Internal Displacement: Global Overview of Trends and Developments in 2010 - Chad
|Publisher||Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC)|
|Publication Date||23 March 2011|
|Cite as||Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC), Internal Displacement: Global Overview of Trends and Developments in 2010 - Chad, 23 March 2011, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d932e25c.html [accessed 24 September 2014]|
|Number of IDPs||171,000|
|Percentage of total population||1.5%|
|Start of current displacement situation||2006|
|Peak number of IDPs (Year)||185,000 (2007)|
|Causes of displacement||Armed conflict, generalised violence, human rights violations|
|Human development index||163|
At the end of 2010, 171,000 people were still internally displaced in eastern Chad, four years after being forced to flee because of armed conflict, inter-ethnic violence over land and natural resources, and attacks by bandits. This number had fallen slightly from a 2007 high of 185,000, or about one fifth of the population of eastern Chad.
While the causes of internal displacement had largely ended and no new internal displacement was reported during the year, ongoing insecurity from attacks by criminal gangs and the lack of basic services in areas of return continued to stand in the way of durable solutions for most IDPs. Only 43,000 IDPs were able to return to their villages of origin in 2009 and 2010. The government estimated that another 30,000 were ready to return, but many of the IDPs maintained that conditions were not in place to make their returns sustainable.
In 2010, most IDPs were still living in 38 camps; the majority had little or no means of sustaining themselves and they suffered from the lack of livelihood opportunities, particularly as they had no access to farming land. At the camps the IDPs were able to access some level of international protection and assistance.
The insecurity they faced was increased by the widespread circulation of small arms. Violence against women and girls, including sexual violence, domestic violence, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation were also reported in 2010, and the violence was being perpetrated by members of their own communities, inside IDP camps. There was a lack of any effective referral system for survivors of sexual violence, to enable them to access justice as well as psycho-social care.
Displaced children also faced a range of violations of their rights. Government armed forces continued to recruit displaced children, despite a 2007 agreement with UNICEF to demobilise children from the army and integrated rebel groups. In IDP camps they had limited access to primary education and no chance of further schooling.
In 2010, a worsening food and malnutrition crisis compounded these problems. Two million Chadians, including IDPs, faced severe food shortages. A serious drought reduced agricultural production by 34 per cent and caused the loss of 780,000 cattle. The drought was followed by the heaviest rains to hit Chad in 40 years, which affected close to 150,000 people including 70,000 whose homes were destroyed by floods. The destruction of roads and bridges made the delivery of food and medicines extremely difficult, and despite the efforts of relief agencies, high rates of malnutrition resulted among children under the age of five and a cholera epidemic broke out.
In early 2010, President Déby called for the withdrawal of all UN peacekeeping troops of the MINURCAT force from Chad. The president argued that MINURCAT had been slow to deploy and had failed to protect civilians or build promised infrastructure projects. The UNSC approved the request and the withdrawal of troops was completed by the end of the year. While the Security Council acknowledged the government's commitment to take full responsibility for the protection of civilians, other UN officials warned that Chad's security forces lacked the training, leadership and technical capacity to ensure security and called for continued international support.
In 2007 the government established a national committee to assist IDPs and in 2008 a national mechanism to coordinate humanitarian activities with international peacekeeping troops. However the impact of these bodies has been limited as neither has had the staff and resources, or the permanent presence in areas of displacement, that would allow them to provide assistance and facilitate durable solutions for IDPs.
In 2010 the government undertook a number of initiatives which could have a positive impact on the protection of IDPs, including the improvement of relations between Chad and Sudan marked by the deployment of a joint border security force, the signing of the N'Djamena Declaration to end the recruitment and use of children by armed forces and groups, and the ratification of the Kampala Convention. However, the government had yet to enact national legislation to protect IDPs and to respond to violence against internally displaced women.
The UN's humanitarian response was led by a Resident Coordinator / Humanitarian Coordinator. More than 70 international organisations provided assistance to displaced communities including IDPs and refugees from Darfur. The cluster system was introduced in 2007 and 13 clusters were operational by 2010, including the protection cluster led by UNHCR. By year's end, 69 per cent of the $544 million requested in the 2010 Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) had been funded. The UN's Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) allocated $15 million to the 2010 CAP to respond to the food and malnutrition crisis.