protocol requires the chocolate and cocoa industry to take action to address exploitive child labor, particularly the worst forms, in West Africa's cocoa sector.1818

The government collaborates with ILO-IPEC on a 4-year, USD 4.75 million USDOL-funded Project of Support to the Ghana Timebound Program which establishes timeframes for progress on the elimination of selected worst forms of child labor in Ghana. The project aims to withdraw 4,700 children and prevent 5,300 children from exploitive labor through the provision of educational services.1819 The government also collaborated with ILO-IPEC on the 4-year, USD 6 million West Africa Child Labor in Agriculture and Cocoa Program (WACAP). This project was funded with USD 5 million from USDOL, and USD 1 million from the International Confectionery Association and ended in April 2006. The WACAP Project withdrew a total of 8,813 children and prevented 2,880 children from exploitive labor in five countries, including Ghana.1820 The government collaborated with ILO-IPEC on the USD 5.3 million, regional project, Building the Foundations for Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Anglophone Africa, funded by USDOL. This project withdrew a total of 6,611 children and prevented 8,061 from exploitive labor in five countries, including Ghana.1821 The government is also participating in the second phase of the regional anti-trafficking LUTRENA project implemented by ILO-IPEC in West and Central Africa with activities in Ghana. The first phase of this project in Ghana was funded by USDOL; the second phase in Ghana is being funded by the Danish International Development Agency.1822 Ghana also participates in a 5year, USDOL-funded Reducing Child Labor through Education (CIRCLE 1) global project, being implemented by Winrock International through 2007, which aims to reduce exploitive child labor through the provision of educational opportunities.1823 The government also collaborated with ILO-IPEC on the implementation of several other child labor and education projects, including a USD 1.53 million regional project funded by Canada to provide skills training to urban youth.1824 The government also worked with ILO-IPEC to conduct workshops on the commercial sexual exploitation of children in tourism.1825 USAID and the international cocoa industry fund the Sustainable Tree Crops Program in Ghana, a public-private partnership that promotes sustainable tree crop systems, including coffee, cocoa, and cashews, and contains a component to prevent and eliminate the worst forms of child labor on farms.1826

Ghana was one of the ECOWAS/ECASS governments that participated in a Joint Ministerial Conference on Trafficking in Persons held in Nigeria in July 2006. The purpose of the Joint Ministerial Conference was to develop a common understanding of trafficking in West and Central Africa and to adopt a common set of strategies against trafficking in persons, especially women and children. During the Ministerial Conference, Ghana was 1 of 24 ECOWAS/ECASS countries to adopt the Multilateral Cooperation Agreement to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, in West and Central Africa, and the Joint Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children in the West and Central African Regions. As part of the Multilateral Cooperation Agreement, governments agreed to put into place a child trafficking monitoring system created by the LUTRENA project to improve management and control of borders, including ensuring that birth certificates and travel identity documents cannot easily be falsified or altered; to assist each other in the investigation, arrest and prosecution of trafficking offenders; to protect, rehabilitate and reintegrate trafficking victims; and to improve educational systems, vocational training, and apprenticeships.1827

Ghana's police academy training includes a trafficking component, and the government, through its Department of Social Welfare, operates two facilities for rescued child victims of trafficking. The government signed a Memorandum of Understanding with IOM in 2006 to set up a new rehabilitation center for child victims of trafficking.1828 The government also collaborated with IOM on the implementation of the Yeji Trafficked Children Project, which works with fishermen, children, and parents to remove children from exploitive labor in fishing on Lake Volta, and to rehabilitate, return and reintegrate them into their communities. The project, funded by the U.S. Department of State, also works with at-risk communities to prevent child trafficking through the provision of material assistance and awareness-raising campaigns.1829


1763 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates, March 1, 2007.

1764 The Children's Act (Act 560), (September 24, 1998), Section 89; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyon/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/56216/65194/E98GHA01.htm. See also U.S. Department of State, "Ghana," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2006, Washington, DC, March 6, 2007, Section 6d; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78737.htm.

1765 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Survival Rate to Grade 5. Total, accessed December 18, 2006; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 5. See also The 1996 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana, Chapter 5, Article 25; available from http://www.parliament.gh/const_constitution.php.

1766 Constitution of Ghana, Chapter 5, Article 25. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 5.

1767 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Gross Enrolment Ratio. Primary. Total, accessed December 20, 2006; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/.

1768 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Net Enrolment Rate. Primary. Total, accessed December 20, 2006; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org.

1769 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates.

1770 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Gross Enrolment Ratio. Primary. Total.

1771 ILO, Ratifications by Country, accessed September 24, 2006; available from http:www.ilo.org/ilolex/enlish/newratframeE.htm.

1772 Ibid.

1773 ILO, IPEC Action Against Child Labour – Highlights 2006, [online] 2006 [cited March 29, 2007], 30; available from http://www.ilo.org/iloroot/docstore/ipec/prod/eng/20070228_Implementationreport_en_Web.pdf.

1774 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates.

1775 Ministry of Manpower Youth and Employment and the Ghana Cocoa Board, National Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in the Cocoa Sector 2006-2011, The Republic of Ghana, 2006, v, 9-11, 13. See also ILO-IPEC, West Africa Cocoa/Commercial Agriculture Program to Combat Hazardous and Exploitative Child Labour (WACAP), project document, Geneva, September 26, 2002.

1776 ILO-IPEC, Support for the Implementation of Timebound Measures for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Ghana, project document, Geneva, September 3, 2004, 2. See also Ghana Statistical Service, Ghana Child Labour Survey, March 2003. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 5.

1777 U.S. Embassy – Accra, reporting, December 15, 2006, para 2A.

1778 ILO-IPEC, Support for the Implementation of Timebound Measures for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Ghana, project document, 4. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 6d. See also Raggie Johansen, "Child Trafficking in Ghana", UNODC eNewsletter, [online], 2006; available from http://www.unodc.org/newsletter/en/perspectives/0601/page002.html.

1779 Afrol News, "Progress in Freeing Ghanaian Slave Boys", afrol.com, [online], March 5, 2003 [cited September 27, 2005]; available from http://www.afrol.com/News2003/gha008_labour.htm.

1780 U.S. Embassy – Accra, reporting, December 15, 2006, para 6E.

1781 ILO-IPEC, Girl Child Labour in Agriculture, Domestic Work and Sexual Exploitation: Rapid Assessments on the Cases of the Philippines, Ghana and Ecuador, Geneva, 2004; available from http://www.ilo.org/iloroot/docstore/ipec/prod/eng/gcl_vol1_2004.pdf. See also ILO Committee of Experts, Direct Request, Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Ghana (ratification: 2000), [online] [cited September 24, 2006]; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/singleilc.pl?query=092007CMR182@ref&chspec=16&highlight=&querytype=bool. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 5.

1782 ILO-IPEC, Support for the Implementation of Timebound Measures for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Ghana, project document, 4. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 6d. See also U.S. Embassy – Accra, reporting, December 15, 2006, paras 2A and 6E.

1783 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 5.

1784 The Protection Project, Ghana, [online] [cited September 24, 2006]; available from http://www.protectionproject.org.

1785 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Sections 2c. and 5.

1786 ILO-IPEC, Support for the Implementation of Timebound Measures for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Ghana, project document, 10. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 2c. See also Consolidation of Criminal Code, 1960; Act 29, (December 10, 1999).

1787 Ministry of Manpower Youth and Employment and the Ghana Cocoa Board, National Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Cocoa, iv, vi, and 8.

1788 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 5.

1789 U.S. Department of State, "Ghana (Tier 2)," in Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006, Washington, DC, June 5, 2006; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/65988.htm. See also UN Office on Drugs and Crime, Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns.

1790 U.S. Embassy – Accra, Ghana: Update on Worst Forms of Child Labor submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (December 5, 2006) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor", December 15, 2006, para 6E. See also U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Ghana." See also Integrated Regional Information Networks, "Gambia-Ghana: Sex Slave Children Trafficked by Ghanaian Fishermen", IRINnews.org, [online], February 26, 2004 [cited May 5, 2007]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=48765.

1791 U.S. Embassy – Accra, Ghana: Update on Worst Forms of Child Labor, para 6E.

1792 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Ghana." See also U.S. Embassy – Accra, reporting, December 15, 2006, para 6E. See also The Protection Project, Ghana.

1793 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 5.

1794 Ibid., Sections 5 and 6d.

1795 U.S. Embassy – Accra, Ghana: Update on Worst Forms of Child Labor, para 6E.

1796 Johansen, "Child Trafficking in Ghana". See also Integrated Regional Information Networks, "West Africa: Children in Danger: War on Trafficking", IRINnews.org, [online], June 29, 2006 [cited October 7, 2006]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=59518.

1797 The Children's Act, Sections 89-90.

1798 Ibid., Articles 98-99.

1799 Ibid., Article 88.

1800 Ibid., Article 91.

1801 Ibid., Articles 93-94. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, "Rwanda," in Child Soldiers Global Report 2004, London, 2004, Articles 60-61; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=791.

1802 Constitution of Ghana. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, "Child Soldiers Global Report 2004," Articles 116-117.

1803 Consolidation of Criminal Code, 1960; Act 29. 1804 ILO Committee of Experts, Direct Request, Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, No. 182: Ghana.

1805 Government of Ghana, Penal Code, [previously online] 1960 [cited Act 29, 107 (1) and 108 (1)]; available from http://209.190.246.239/protectionproject/statutes/PDF/GhanaF.pdf [hard copy on file]. See also U.S. Embassy – Accra official, Email communication to USDOL official, August 7, 2007.

1806 ECPAT International CSEC Database, Ghana, accessed September 24, 2006; available from http://www.ecpat.net. See also U.S. Embassy – Accra official, Email communication, August 7, 2007.

1807 Human Rights Watch, Lasting Wounds: Consequences of Genocide and War on Rwanda's Children, New York, March 2003, Sections 1-4; available from http://hrw.org/reports/2003/rwanda0403.

1808 Ibid., Sections 10, 14-22.

1809 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 6d. See also U.S. Embassy – Accra, Ghana: Update on Worst Forms of Child Labor, para 3B.

1810 U.S. Embassy – Accra, Ghana: Update on Worst Forms of Child Labor, para 3B.

1811 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 5.

1812 Ministry of Manpower Youth and Employment and the Ghana Cocoa Board, National Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Cocoa, iv, vii, 32.

1813 Ibid., vii-viii, 16.

1814 Ibid., 31.

1815 Republic of Ghana National Development Planning Commission, Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II) (2006-2009), Accra, November 2005; available from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPRS1/Resources/GhanaCostingofGPRS_2(Nov-2005).pdf. See also U.S. Embassy – Accra official, E-mail communication to USDOL official, August 15, 2006.

1816 Ghana AIDS Commission, National Policy Guidelines on Orphans and Other Children Made Vulnerable by HIV/AIDS, Republic of Ghana, January 2005, 17-18.

1817 U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. Labor Department Funds Project to Evaluate Effectiveness of Anti-Child Labor Efforts in the Cocoa Industry, press release, Washington, DC, October 3, 2006; available from http://www.dol.gov/opa/media/press/ilab/ILAB20061723.htm.

1818 Ibid.

1819 ILO-IPEC, Support for the Implementation of Timebound Measures for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Ghana, project document.

1820 ILO-IPEC, West Africa Cocoa/Commercial Agriculture Program to Combat Hazardous and Exploitative Child Labour (WACAP), final technical progress report, Geneva, June 2006. See also ILO-IPEC, WACAP, project document, 1, 7. See also USDOL, West Africa Cocoa/Commercial Agriculture Program to Combat Hazardous and Exploitative Child Labour (WACAP), project summary.

1821 ILO-IPEC, Building the Foundations for Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Anglophone Africa, technical progress report, Geneva, February 28, 2006. See also ILO-IPEC, Building the Foundations for Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Anglophone Africa, technical progress report.

1822 ILO-IPEC, Combating the Trafficking of Children for Labor Exploitation in West and Central Africa (LUTRENA) project document, Geneva. See also ILO-IPEC, Combating the Trafficking of Children for Labor Exploitation in West and Central Africa (LUTRENA, Phase II, III, IV), technical progress report, Geneva, September 1, 2005. See also ILO-IPEC Geneva official, E-mail communication to USDOL official, November 16, 2006.

1823 Winrock International, Project Fact Sheet: Reducing Child Labor through Education (CIRCLE 1), [online] n.d. [cited October 13, 2006]; available from http://www.winrock.org/fact/facts.asp?CC=5411&bu=.

1824 ILO-IPEC Geneva official, E-mail communication, November 16, 2006.

1825 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 5.

1826 USAID, "Chocolate Companies Help West African Farmers Improve Harvest," USAID Frontlines, September 2005; available from http://www.usaid.gov/press/frontlines/fl_sep05/pillars.htm#4. See also International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Sustainable Tree Crops Program, [online] March 20, 2006 [cited April 7, 2007]; available from http://www.treecrops.org/index.htm.

1827 ECOWAS and ECCAS, Multilateral Cooperation Agreement to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children in West and Central Africa, Abuja, July 6, 2006. See also U.S. Department of State official, Email communication to USDOL official, March 23, 2007. See also Emmanuel Goujon, African States Sign up to Fight Human Trafficking, press release, Agence France Presse, Abuja, July 7, 2006.

1828 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Ghana."

1829 International Organization for Migration – Ghana, What We Do: Counter Trafficking, [online] 2007 [cited April 10, 2007]; available from http://www.iom.int/ghana/countertraffick.html. See also International Organization for Migration, "Combating Child Trafficking: Freeing the Fishing Children of Ghana," Newsletter, January 2007; available from http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/projects/showcase_pdf/ghana_ ct_update.pdf. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Ghana," Section 5.

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