India: Information since January 1993 on a group called "Budh Singh Terrorists" that has operated since 1993 in Punjab, particularly in Ludhiana
|Publisher||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada|
|Publication Date||1 January 1998|
|Citation / Document Symbol||IND28454.E|
|Cite as||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, India: Information since January 1993 on a group called "Budh Singh Terrorists" that has operated since 1993 in Punjab, particularly in Ludhiana, 1 January 1998, IND28454.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6acff14.html [accessed 12 December 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Information on group called "Budh Singh Terrorists," which has operated in Punjab, particularly in Ludhiana, since 1993, could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
The following information may be of general interest, however.
According to various sources, on either 29 or 30 July 1992 Punjab police killed Gurjant Singh Budhsinghwala, chief of the Khalistan Liberation Force (KLF), after trapping him in a house in Ludhiana, Punjab (Xinhua 31 July 1992; The Guardian 19 Aug. 1992; Reuters 13 Aug. 1992; UPI 4 Aug. 1992). Budhsinghwala was "one of the most wanted terrorists in India" (The Guardian 19 Aug. 1992). He was held responsible for 1,000 deaths since 1986 and an award of nearly $100,000 US (2.5 million rupees) was offered for his capture (Xinhua 31 July 1992; The Guardian 19 Aug. 1992; UPI 4 Aug. 1992). Budhsinghwala was also a member of a "committee of top militants coordinating the actions of the often fractious groups" (Reuters 30 July 1992).
The attachment from Joyce Pettigrew's 1995 publication The Sikhs of the Punjab: Unheard Voices of State and Guerrilla Violence provides additional information on Budhsinghwala, who operated in the areas of Bathinda and Faridkot, Punjab. According to Pettigrew, "Budhsinghwala had been popular enough in his area to be able to remain there almost always. He had refrained from killing people in the rural areas or engaging in looting and extortion" (1995, 121).
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
The Guardian [London]. 19 August 1992. Derek Brown. "Killings Continue Despite Sikh Terror 'Breakthrough'." (NEXIS)
Pettigrew, Joyce JM. 1995. The Sikhs of Punjab: Unheard Voices of State and Guerrilla Violence. London: Zed Books.
Reuters. 13 August 1992. BC Cycle. "Ten More Police Kin Killed in India's Punjab." (NEXIS)
_____. 30 July 1992. BC Cycle. "Indian Police Kill Top Sikh Militant." (NEXIS)
The United Press International (UPI). 4 August 1992. BC Cycle. "Landmine Kills 7 Border Guards in India." (NEXIS)
Xinhua. 31 July 1992. "Khalistan Liberation Force Chief Killed in Punjab, India." (NEXIS)
Pettigrew, Joyce JM. 1995. The Sikhs of the Punjab: Unheard Voices of State and Guerrilla Violence. London: Zed Books, pp. 120-23.
Reuters. 30 July 1992. BC Cycle. "Indian Police Kill Top Sikh Militant." (NEXIS)
Additional Sources Consulted
Amnesty International Reports. Yearly. 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997.
Asian Survey [Berkeley, Calif.]. Monthly. January 1992-August 1997.
Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1992. 1993.
Extremist Groups: An International Compilation of Terrorist Organizations, Violent Political Groups, and Issue-Oriented Militant Movements. 1996.
Human Rights Watch World Report. Yearly. 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996.
INS Resource Information Center, Washington, DC. April 1992. Information Packet Series: India: The Status of Sikhs.
Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley. 1996. Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants.
Mondes rebelles : acteurs, conflits et violences politiques: Asie, Maghreb, Proche et Moyen-Orient, Europe. 1996.
Mulgrew, Ian. 1988. Unholy Terror: The Sikhs and International Terrorism.
Office of Asylum Affairs (OAA), Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, United States. June 1996. India: Comments on Country Conditions and Asylum Claims.
_____. February 1995. India: Comments on Country Conditions and Asylum Claims.
_____. December 1994. India: Comments on Country Conditions and Asylum Claims.
_____. 27 May 1994. India: Comments on Country Conditions and Asylum Claims.
Refugees, Immigration and Asylum Section (RIAS), Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia. June 1994. Country Profile: India.
Research Directorate. Indexed Media Review [Ottawa]. Weekly. January 1997-present.
Revolutionary and Dissident Movements of the World: An International Guide. 1991.
Electronic sources: Internet, IRB Databases, NEXIS/LEXIS.
Three oral sources did not provide information on the requested subject.
Unsuccessful attempts to contact two other oral sources.